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3.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(3, may-jun): 240-241, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204865

ABSTRACT

No disponible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , Humans , Mexico
4.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(2): 218-224, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204852

ABSTRACT

La pandemia por Covid-19 llegó a México en febrero de 2020. Las autoridades sanitarias promovieron medidas de prevención no farmacológicas para contrarrestar el avance de la epidemia y a finales del año se anunció la aplicación de las primeras vacunas. A nivel global y local, las vacunas marcaron un hito al erigirse como "balas mágicas", sin em-bargo, enfrentaron diversas dificultades como la producción masiva, la logística de distribución, la efectividad, su aplicación escalonada que priorizó a grupos vulnerables, el rechazo y la baja percepción de riesgo por parte de algunos grupos de la población; por tanto, el énfasis sobre las medidas preventivas o "escudos sociales" se diluyó con el avance de la estrategia de vacunación. Este ensayo resalta la importancia de man-tener "los escudos sociales" como medidas fundamentales y complementarias a la aplicación de vacunas, puesto que, por sí solas, las "balas mágicas" presentan retos que podrían comprometer su eficacia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology
6.
Cir Cir ; 90(5): 602-609, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Mexican Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AMHPB) conducted a survey, aiming to gather experience and opinions of HPB surgeons about HPB surgery in the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic year. METHODS: An online survey was conducted (33 items: demographics, patient referral, COVID-19 screening and limitations, hospital occupancy and surgical practice) to AMHPB members and attendees of the previous meetings of the Society through a self-administered questionnaire. Answers were excluded if respondents were not from Latin America. RESULTS: 88 participants answered (47.5 ± 10 years, 94% male and 65.9% Mexicans). About 8% worked in COVID-19 converted hospitals. About 1.1% did not perform pre-operative COVID-19 testing. Polymerase chain reaction (33%) was the most common COVID-19 pre-operative test. The number of patient referrals decreased 62.5%. About 29.5% had one patient who died from COVID-19 during preoperative surgical evaluation. About 64.7% answered that surgical case volume decreased. About 17% and 23% respondents considered that surgical morbidity and mortality increased, respectively. Hospital resources and COVID-19 infection were responsible for change in surgical outcomes. Lack of ICU beds (54%) was the most common cause of surgical cancellation. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 had a strong negative impact on HPB surgery in Mexico and Latin America in terms of patient reference, case volume and surgical outcomes.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La Asociación Mexicana Hepato-Pancreato-Biliar (AMHPB) realizó una encuesta con el objetivo de recopilar experiencias/opiniones de cirujanos HPB sobre cirugía HPB en el 2020 con pandemia COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Se realizó encuesta virtual (33 ítems: demografía, derivación de pacientes, tamizaje/limitaciones COVID-19, ocupación hospitalaria y práctica quirúrgica) a miembros de la AMHPB y asistentes a reuniones previas de la Sociedad a través de un cuestionario autoadministrado. Se excluyeron las respuestas que no fueran de América Latina. RESULTADOS: Respondieron 88 participantes (47.5 ± 10 años, 94% hombres y 65.9% mexicanos). 8% trabajaba en hospitales reconvertidos COVID-19. 1,1% no realizó prueba COVID-19 preoperatoria. La Polymerase chain reaction (33%) fue laprueba preoperatoria COVID-19 más común. Lareferencia de pacientes disminuyó 62,5%. El 29,5% tuvo paciente fallecido por COVID-19 durante la evaluación preoperatoria. 64,7% respondió que el volumen de casos quirúrgicos disminuyó. El 17% y23% consideraron que la morbilidad y mortalidad quirúrgicas aumentaron respectivamente. Los recursos hospitalarios e infección por COVID-19 influyeron en los resultados quirúrgicos. La falta de camas de UCI (54%) fue lo más común en cancelación quirúrgica. CONCLUSIÓN: COVID-19 tuvo un fuerte impacto negativo en la cirugía HPB en México y América Latina en referencia de pacientes, volumen de casos y resultados quirúrgicos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Latin America/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 726, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak a global pandemic, which changed the residents' teaching and learning process. The purpose of this study was to determine residents' satisfaction and impressions on their training during the pandemic in a tertiary pediatric hospital. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. An online survey was designed to determine residents' demographic and personal characteristics, as well as their perception about the theoretical and practical training, as well as about their emotional situation. The analysis separated medical students from surgical students in order to identify any differences existing between these groups, for which χ2 was calculated. RESULTS: Overall, 148 of 171 residents (86.5%) responded to the questionnaire; 75% belonged to the medical specialty and 25% to the surgical specialty. Statistically significant differences were found in terms of those training aspects they were concerned about during the pandemic (p < 0.001) and about the difficulties associated with online learning (p = 0.001). Differences were also found regarding their satisfaction toward the time needed to complete their thesis (p = 0.059) and activities outside the hospital (p = 0.029). Regarding their degree of satisfaction in general, most medical specialty students felt slightly satisfied (43.2%) and surgical specialty students felt mostly neutral (37.8%). Regarding their feelings about their mental health, statistically significant differences were found between both groups (p = 0.038) although both groups reported the same percentage of overall dissatisfaction (2.7%) in this area. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant challenges to medical education systems. Lack of practice in decision-making and maneuver execution are concerns for residents and may affect their future professional performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , Perception , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(8): e29205, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that various social determinants of health (SDOH) may have contributed to the disparities in COVID-19 incidence and mortality among minorities and underserved populations at the county or zip code level. OBJECTIVE: This analysis was carried out at a granular spatial resolution of census tracts to explore the spatial patterns and contextual SDOH associated with COVID-19 incidence from a Hispanic population mostly consisting of a Mexican American population living in Cameron County, Texas on the border of the United States and Mexico. We performed age-stratified analysis to identify different contributing SDOH and quantify their effects by age groups. METHODS: We included all reported COVID-19-positive cases confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing between March 18 (first case reported) and December 16, 2020, in Cameron County, Texas. Confirmed COVID-19 cases were aggregated to weekly counts by census tracts. We adopted a Bayesian spatiotemporal negative binomial model to investigate the COVID-19 incidence rate in relation to census tract demographics and SDOH obtained from the American Community Survey. Moreover, we investigated the impact of local mitigation policy on COVID-19 by creating the binary variable "shelter-in-place." The analysis was performed on all COVID-19-confirmed cases and age-stratified subgroups. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed that the relative incidence risk (RR) of COVID-19 was higher among census tracts with a higher percentage of single-parent households (RR=1.016, 95% posterior credible intervals [CIs] 1.005, 1.027) and a higher percentage of the population with limited English proficiency (RR=1.015, 95% CI 1.003, 1.028). Lower RR was associated with lower income (RR=0.972, 95% CI 0.953, 0.993) and the percentage of the population younger than 18 years (RR=0.976, 95% CI 0.959, 0.993). The most significant association was related to the "shelter-in-place" variable, where the incidence risk of COVID-19 was reduced by over 50%, comparing the time periods when the policy was present versus absent (RR=0.506, 95% CI 0.454, 0.563). Moreover, age-stratified analyses identified different significant contributing factors and a varying magnitude of the "shelter-in-place" effect. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, SDOH including social environment and local emergency measures were identified in relation to COVID-19 incidence risk at the census tract level in a highly disadvantaged population with limited health care access and a high prevalence of chronic conditions. Results from our analysis provide key knowledge to design efficient testing strategies and assist local public health departments in COVID-19 control, mitigation, and implementation of vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Censuses , Female , Health Equity , Humans , Incidence , Male , Mexico/ethnology , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Spatial Analysis , Texas/epidemiology , United States , Vulnerable Populations , Young Adult
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0224021, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115551

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the emergence and rapid increase of the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) lineage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first identified in the United Kingdom in September 2020, was well documented in different areas of the world and became a global public health concern because of its increased transmissibility. The B.1.1.7 lineage was first detected in Mexico during December 2020, showing a slow progressive increase in its circulation frequency, which reached its maximum in May 2021 but never became predominant. In this work, we analyzed the patterns of diversity and distribution of this lineage in Mexico using phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses. Despite the reported increase in transmissibility of the B.1.1.7 lineage, in most Mexican states, it did not displace cocirculating lineages, such as B.1.1.519, which dominated the country from February to May 2021. Our results show that the states with the highest prevalence of B.1.1.7 were those at the Mexico-U.S. border. An apparent pattern of dispersion of this lineage from the northern states of Mexico toward the center or the southeast was observed in the largest transmission chains, indicating possible independent introduction events from the United States. However, other entry points cannot be excluded, as shown by multiple introduction events. Local transmission led to a few successful haplotypes with a localized distribution and specific mutations indicating sustained community transmission. IMPORTANCE The emergence and rapid increase of the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) lineage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) throughout the world were due to its increased transmissibility. However, it did not displace cocirculating lineages in most of Mexico, particularly B.1.1.519, which dominated the country from February to May 2021. In this work, we analyzed the distribution of B.1.1.7 in Mexico using phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses. Our results show that the states with the highest prevalence of B.1.1.7 (around 30%) were those at the Mexico-U.S. border, which also exhibited the highest lineage diversity, indicating possible introduction events from the United States. Also, several haplotypes were identified with a localized distribution and specific mutations, indicating that sustained community transmission occurred in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(11): 1842-1846, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113050

ABSTRACT

Mexico has a population of 129 million and is considered one of the most unequal countries in the world, suffering from widespread health disparities. There is a pressing need to strengthen epidemiologic capacity in Mexico, to help solve the complex health problems the country faces and to reduce health inequities. However, the representation of Mexican epidemiologists in the largest epidemiologic society in North America is low, despite the short distance to the United States. In this commentary, we discuss the barriers to higher representation of Mexican epidemiologists within the Society for Epidemiologic Research (SER), including language barriers, costs, and regional necessities. We also discuss opportunities to expand Mexican SER representation and collaboration. Overall, we hope that this is a call towards expanding SER global participation and starting a conversation on a common agenda for epidemiologic research.


Subject(s)
Epidemiologists , United States , Humans , Mexico , North America , Population Dynamics , Epidemiologic Studies
12.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05038, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110745

ABSTRACT

Background: We compared the probability of hospitalization and death caused by COVID-19 in patients with comorbidities during three periods defined for this study: first-wave (FW), interwave period (IP), and second-wave (SW) observed in Mexico City. Methods: In this registry-based study, we included individuals over 20 years of age. During the FW (symptomatic), the IP, and the SW (symptomatic and asymptomatic), participants were diagnosed using nasopharyngeal swabs. Symptomatic individuals with risk factors for serious disease or death were referred to the hospital. SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined by RT-qPCR in all hospitalized patients. All data were added to the SISVER database. Bayesian analysis and False Discovery Rate were used for further evaluation. Results: The study included 2 260 156 persons (mean age of 43.1 years). Of these, 8.6% suffered from DM, 11.6% arterial hypertension, and 9.7% obesity. Of the total, 666 694 persons tested positive (29.5%). Of the infected persons, a total of 85 587 (12.8%) were hospitalized: 24 023 in the FW; 16 935 in the IP, and 44 629 in the SW. Of the hospitalized patients, there were 42 979 deaths (50.2%), in the FW, 11 964 (49.8%), in the IP, 6794 (40.1%), and in the SW 24 221 (54.3%). The probability of death among individuals hospitalized with or without comorbidities increased consistently in all age groups. A significant increase in the Fatality Rate was observed in individuals with comorbidities (1.36E-19< = FDR< = 3.36E-2). A similar trend was also observed in individuals without comorbidities (1.03E-44< = FDR< = 5.58E-4). Conclusions: The data from this study show a considerable increase in the number of detected cases of infection between the FW and SW. In addition, 12.8% of those infected were hospitalized for severe COVID-19. A high mortality rate was observed among hospitalized patients (>50%). An age-dependent probability of death was observed with a positive trend in hospitalized patients with and without comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , Bayes Theorem , Mexico/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Comorbidity , Disease Outbreaks
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110085

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological data indicate that Mexico holds the 19th place in cumulative cases (5506.53 per 100,000 inhabitants) of COVID-19 and the 5th place in cumulative deaths (256.14 per 100,000 inhabitants) globally and holds the 4th and 3rd place in cumulative cases and deaths in the Americas region, respectively, with Mexico City being the most affected area. Several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors have been linked to a poor clinical outcome in COVID-19 infection; however, whether socioeconomic and welfare factors are associated with clinical outcome has been scanty addressed. This study tried to investigate the association of Social Welfare Index (SWI) with hospitalization and severity due to COVID-19. A retrospective analysis was conducted at the Centro Médico Nacional "20 de Noviembre"-ISSSTE, based in Mexico City, Mexico. A total of 3963 patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19, registered from March to July 2020, were included, retrieved information from the Virology Analysis and Reference Unit Database. Demographic, symptoms and clinical data were analyzed, as well as the SWI, a multidimensional parameter based on living and household conditions. An adjusted binary logistic regression model was performed in order to compare the outcomes of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation requirement (MVR) and mortality between SWI categories: Very high (VHi), high (Hi), medium (M) and low (L). The main findings show that lower SWI were independently associated with higher probability for hospital entry: VHi vs. Hi vs. M vs. L-SWI (0 vs. +0.24 [OR = 1.24, CI95% 1.01-1.53] vs. +0.90 [OR = 1.90, CI95% 1.56-2.32] vs. 0.73 [OR = 1.73, CI95% 1.36-2.19], respectively); Mechanical Ventilation Requirement: VHi vs. M vs. L-SWI (0 vs. +0.45 [OR = 1.45, CI95% 1.11-1.87] vs. +0.35 [OR = 1.35, CI95% 1.00-1.82]) and mortality: VHi vs. Hi vs. M (0 vs. +0.54 [OR = 1.54, CI95% 1.22-1.94] vs. +0.41 [OR = 1.41, CI95% 1.13-1.76]). We concluded that SWI was independently associated with the poor clinical outcomes in COVID-19, beyond demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , United States , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Social Welfare
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277014, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119257

ABSTRACT

Screening, prevention, and management of non-communicable diseases (NCDs, including obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes) is the core function of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO), a digital strategy developed by the Carlos Slim Foundation in Mexico. An extension of this strategy, MIDO COVID, was developed to address the need for an integrated plan in primary health care during the COVID-19 pandemic. MIDO COVID facilitates planning, surveillance, testing, and clinical management of SARS-CoV-2 infections and the major NCDs and their pre-disease states, to streamline the continuum of care. MIDO COVID screening was applied in 1063 Carso Group workplaces in 190 municipalities of the 32 Mexican states. Staff were trained to screen healthy workers for NCDs using a questionnaire, anthropomorphic measurements, and blood work; healthy individuals returning to work also received a SARS-CoV-2 antibody test. Between June 26 and December 31, 2020, 58,277 asymptomatic individuals underwent screening. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes was 32.1%, 25.7%, and 9.7% respectively. Only 2.2%, 8.8%, and 4.5% of individuals, respectively, were previously aware of their condition. Pre-obesity was identified in 38.6%, pre-hypertension in 17.4%, and prediabetes in 7.5% of the population. Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was highest for individuals with multiple NCDs. Many Mexicans are unaware of their health status and potentially increased risk of COVID-19 and serious complications. As a universal strategy implemented regardless of social factors, MIDO COVID promotes equity in access to health care prevention and early stage detection of NCDs; the information gained may help inform decisionmakers regarding prioritising vulnerable populations for immunisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension , Humans , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Chronic Disease , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Obesity/epidemiology
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19156, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106477

ABSTRACT

Movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep) have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. We report changes in and factors that influenced movement behaviors during COVID-19 among Latin American/Latino children aged 1 to 5 years in Chile, Mexico, and the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study between April and August 2020. Caregivers of 4,136 children (mean age [SD], 3.1 [1.4] years; 51% boys) reported family and household characteristics and changes in their child's movement behaviors. The proportion of children who met the WHO Guidelines decreased significantly in all countries, with the largest declines in meeting the physical activity and screen time guidelines. Factors associated with negative changes in movement behaviors were being an older child, unable to attend an early childhood education and care service, higher parental education levels, not having the opportunity to play with someone, and not having access to spaces to play. The findings highlight the need to minimize disparities faced by families by providing access to early childhood education and care and safe places for children to play.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Infant , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Latin America , Sleep , Hispanic or Latino
16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(23): 7905-7916, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103865

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been one of the most catastrophic diseases observed in recent years. It has reported nearly 550 million cases worldwide, with more than 6.35 million deaths. In Mexico, an increased incidence and mortality of this disease were observed, where the immune response has been involved in the magnitude and severity. A critical version of the disease is accompanied by hyperinflammatory responses, with cytokine and defective cellular responses. A detailed understanding of the role of molecules and cells in the immune response during COVID-19 disease may help to generate effective protection mechanisms, improving those we already have. Here we analyzed blood samples obtained from patients at the Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Ixtapaluca (HRAEI), Mexico, which were classified according to living guidance for clinical management of COVID-19 by the World Health Organization: asymptomatic, mild, severe, and critical disease. We observed increased interleukin (IL)-6 levels and a T-CD8+ and T-CD4+ cell reduction correlated with the critical disease version. Importantly, here, we described a significant reduction of CD11b+CD45highCD14low monocytes during severe disease, which displayed a non-classical profile, expressing IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)1 molecule. Moreover, CD11b+CD45highCD14low monocytes obtained from infected one-dose vaccinated patients (Pfizer® vaccine) who suffered minimal symptoms showed simultaneously a dual classical and no-classical profile expressing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. These results suggest that blood monocytes expressing a dual pro- and anti-inflammatory profile might be a predictive marker for protection in the Mexican population during COVID-19 disease. KEY POINTS : • Exacerbated immune response is associated with COVID-19 severe disease. • Dual monocyte activation profile is crucial for predicting protection during COVID-19. • Vaccination is crucial to induce the dual activation profile in monocytes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Monocytes/metabolism , Mexico , Cytokines/metabolism
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 813, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) is the largest health care provider in Mexico, covering about 48% of the Mexican population. In this report, we describe the epidemiological patterns related to confirmed cases, hospitalizations, intubations, and in-hospital mortality due to COVID-19 and associated factors, during five epidemic waves recorded in the IMSS surveillance system. METHODS: We analyzed COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed cases from the Online Epidemiological Surveillance System (SINOLAVE) from March 29th, 2020, to August 27th, 2022. We constructed weekly epidemic curves describing temporal patterns of confirmed cases and hospitalizations by age, gender, and wave. We also estimated hospitalization, intubation, and hospital case fatality rates. The mean days of in-hospital stay and hospital admission delay were calculated across five pandemic waves. Logistic regression models were employed to assess the association between demographic factors, comorbidities, wave, and vaccination and the risk of severe disease and in-hospital death. RESULTS: A total of 3,396,375 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were recorded across the five waves. The introduction of rapid antigen testing at the end of 2020 increased detection and modified epidemiological estimates. Overall, 11% (95% CI 10.9, 11.1) of confirmed cases were hospitalized, 20.6% (95% CI 20.5, 20.7) of the hospitalized cases were intubated, and the hospital case fatality rate was 45.1% (95% CI 44.9, 45.3). The mean in-hospital stay was 9.11 days, and patients were admitted on average 5.07 days after symptoms onset. The most recent waves dominated by the Omicron variant had the highest incidence. Hospitalization, intubation, and mean hospitalization days decreased during subsequent waves. The in-hospital case fatality rate fluctuated across waves, reaching its highest value during the second wave in winter 2020. A notable decrease in hospitalization was observed primarily among individuals ≥ 60 years. The risk of severe disease and death was positively associated with comorbidities, age, and male gender; and declined with later waves and vaccination status. CONCLUSION: During the five pandemic waves, we observed an increase in the number of cases and a reduction in severity metrics. During the first three waves, the high in-hospital fatality rate was associated with hospitalization practices for critical patients with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospital Mortality , Mexico/epidemiology , Hospitalization
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 932010, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089930

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Understanding how Mexicans behave during the pandemic could present a complete picture of the phenomenon in our country and provide better management of it. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the Mexican population's behavior and preventive measures. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which a total of 4,004 participants from the general population responded to the survey. Results: Almost 99% of the participants mentioned knowing the symptoms of COVID-19. Although 77.5% of participants considered that they followed proper social distancing measures, 60% of them mentioned that they knew at least six individuals who did not follow social distancing measures. Furthermore, 96.2% of participants reported using preventive measures at least 50% of the time. Only 51.3% used a certified mask. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic outcomes in Mexico are the result of multiple negative factors, such as high rates of comorbidities, high number of people living together at home, many people breaking social isolation, and most of the population using non-certified preventive measures that may not be effective enough.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Mexico/epidemiology
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18014, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087290

ABSTRACT

A major challenge for developing countries during the COVID-19 pandemic is affordable and adequate monitoring of disease progression and population exposure as the primary source relevant epidemiological indicators. Serology testing enables assessing population exposure and to guide vaccination strategies but requires rigorous accuracy validation before population-wide implementation. We adapted a two-step ELISA protocol as a single-step protocol for detection of IgG against the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and compared its diagnostic accuracy with a commercial immunoassay anti-nucleoprotein IgG. Both methods yielded adequate and comparable diagnostic accuracy after 3 weeks post-symptom onset and were implemented in a nation-wide population based serological survey during August-November 2020. Anti-RBD National seroprevalence was 23.6%, 1.3% lower, but not significantly, than for anti-N. Double positive seroprevalence was 19.7%. Anti-N single-positive seroprevalence was 3.72% and anti-RBD single-positive seroprevalence was 1.98%. Discrepancies in the positivity to either single marker may be due to different kinetics of each antibody marker as well as the heterogeneity of the sampling time in regards to local epidemic waves. Baseline single positivity prevalence will be useful to assess the serological impact of vaccination and natural infection in further serosurveillance efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
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