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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(10): e82, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742200

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 can result in fatal comorbidities, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Several reports suggest that children have milder illness, though severe cases have still been reported. We report a 9-year-old boy with ARDS caused by the SARS-CoV-2 delta (B.1.617.2) variant. He was admitted to our hospital and carefully observed due to underlying Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. He developed intractable seizures with a high fever. Although the seizures were controlled, his respiratory condition deteriorated to severe ARDS. High-dose methylprednisolone was administered with high positive end-expiratory pressure and low tidal volume. After ARDS treatment, oxygenation improved sufficiently to permit extubation. This case suggests that close observation is required in pediatric patients with neurologic comorbidities because of an increased risk for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lennox Gastaut Syndrome/complications , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Child , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging
2.
Chest ; 161(2): e71-e73, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664778

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal interstitial lung disease characterized by progressive scar tissue formation. An acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) is a clinically significant respiratory decompensation that accounts for a significant proportion of IPF-related morbidity and mortality. AE-IPF can be idiopathic or associated with pulmonary embolism, infection, aspiration, surgery, and drug toxicity. In this novel case report, we describe a potential association between AE-IPF and BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination that was successfully treated with a short course of glucocorticoids. While our aim is to raise awareness for this yet-to-be-described adverse event, immunization against vaccine-preventable disease remains widely recommended in vulnerable patients with chronic lung disease such as IPF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , /adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Disease Progression , Drug Tapering/methods , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Male , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(6): 1472-1475, 2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629955

ABSTRACT

Human lives and nations' economies have been adversely affected worldwide by the COVID-19 pandemic. The hyperinflammatory state associated with the disease may be related to mortality. Systemic glucocorticoid is the first-line therapy for cytokine storm. Various immunomodulatory drugs such as tocilizumab and baricitinib have been used in those not responding to glucocorticoid monotherapy. Amid the peak crisis of COVID-19 in India, there was an extreme paucity of medications, oxygen, and hospital beds. We describe three patients with COVID-19 who received low-dose tofacitinib (an oral Janus kinase inhibitor) in addition to moderate-dose glucocorticoid. These patients were treated at their homes, as the hospitals were short of beds. Rapid reduction in hypoxemia along with gradual resolution of other signs of the disease were observed. The results are reassuring regarding the feasibility of managing of severe COVID-19 outside the hospital setting when healthcare resources are overwhelmed by pandemic-related caseload.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage
4.
Virol J ; 19(1): 9, 2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS), which develops after a past covid-19 infection. MIS can be described in different tissue inflammation, including the heart, lung, kidney, brain, skin, eye, and or gastrointestinal organs at the presence of COVID-19. Initially, MIS was described in Europe in children infected with SARS-CoV-2, then it was recently seen in the USA in 2020. MIS is a rare but serious disease condition associated with COVID-19 that can affect children (MIS-C) and adults (MIS-A). CASE PRESENTATION: A 44-year-old male who showed MIS-A in 59-day after his first covid-19 contact history. The patient presented to our emergency department with complaints of high fever, nausea, weakness, redness of the eyes, headache, and joint pain. On the second day of his hospitalization, a maculopapular skin lesion was seen in most of the skin. His fever could not be controlled even given paracetamol and broad effective antibiotics. His clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings showed that he had MIS-A. The patient was given intravenous pulse methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). These treatments, then, resulted in improvement of his clinical conditions, including fever and skin lesions, on the second day of the treatment. The patient was discharged in 14 days after the treatment. CONCLUSION: This report indicated that diagnosis and treatment of MIS-A could result in reducing patient morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Injections, Intraventricular , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
5.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 181-188, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the effect of corticosteroids and heparin, respectively, on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients' CD8+ T cells and D-dimer. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study involving 866 participants diagnosed with COVID-19, patients were grouped by severity. Generalized additive models were established to explore the time-course association of representative parameters of coagulation, inflammation and immunity. Segmented regression was performed to examine the influence of corticosteroids and heparin upon CD8+ T cell and D-dimer, respectively. RESULTS: There were 541 moderate, 169 severe and 156 critically ill patients involved in the study. Synchronous changes of levels of NLR, D-dimer and CD8+ T cell in critically ill patients were observed. Administration of methylprednisolone before 14 DFS compared with those after 14 DFS (ß = 0.154%, 95% CI=(0, 0.302), p=.048) or a dose lower than 40 mg per day compared with those equals to 40 mg per day (ß = 0.163%, 95% CI=(0.027, 0.295), p=.020) significantly increased the rising rate of CD8+ T cell in 14-56 DFS. CONCLUSIONS: The parameters of coagulation, inflammation and immunity were longitudinally correlated, and an early low-dose corticosteroid treatment accelerated the regaining of CD8+ T cell to help battle against SARS-Cov-2 in critical cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/immunology , Heparin/administration & dosage , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Linear Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Young Adult
6.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 297: 103813, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521498

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to explore the precise dose of corticosteroid therapy in critical COVID-19. A total of forty-five critical COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The process of critical COVID-19 was divided into alveolitis and fibrosis stages. Most nonsurvivors died in fibrosis phase. Nonsurvivors had more dyspnea symptoms, fewer days of hospitalization, shorter duration of alveolitis and fibrosis. High-dose daily corticosteroid therapy (≥150 mg/d) was associated with shorter survival time and lower lymphocyte count in fibrosis phase. Moreover, a high cumulative dose (≥604 mg) was tied to longer duration of virus shedding, lower oxygenation index (OI), higher incidence of tracheal intubation, fewer lymphocytes and higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In alveolitis phase, the low-to-moderate-dose daily corticosteroid therapy and a small cumulative dose reduced lymphocytes. In conclusion, low-to-moderate dose corticosteroids may be beneficial in the fibrosis phase. High-dose corticosteroid therapy in the fibrosis phase aggravates the severity of critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Fibrosis , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Virus Shedding
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26705, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475905

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) or cytokine storm is thought to be the cause of inflammatory lung damage, worsening pneumonia and death in patients with COVID-19. Steroids (Methylprednislone or Dexamethasone) and Tocilizumab (TCZ), an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist, are approved for treatment of CRS in India. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of TCZ and steroid in COVID-19 associated CRS.This retrospective cohort study was conducted at Noble hospital and Research Centre (NHRC), Pune, India between April 2 and November 2, 2020. All patients administered TCZ and steroids during this period were included. The primary endpoint was incidence of all cause mortality. Secondary outcomes studied were need for mechanical ventilation and incidence of systemic and infectious complications. Baseline and time dependent risk factors significantly associated with death were identified by Relative risk estimation.Out of 2831 admitted patients, 515 (24.3% females) were administered TCZ and steroids. There were 135 deaths (26.2%), while 380 patients (73.8%) had clinical improvement. Mechanical ventilation was required in 242 (47%) patients. Of these, 44.2% (107/242) recovered and were weaned off the ventilator. Thirty seven percent patients were managed in wards and did not need intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Infectious complications like hospital acquired pneumonia, blood stream bacterial and fungal infections were observed in 2.13%, 2.13% and 0.06% patients respectively. Age ≥ 60 years (P = .014), presence of co-morbidities like hypertension (P = .011), IL-6 ≥ 100 pg/ml (P = .002), D-dimer ≥ 1000 ng/ml (P < .0001), CT severity index ≥ 18 (P < .0001) and systemic complications like lung fibrosis (P = .019), cardiac arrhythmia (P < .0001), hypotension (P < .0001) and encephalopathy (P < .0001) were associated with increased risk of death.Combination therapy of TCZ and steroids is likely to be safe and effective in management of COVID-19 associated cytokine release syndrome. Efficacy of this anti-inflammatory combination therapy needs to be validated in randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , India , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(6): 1472-1475, 2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450911

ABSTRACT

Human lives and nations' economies have been adversely affected worldwide by the COVID-19 pandemic. The hyperinflammatory state associated with the disease may be related to mortality. Systemic glucocorticoid is the first-line therapy for cytokine storm. Various immunomodulatory drugs such as tocilizumab and baricitinib have been used in those not responding to glucocorticoid monotherapy. Amid the peak crisis of COVID-19 in India, there was an extreme paucity of medications, oxygen, and hospital beds. We describe three patients with COVID-19 who received low-dose tofacitinib (an oral Janus kinase inhibitor) in addition to moderate-dose glucocorticoid. These patients were treated at their homes, as the hospitals were short of beds. Rapid reduction in hypoxemia along with gradual resolution of other signs of the disease were observed. The results are reassuring regarding the feasibility of managing of severe COVID-19 outside the hospital setting when healthcare resources are overwhelmed by pandemic-related caseload.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage
10.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 17534666211042533, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the effect of a short-term treatment with low-moderate corticosteroid (CS) doses by both a quantitative and qualitative assessment of chest HRCT of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: CORTICOVID is a single-center, cross-sectional, retrospective study involving severe/critical COVID-19 patients with mild/moderate ARDS. Lung total severity score was obtained according to Chung and colleagues. Moreover, the relative percentages of lung total severity score by ground glass opacities, consolidations, crazy paving, and linear bands were computed. Chest HRCT scores, P/F ratio, and laboratory parameters were evaluated before (pre-CS) and 7-10 days after (post-CS) methylprednisolone of 0.5-0.8 mg/kg/day. FINDINGS: A total of 34 severe/critical COVID-19 patients were included in the study, of which 17 received Standard of Care (SoC) and 17 CS therapy in add-on. CS treatment disclosed a significant decrease in HRCT total severity score [median = 6 (IQR: 5-7.5) versus 10 (IQR: 9-13) in SoC, p < 0.001], as well in single consolidations [median = 0.33 (IQR: 0-0.92) versus 6.73 (IQR: 2.49-8.03) in SoC, p < 0.001] and crazy paving scores [mean = 0.19 (SD = 0.53) versus 1.79 (SD = 2.71) in SoC, p = 0.010], along with a significant increase in linear bands [mean = 2.56 (SD = 1.65) versus 0.97 (SD = 1.30) in SoC, p = 0.006]. GGO score instead did not significantly differ at the end of treatment between the two groups. Most post-CS GGO, however, derived from previous consolidations and crazy paving [median = 1.5 (0.35-3.81) versus 2 (1.25-3.8) pre-CS; p = 0.579], while pre-CS GGO significantly decreased after methylprednisolone therapy [median = 0.66 (0.05-1.33) versus 1.5 (0.35-3.81) pre-CS; p = 0.004]. CS therapy further determined a significant improvement in P/F levels [median P/F = 310 (IQR: 235.5-370) versus 136 (IQR: 98.5-211.75) in SoC; p < 0.001], and a significant increase in white blood cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils absolute values. CONCLUSION: The improvement of all chest HRCT findings further supports the role of CS adjunctive therapy in severe/critical COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 372-379, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437057

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by dysregulated hyperimmune response and steroids have been shown to decrease mortality. However, whether higher dosing of steroids results in better outcomes has been debated. This was a retrospective observation of COVID-19 admissions between March 1, 2020, and March 10, 2021. Adult patients (≥18 years) who received more than 10 mg daily methylprednisolone equivalent dosing (MED) within the first 14 days were included. We excluded patients who were discharged or died within 7 days of admission. We compared the standard dose of steroids (<40 mg MED) versus the high dose of steroids (>40 mg MED). Inverse probability weighted regression adjustment (IPWRA) was used to examine whether higher dose steroids resulted in improved outcomes. The outcomes studied were in-hospital mortality, rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring hemodialysis, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), hospital-associated infections (HAI), and readmissions. Of the 1379 patients meeting study criteria, 506 received less than 40 mg of MED (median dose 30 mg MED) and 873 received more than or equal to 40 mg of MED (median dose 78 mg MED). Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was higher in patients who received high-dose corticosteroids (40.7% vs. 18.6%, p < 0.001). On IPWRA, the use of high-dose corticosteroids was associated with higher odds of death (odds ratio [OR] 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-3.14, p < 0.001) but not with the development of HAI, readmissions, or requirement of IMV. High-dose corticosteroids were associated with lower rates of AKI requiring hemodialysis (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.18-0.63). In COVID-19, corticosteroids more than or equal to 40 mg MED were associated with higher in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 349-356, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427138

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroid dosing in the range of 0.5-2 mg/kg/day of methylprednisolone equivalents has become a standard part of the management of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19 pneumonia based on positive results of randomized trials and a meta-analysis. Alongside such conventional dosing, administration of 1 gm of methylprednisolone daily (pulse dosing) has also been reported in the literature with claims of favorable outcomes. Comparisons between such disparate approaches to corticosteroids for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia are lacking. In this retrospective study of patients admitted to the ICU with COVID-19 pneumonia, we compared patients treated with 0.5-2 mg/kg/day in methylprednisolone equivalents (high-dose corticosteroids) and patients treated with 1 gm of methylprednisolone (pulse-dose corticosteroids) to those who did not receive any corticosteroids. The endpoints of interest were hospital mortality, ICU-free days at Day 28, and complications potentially attributable to corticosteroids. Pulse-dose corticosteroid therapy was associated with a significant increase in ICU-free days at Day 28 compared to no receipt: adjusted relative risk (aRR): 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-2.02; p = 0.03) and compared with high-dose corticosteroid administration (p = 0.003). Nonetheless, receipt of high-dose corticosteroids-but not of pulse-dose corticosteroids-significantly reduced the odds of hospital mortality compared to no receipt: adjusted Odds ratio (aOR) 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12-0.77; p = 0.01). High-dose corticosteroids reduced mortality compared to pulse-dose corticosteroids (p = 0.04). Pulse-dose corticosteroids-but not high-dose corticosteroids-significantly increased the odds of acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy compared to no receipt: aOR 3.53 (95% CI: 1.27-9.82; p = 0.02). The odds of this complication were also significantly higher in the pulse-dose group when compared to the high-dose group (p = 0.05 for the comparison). In this single-center study, pulse-dose corticosteroid therapy for COVID-19 pneumonia in the ICU was associated with an increase in ICU-free days but failed to impact hospital mortality, perhaps because of its association with development of severe renal failure. In line with existing trial data, the effect of high-dose corticosteroids on mortality was favorable.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pulse Therapy, Drug/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Critical Care/methods , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Pulse Therapy, Drug/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
13.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 26(1): 75-85, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a high fatality rate, especially in hemodialysis (HD) patients, with this poor prognosis being caused by systemic hyperinflammation; cytokine storms. Steroid pulse therapy or tocilizumab (TCZ) have insufficient inhibitory effects against cytokine storms in critical cases. This study evaluated the clinical effects and safety of combining steroid pulse therapy and TCZ. METHODS: From September 2020 to May 2021, 201 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to our hospital. Before February 2021, patients with an oxygen demand exceeding 8 L/min were intubated and treated with standard therapy (dexamethasone and antiviral therapy). After February 2021, patients underwent high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy and were treated with TCZ (8 mg/kg) and methylprednisolone (mPSL) (500 mg/day [≤ 75 kg], 1000 mg/day [> 75 kg]) for 3 days. We compared background characteristics, laboratory findings, and prognosis between non-HD and HD patients and between patients who received and did not receive TCZ and mPSL pulse therapy. RESULTS: Among non-HD patients, the TCZ + mPSL pulse group had significantly higher survival rates and lower secondary infection rates (p < 0.05), than the standard therapy group. All HD patients in the standard therapy group with oxygen demand exceeding 8 L/min died. Contrastingly, all patients in the TCZ + mPSL pulse group survived, with their oxygen demand decreasing to 0-1 L/min within 3 weeks post-administration. CONCLUSION: TCZ combined with mPSL pulse therapy improved the survival rate without significant adverse events in critical HD and non-HD patients with COVID-19 by strongly suppressing systemic hyperinflammation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Renal Dialysis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/immunology , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Male , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Pulse Therapy, Drug , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 567, 2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) still is a global emergency. According to the studies, pregnant women are of the at risk populations and any underlying disease(s) might even worsen their condition. The aim of this study is reporting a complex case of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) during pregnancy who has been diagnosed with COVID-19 as well as suspicion of HELLP syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old woman with a platelet count of 6000/mL and resistance to conventional therapies was referred. A day after starting 0.5 g/day of methylprednisolone for her, fever and a decrease in SpO2 presented. According to the paraclinical investigations, COVID-19 was diagnosed and the conventional COVID-19 treatments started for her (the methylprednisolone pulse stopped). Due to the increased liver enzymes and low platelet count, with suspicion of HELLP syndrome, cesarean section surgery was performed which resulted in a healthy neonate. Then, the methylprednisolone pulse was restarted for and she developed an increase in the platelet count. CONCLUSION: It is not clear how COVID-19 and pregnancy affected the patient's condition and the underlying disease; however, it seems the delivery and/or restarting the methylprednisolone pulses caused improvement in her condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cesarean Section , Drug Resistance , Female , HELLP Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Platelet Count , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pulse Therapy, Drug , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
Respir Med ; 187: 106571, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347816

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, clinical, radiological and histopathological features consistent with viral-induced organizing pneumonia (OP) have been reported as hallmark characteristics of the disease. Here, we describe the case of ten patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia treated with methylprednisolone 1mg/kg for showing clinical and radiological features suggestive of OP at least 20 days after symptom onset and despite standard treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Aged , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 273, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248412

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) is a deadly disease that was first seen in Wuhan, China, and primarily affects the respiratory system, but also has different systemic involvements. It has caused 89 million cases and 1.9 million deaths worldwide. COVID-19 positive renal transplant recipients have a higher mortality rate than COVID-19 patients in the normal population. There is no specific treatment and follow-up protocol for COVID-19 infection in transplant recipients. COVID-19 treatment and immunosuppressive therapy choices are controversial. Recently, pulse steroid therapies have been used in cases with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Convalescent plasma therapy is used limitedly in COVID-19 patients. Our 49-year-old male patient has been a recipient of a renal transplant from a cadaver for 6 years. We aimed to make an additional contribution by presenting our patient to the literature whose COVID-19 PCR-RT test performed in the emergency department due to the complaints of fever, shortness of breath, and cough for five days was positive and had moderate COVID-19 pneumonia in thorax tomography and had serious clinical and radiological improvement after pulsed methylprednisolone and convalescent plasma therapy in the early period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Kidney Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pulse Therapy, Drug , Transplant Recipients , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Med Invest ; 68(1.2): 192-195, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231288

ABSTRACT

This report presents a case of a 74-year-old man who showed dramatic therapeutic response to treatment of coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19) pneumonia. He reported four-day history of sustained fever and acute progressive dyspnea. He developed severe respiratory failure, underwent urgent endotracheal intubation and showed marked elevation of inflammatory and coagulation markers such as c-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and D-dimer. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated diffuse consolidation and ground glass opacity (GGO). We diagnosed critical COVID-19 pneumonia with detailed sick contact history and naso-pharyngeal swab of a reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay testing. He received anti-viral drug, anti-interleukin (IL-6) receptor antagonist and intravenous methylprednisolone. After commencing combined intensive therapy, he showed dramatic improvement of clinical condition, serum biomarkers and radiological findings. Early diagnosis and rapid critical care management may provide meaningful clinical benefit even if severe case. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 192-195, February, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Amides/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Critical Illness , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
18.
Adv Med Sci ; 66(2): 262-268, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly related to interstitial pneumonia with frequent development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The role of corticosteroids (CS) treatment in these patients is still controversial. Some studies evidenced a possible role of an early short-term course of CS treatment in the treatment of severe pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective study considering the patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to our hospital between 9th March and 15th June 2020. Two groups were considered: early high-dose of methyl-prednisolone (eHDM; n â€‹= â€‹31) and the control group (n â€‹= â€‹52). Patients in the eHDM group received the dose of 5-8 â€‹mg/kg/day of methyl-prednisolone for 2 consecutive days. Primary outcome was the mortality evaluation; secondary outcomes were clinical improvement, side-effects and laboratory/radiographic changes. RESULTS: Significant differences between the two groups were: length of hospitalization (21.5 vs 28.4 days, p â€‹= â€‹0.026), length of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or mechanical ventilation (11.5 vs 14.5 days, p â€‹= â€‹0.031), death (5 vs 12, p â€‹= â€‹0.006) and clinical improvement (16 vs 11, p=0.018). The following factors were related to in-hospital mortality in the multivariate analysis: comorbidities (OR â€‹= â€‹2.919; 95%CI â€‹= â€‹1.515-16.705; p<0.001), days from the onset of symptoms and the hospital admission (OR â€‹= â€‹1.404; 95%CI â€‹= â€‹1.069-12.492; p â€‹= â€‹0.011), PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio (OR â€‹= â€‹3.111; 95%CI â€‹= â€‹2.334-16.991; p â€‹= â€‹0.009) and eHDM treatment (OR â€‹= â€‹0.741; 95%CI â€‹= â€‹0.129-0.917; p â€‹= â€‹0.007). CONCLUSION: The eHDM is an interesting and promising approach in the ARDS related to COVID-19 pneumonia, which reduces mortality, length of hospitalization and the need for mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Duration of Therapy , Early Medical Intervention/methods , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
19.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(5): 2248-2255, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196053

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: High-dose steroid has been shown to reduce the mortality rate in Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who need oxygen support. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of pulse-steroid in case of unresponsiveness to treatment with high dose steroid. Materials and methods: The study is a retrospective controlled trial. We divided the patients in 3 groups: standard-care therapy alone, high-dose steroid treatment (6 mg/day dexamethasone equivalent), and pulse-steroid treatment (250 mg/day methyl-prednisolone). One hundred and fifty patients were enrolled in each group. All patients were hospitalized and needed oxygen support. We matched the patients according to disease severity at the onset of hypoxia, weight of co-morbidities, age, and sex. We then compared 3 groups in terms of mortality, length of hospitalization, need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation (MV), length of stay in ICU, and duration of MV. Results: The pulse-steroid group had shorter ICU stay. The median ICU stay was 9.0 (CI 95% 6.0­12.0) days in standard-care group, 8.0 (CI 95% 5.0­13.0) days in high-dose steroid group and 4.5(CI %95 3.0­8.0) days in pulse-steroid group. Moreover, although patients in pulse-steroid group were initially unresponsive to high dose steroid therapy, they achieved similar results compared to the high-dose steroid group in other outcomes except for length of hospital stay. Conclusion: Pulse-steroid treatment would be an option for COVID-19 patients who do not respond to the initial high-dose steroid treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulse Therapy, Drug , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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