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1.
J Immunol ; 208(3): 753-761, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614089

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has seriously threatened global public health. Severe COVID-19 has been reported to be associated with an impaired IFN response. However, the mechanisms of how SARS-CoV-2 antagonizes the host IFN response are poorly understood. In this study, we report that SARS-CoV-2 helicase NSP13 inhibits type I IFN production by directly targeting TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) for degradation. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy by genetic knockout of Beclin1 or pharmacological inhibition can rescue NSP13-mediated TBK1 degradation in HEK-293T cells. Subsequent studies revealed that NSP13 recruits TBK1 to p62, and the absence of p62 can also inhibit TBK1 degradation in HEK-293T and HeLa cells. Finally, TBK1 and p62 degradation and p62 aggregation were observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection in HeLa-ACE2 and Calu3 cells. Overall, our study shows that NSP13 inhibits type I IFN production by recruiting TBK1 to p62 for autophagic degradation, enabling it to evade the host innate immune response, which provides new insights into the transmission and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/physiology , Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , Methyltransferases/physiology , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , RNA Helicases/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequestosome-1 Protein/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/physiology , Beclin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Line , Down-Regulation , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate , Immunoprecipitation , Interferon Type I/genetics , Multiprotein Complexes , Protein Aggregates , Protein Interaction Mapping
2.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 31(4): 339-350, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087605

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronaviruses encode a helicase that is essential for viral replication and represents an excellent antiviral target. However, only a few coronavirus helicase inhibitors have been patented. These patents include drug-like compound SSYA10-001, aryl diketo acids (ADK), and dihydroxychromones. Additionally, adamantane-derived bananins, natural flavonoids, one acrylamide derivative [(E)-3-(furan-2-yl)-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)acrylamide], a purine derivative (7-ethyl-8-mercapto-3-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1 H-purine-2,6-dione), and a few bismuth complexes. The IC50 of patented inhibitors ranges between 0.82 µM and 8.95 µM, depending upon the assays used. Considering the urgency of clinical interventions against Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19), it is important to consider developing antiviral portfolios consisting of small molecules.Areas covered: This review examines coronavirus helicases as antiviral targets, and the potential of previously patented and experimental compounds to inhibit the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) helicase.Expert opinion: Small molecule coronavirus helicase inhibitors represent attractive pharmacological modalities for the treatment of coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Rightfully so, the current emphasis is focused upon the development of vaccines. However, vaccines may not work for everyone and broad-based adoption of vaccinations is an increasingly challenging societal endeavor. Therefore, it is important to develop additional pharmacological antivirals against the highly conserved coronavirus helicases to broadly protect against this and subsequent coronavirus epidemics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development , Methyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Helicases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Methyltransferases/physiology , Patents as Topic , RNA Helicases/chemistry , RNA Helicases/physiology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/physiology
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