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Am J Health Behav ; 47(2): 269-279, 2023 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242319


Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the association among temperature, relative humidity, latitude, vitamin D content and comorbidities in the spread of SAR-CoV-2 in Mexico in 2 different waves. Methods: The data on SARS-CoV-2 infections and comorbidities were obtained from the Mexican entities with the highest number of positive cases and deaths in the 2 waves that have most damaged the population. Results: Low temperature, high relative humidity, vitamin D deficiency and high percentage of comorbidities were factors that correlated with a high spread of SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, 73.8% of the population had one of the most common comorbidities that favor the spread of the virus. Conclusion: The high percentage of comorbidities and the deficient concentration of vitamin D were determining factors in the high number of infections and deaths in Mexico. Furthermore, weather conditions could contribute to and alert to the spread of SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Mexico/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D , Geography
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(9)2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237156


U.S.-Mexico border residents experience pervasive social and ecological stressors that contribute to a high burden of chronic disease. However, the border region is primarily composed of high-density Mexican-origin neighborhoods, a characteristic that is most commonly health-promoting. Understanding factors that contribute to border stress and resilience is essential to informing the effective design of community-level health promotion strategies. La Vida en La Frontera is a mixed-methods, participatory study designed to understand factors that may contribute to border resilience in San Luis, Arizona. The study's initial qualitative phase included interviews with 30 Mexican-origin adults exploring community perceptions of the border environment, cross-border ties, and health-related concepts. Border residents described the border as a Mexican enclave characterized by individuals with a common language and shared cultural values and perspectives. Positive characteristics related to living in proximity to Mexico included close extended family relationships, access to Mexican food and products, and access to more affordable health care and other services. Based on these findings, we co-designed the 9-item Border Resilience Scale that measures agreement with the psychosocial benefits of these border attributes. Pilot data with 60 residents suggest there are positive sociocultural attributes associated with living in border communities. Further research should test if they mitigate environmental stressors and contribute to a health-promoting environment for residents.

Community-Based Participatory Research , Health Facilities , Adult , Humans , Arizona , Mexico , Environment , Mexican Americans
AIDS Res Ther ; 20(1): 34, 2023 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236410


BACKGROUND: The mental health and medical follow-up of people living with HIV (PLWH) have been disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objectives of this study were to assess anxiety, depression and substance use in Mexican PLWH during the pandemic; to explore the association of these symptoms with adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and to compare patients with and without vulnerability factors (low socioeconomic level, previous psychological and/or psychiatric treatment). METHODS: We studied 1259 participants in a cross-sectional study, PLWH receiving care at the HIV clinic in Mexico City were contacted by telephone and invited to participate in the study. We included PLWH were receiving ART; answered a structured interview on sociodemographic data and adherence to ART; and completed the psychological instruments to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms and substance use risk. Data collection was performed from June 2020 to October 2021. RESULTS: 84.7% were men, 8% had inadequate ART adherence, 11% had moderate-severe symptoms of depression, and 13% had moderate-severe symptoms of anxiety. Adherence was related to psychological symptoms (p < 0.001). Vulnerable patients were more likely to be women, with low educational level and unemployed (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to address mental health of PLWH during the COVID-19 pandemic, with special attention to the most vulnerable individuals. Future studies are needed to understand the relationship between mental health and ART adherence.

COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , Male , Humans , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mexico/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e063211, 2023 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236407


OBJECTIVES: We aim to quantify shifts in hospitalisation and mortality and how those were related to the first three phases of the epidemic and individuals' demographics and health profile among those with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 treated at the Mexican Social Security Institute's facilities from March 2020 to October 2021. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study using interrupted time series analysis to identify changes in hospitalisation rate and case fatality rate (CFR) by epidemic wave. SETTING: Data from the Mexican Institute of Social Security's (IMSS) Online Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance System (SINOLAVE) that include all individuals that sought care at IMSS facilities all over Mexico. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals included in the SINOLAVE with a positive PCR or rapid test for SARS-CoV-2. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Monthly test positivity rates, hospitalisation rates, CFRs and prevalence of relevant comorbidities by age group. RESULTS: From March 2020 to October 2021, the CFR declined between 1% and 3.5%; the declines were significant for those 0-9, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 70 and older. The decline was steep during the first wave and was less steep or was temporarily reversed at the beginning of the second and third waves (changes in the trend of about 0.3% and 3.8%, and between 0.7% and 3.8%, respectively, for some age groups), but then continued to the end of the analytical period. Prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and obesity among patients testing positive also declined-two for most age groups (reductions of up to 10 percentage points for diabetes, 12 percentage points for hypertension and 19 percentage points for obesity). CONCLUSION: Data suggest that the decrease in COVID-19 fatality rate is at least partially explained by a change in the profile of those contracting the disease, that is, a falling proportion of individuals with comorbidities across all age groups.

COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Pandemics , Mexico , SARS-CoV-2 , Obesity
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8566, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235615


Human mobility networks are widely used for diverse studies in geography, sociology, and economics. In these networks, nodes usually represent places or regions and links refer to movement between them. They become essential when studying the spread of a virus, the planning of transit, or society's local and global structures. Therefore, the construction and analysis of human mobility networks are crucial for a vast number of real-life applications. This work presents a collection of networks that describe the human travel patterns between municipalities in Mexico in the 2020-2021 period. Using anonymized mobile location data, we constructed directed, weighted networks representing the volume of travels between municipalities. We analysed changes in global, local, and mesoscale network features. We observe that changes in these features are associated with factors such as COVID-19 restrictions and population size. In general, the implementation of restrictions at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, induced more intense changes in network features than later events, which had a less notable impact in network features. These networks will result very useful for researchers and decision-makers in the areas of transportation, infrastructure planning, epidemic control and network science at large.

COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mexico/epidemiology , Travel , Transportation
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1155938, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234677


Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused unprecedented mortality since its emergence in late 2019. The continuous evolution of the viral genome through the concerted action of mutational forces has produced distinct variants that became dominant, challenging human immunity and vaccine development. Aim and methods: In this work, through an integrative genomic approach, we describe the molecular transition of SARS-CoV-2 by analyzing the viral whole genome sequences from 50 critical COVID-19 patients recruited during the first year of the pandemic in Mexico City. Results: Our results revealed differential levels of the evolutionary forces across the genome and specific mutational processes that have shaped the first two epidemiological waves of the pandemic in Mexico. Through phylogenetic analyses, we observed a genomic transition in the circulating SARS-CoV-2 genomes from several lineages prevalent in the first wave to a dominance of the B.1.1.519 variant (defined by T478K, P681H, and T732A mutations in the spike protein) in the second wave. Conclusion: This work contributes to a better understanding of the evolutionary dynamics and selective pressures that act at the genomic level, the prediction of more accurate variants of clinical significance, and a better comprehension of the molecular mechanisms driving the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 to improve vaccine and drug development.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mexico/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Genome, Viral , Mutation
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 54: e322, Dec. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2325889


Resumen Introducción: Datos de varios países del mundo sugieren que los niños con COVID-19 podrían presentar síntomas diferentes y menos graves que los adultos. Sin embargo, los patrones epidemiológicos y clínicos en este grupo poblacional son poco claros. Métodos: El presente es un estudio observacional, con una caracterización inicial transversal-analítica, y con un componente longitudinal o de seguimiento a un grupo de menores con sospecha y/o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19, que presentaron desenlaces como mejoría, traslado a un nivel superior de atención o defunción por sintomatología respiratoria. Los niños recibieron atención médica en el Hospital General Regional con Medicina Familiar N.° 1 (HGR C/MF N.° 1), y se les realizó prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (RT-PCR). Resultados: Se estudiaron 98 niños como casos sospechosos para COVID-19, a quienes se les realizó RT-PCR. Del total, 24 resultaron positivos y 74 fueron negativos. La mediana de edad de los participantes fue 64,4 meses (0 a 203 meses), 55 menores eran de sexo masculino, 59 niños tuvieron manejo ambulatorio, y de estos, 14 presentaron resultado positivo. Entre los que requirieron manejo hospitalario (39), 10 niños dieron positivo para SARS-CoV-2, 84,7% alcanzaron mejoría y fueron dados de alta, 4 fueron trasladados a hospitales de nivel superior de atención. De los 98 niños en estudio, 11 fallecieron, 7 con resultado negativo y 4 con resultado positivo para SARS-CoV-2. Conclusiones: Los principales síntomas de la población pediátrica en este estudio fueron fiebre, tos y malestar general. De los niños que fallecieron, 4 presentaron resultado positivo para SARS-CoV-2, no obstante, estos presentaban otras comorbilidades.

Abstract Introduction: Data from several countries around the world suggest that children with COVID-19 may present different and less severe symptoms than adults. However, the epidemiological and clinical patterns in this population group have been unclear. Methods: This is an observational study, with an initial cross-analytical characterization, and with a longitudinal or follow-up component in a group of minors with suspected and or confirmed case of COVID-19, which have outcomes such as improvement, transfer to a higher level of care or death due to respiratory symptoms. The children received medical attention at the Regional General Hospital with Family Medicine No 1 (HGR C / MF No 1), and underwent a Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction test (RT-PCR). Results: 98 children were studied as suspected cases for COVID-19, who underwent RT-PCR. Of the total 24 were positive and 74 were negatives. The median age was 64.4 months (0 to 203 months), 55 minors were male, 59 children had outpatient management, and of these, 14 had a positive result. Among those who required hospital management (39), 10 children were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 84.7% achieved improvement and were discharged, and four were transferred to a higher level of care hospital. Of the 98 children in the study, 11 died, seven had a negative result and four a positive result for SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: The main symptoms of the pediatric population in this study were fever, cough and general discomfort. Four of those who died had a positive result for SARS-CoV-2, however, they had other comorbidities.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Child , Mortality , Multimorbidity , COVID-19 , Mexico
Inj Prev ; 29(3): 207-212, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322078


BACTERKGROUND: There is debate on whether cannabis affects road traffic injuries (RTIs) separately from the effects of alcohol. Our goals are to report the possible increase in risk of an RTI among alcohol and cannabis users by type of exposure (biological, self-reported and combined) and the possible interaction of alcohol and cannabis in patients with an RTI in an emergency department in Mexico City. METHODS: A case-crossover study with 433 cases of RTI (as a pedestrian, driver or passenger) during the period January-April 2022. A breath sample, an oral sample for cannabis detection and self-reported alcohol and cannabis use 6 hours prior to the RTI and in two control periods were used. We report ORs and 95% CIs from conditional logistic regressions for the case-crossover estimates. RESULTS: Alcohol alone increased the risk of an RTI (OR=6.02, 95% CI 3.29 to 10.99) for most RTIs, regardless of whether we used information from self-reports or a breath sample in the hazard period. Conversely, cannabis only increased the RTI when we added information in the hazard period from self-reports or oral samples. Nevertheless, this increase in risk disappeared (OR=2.06, 95% CI 0.90 to 4.70) among those who only used cannabis. We also found no evidence of interaction between alcohol and cannabis in the risk of an RTI. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol is the most commonly used substance in Mexico and a high-risk factor for RTI in Mexico City. Although cannabis alone was not associated with an RTI, continuous monitoring of its effects is required.

Cannabis , Wounds and Injuries , Humans , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Cannabis/adverse effects , Mexico/epidemiology , Cross-Over Studies , Risk Factors , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology
Rev Alerg Mex ; 69(4): 164-170, 2023 Apr 19.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321933


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the geographic variation in the prevalence of asthma in children, according to their place of residence in Mexico. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of the epidemiological surveillance system dataset for respiratory diseases in Mexico carried on. From 27 February to 5 November 2020, a total of 1,048,576 subjects were screened for SARS-CoV2 infection, of which 35,899 were children under 18 years of age. The strength of the association was estimated by odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: Of 1,048,576 patients who attended for SARS-CoV2 infection detection, 35,899 corresponded to pediatric patients who met the study criteria. The estimated national prevalence of asthma was 3.9% (95% CI: 3.7-4.1%). The nationwide prevalence of asthma was 3.9% (95% CI: 3.7% - 4.1%); the minimum was 2.8% (Southeast region) and the maximum 6.8% (Southeast region). Compared to the South-West Region that presented the minimum prevalence at the national level, the Northwest (OR = 2.41) and Southeast (OR = 1.33) regions showed the highest risk of asthma in pediatric population. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asthma in children differed markedly among the different regions of Mexico; two regions, Northwest and Southeast, stood out. This study puts into context the role of the environment on the prevalence of asthma in children.

OBJECTIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de asma en pacientes pediátricos, según su lugar de residencia en la República Mexicana, durante la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, llevado a cabo a partir de la revisión de datos del Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica para Enfermedades Respiratorias en México, analizados del 27 febrero al 5 de noviembre de 2020. Criterios de inclusión: pacientes que acudieron a la detección de infección por SARS-CoV2, menores de 18 años. La fuerza de asociación se estimó con la razón de momios. RESULTADOS: De 1,048,576 pacientes que acudieron a la detección de infección de SARS-CoV2, 35,899 correspondieron a pacientes pediátricos que cumplieron con los criterios del estudio. La prevalencia nacional de asma estimada fue de 3.9% (IC95%: 3.7-4.1%); la prevalencia mínima se observó en la región Suroeste (2.8%) y la máxima en el Sureste (6.8%); comparada con la región Suroeste, que registró la prevalencia mínima a nivel nacional, y la Noroeste (RM = 2.41) y Sureste (RM = 1.33) mostraron el mayor riesgo de asma en la población pediátrica. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de asma en niños mexicanos difirió notoriamente en los diferentes estados de la República Mexicana; sobresalieron las regiones Noroeste y Sureste. Este estudio pone de manifiesto el papel del medio ambiente en la prevalencia del asma en pacientes pediátricos mexicanos.

Asthma , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Prevalence , Mexico/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/diagnosis
Rev Invest Clin ; 75(2): 47-52, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326858


Background: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, patients with chronic kidney disease vulnerable to suffering more severe COVID-19 disease and worse outcomes have been identified. Objectives: Our study's aim was to determine the incidence, characteristics, and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients of hemodialysis (HD) units in Mexico and to describe the availability of confirmatory testing. Methods: This study was multicentric study of 19 HD units, conducted between March 2020 and March 2021. Results: From a total of 5779 patients, 955 (16.5%) cases of suspicious COVID-19 were detected; a SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test was done in only 50.6% of patients. Forty-five percentages were hospitalized and 6% required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). There was no significant difference in mortality between confirmed (131/483) and suspicious (124/472) cases (p = 0.74). The percentage of patients in need of hospitalization, IMV, and deceased was greater than in the rest of the study population. Conclusions: The study revealed that 49.4% of the cases were not confirmed, a worrisome observation given that this is a highly vulnerable population (higher probability of contagion and worse outcomes), in which 100% of patients should have a confirmatory test.

COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Mexico/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , Registries
J Viral Hepat ; 30(6): 551-558, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325032


In July 2020, the Mexican Government initiated the National Program for Elimination of Hepatitis C (HCV) under a procurement agreement, securing universal, free access to HCV screening, diagnosis and treatment for 2020-2022. This analysis quantifies the clinical and economic burden of HCV (MXN) under a continuation (or end) to the agreement. A modelling and Delphi approach was used to evaluate the disease burden (2020-2030) and economic impact (2020-2035) of the Historical Base compared to Elimination, assuming the agreement continues (Elimination-Agreement to 2035) or terminates (Elimination-Agreement to 2022). We estimated cumulative costs and the per-patient treatment expenditure needed to achieve net-zero cost (the difference in cumulative costs between the scenario and the base). Elimination is defined as a 90% reduction in new infections, 90% diagnosis coverage, 80% treatment coverage and 65% reduction in mortality by 2030. A viraemic prevalence of 0.55% (0.50-0.60) was estimated on 1st January 2021, corresponding to 745,000 (95% CI 677,000-812,000) viraemic infections in Mexico. The Elimination-Agreement to 2035 would achieve net-zero cost by 2023 and accrue 31.2 billion in cumulative costs. Cumulative costs under the Elimination-Agreement to 2022 are estimated at 74.2 billion. Under Elimination-Agreement to 2022, the per-patient treatment price must decrease to 11,000 to achieve net-zero cost by 2035. The Mexican Government could extend the agreement through 2035 or reduce the cost of HCV treatment to 11,000 to achieve HCV elimination at net-zero cost.

Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Humans , Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/prevention & control , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Mexico/epidemiology , Health Care Costs , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepacivirus , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
Front Public Health ; 11: 1127745, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322635


Introduction: As of October 26, 2022, only 9% of children in the United States aged 6 months to 4 years have received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine despite FDA approval since June 17, 2022. Rates are better yet still low for children aged 5 to 11 years as nearly 30% were fully vaccinated as of August 23, 2022. Vaccine hesitancy among adults is one of the major factors affecting low vaccine uptake rates in children against COVID-19, yet most studies examining vaccine hesitancy have targeted school-age and adolescent children. Methods: With the aim of assessing the willingness to recommend the COVID-19 vaccination to children under 5 years compared to children 5 to 12 years of age, a county-wide survey was conducted between January 11 and March 7, 2022, among adults on the United States-Mexico border. Results: Among the 765 responses, 72.5% were female and 42.3% were Latinx. The most significant factor associated with likelihood to recommend the COVID-19 vaccine to children less than 5 years and 5-12 years of age was adult vaccination status. Ordinal logistic regression also indicated that ethnicity, primary language, being a parent, previous COVID-19 infection, and concern about getting COVID-19 in the future were significantly associated with likelihood of COVID-19 vaccine recommendation to children < 5 years and 5-12 years old. Discussion: This study found high consistency among respondents in their willingness to vaccinate children aged < 5 years compared with children aged 5-12 years. Our findings support public health strategies that target adult vaccinations as an avenue to improve childhood vaccinations for young children.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Child , Female , Child, Preschool , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mexico/epidemiology , Vaccination Hesitancy , Ethnicity
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Supl): 64-73, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318663


La pandemia de COVID-19 ha infligido grandes estragos a la población y en especial al personal de salud. Los esfuerzos de reanimación exigen modificaciones potenciales de las guías internacionales existentes de reanimación cardiopulmonar (RCP) debido al elevado índice de contagiosidad del virus SARS-CoV-2. Se considera que hasta 15% de los casos de COVID-19 tiene una enfermedad grave y 5% padece un trastorno crítico con una mortalidad promedio del 3%, la cual varía según sean el país y las características de los pacientes. La edad y las comorbilidades como la hipertensión arterial, enfermedad cardiovascular, obesidad y diabetes incrementan la mortalidad hasta 24%. También se ha informado un aumento reciente del número de casos de paro cardíaco extrahospitalario (PCEH). Aunque el paro cardíaco (PC) puede ser efecto de factores diversos en estos pacientes, en la mayoría de los casos se ha demostrado que el origen es respiratorio, con muy pocos casos de causa cardíaca. Se debe considerar la indicación de iniciar o continuar las maniobras de RCP por dos razones fundamentales: la posibilidad de sobrevida de las víctimas, que hasta la fecha se ha registrado muy baja, y el riesgo de contagiar al personal de salud, que es muy alto.The COVID-19 pandemic is having a large impact on the general population, but it has taken a specially high toll on healthcare personnel. Resuscitation efforts require potential modifications of the present Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) international guidelines because of the transmissibility rate of the new SARS-CoV 2 virus. It has been seen that up to 15% of COVID-19 patients have a severe disease, 5% have a critical form of infection and the mean death rate is 3%, although there are significant differences according to the country that reports it and patients' baseline conditions that include age, presence of arterial hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes or obesity. In these high risk subjects, mortality might go up to 24%. There are also reports of a recent increase in out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCA) victims. Cardiac arrest (CA) in these subjects might be related to many causes, but apparently, that phenomenon is related to respiratory diseases rather than cardiac issues. In this context, the decision to start or continue CPR maneuvers has to be carefully assessed, because of the low survival rate reported so far and the high contagion risk among healthcare personnel.

COVID-19 , Heart Arrest , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cardiology , Child , Heart Arrest/therapy , Heart Arrest/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mexico , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Suplemento COVID): 110-122, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318299


The authors of the image chapters of the National Association of Cardiologists of Mexico (ANCAM) and the Mexican Society of Cardiology (SMC), as well as personnel from the Department of Medicine and Nutrition of the University of Guanajuato, together with prominent experts in cardiovascular imaging from Mexico, have collaborated in the review, analysis and expansion of the various health strategies published in the first year of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, to safely perform cardiac imaging studies. This update aims to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission among patients and health-care personnel in the CT, MRI, and nuclear cardiology services. This work was expanded with supplementary information available free of charge on the website

Los capítulos de imagen de la Asociación Nacional de Cardiólogos de México (ANCAM) y de la Sociedad Mexicana de Cardiología (SMC), así como personal del Departamento de Medicina y Nutrición de la Universidad de Guanajuato, en conjunto con destacados expertos de la imagen cardiovascular en México, han colaborado en la revisión, análisis y ampliación de las diversas estrategias sanitarias publicadas en los primeros 15 meses de la pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) para realizar con seguridad los estudios de imagen cardiaca; esta actualización tiene como objetivo principal disminuir el riesgo de transmisión de la COVID-19 entre los pacientes y el personal de salud en los servicios de tomografía, resonancia y cardiología nuclear. Este trabajo se amplió con información suplementaria disponible sin costo en el sitio

COVID-19 , Cardiology , Infection Control , Societies, Medical , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular System/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Mexico
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Suplemento COVID): 102-109, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313489


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020; one consequence has been the increase in sedentary lifestyle and reduction of sports activity. Exercise benefits the immune defense system especially in older adults; it is recommended to keep a distance of 1.5 meters between people, and if walking or jogging is carried out, the space must be up to 5 and 10 meters respectively. The reported cases are mostly mild up to 80% and can be critical in up to 4.7%; the risk factors are well known, hypertension, diabetes and previous heart disease. Severe or critical cases present as symptoms of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and in the case of cardiovascular disease, they mainly occur as myopericarditis, acute coronary syndromes, cardiogenic shock, thrombotic events, among others. Returning to exercise after recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is always recommended, however it will depend on the clinical picture what measures should be taken prior to its onset, and it is in moderate cases and especially in the severe ones where the evaluation and prescription prior to returning to exercise or sport should be guided by medical personnel experts in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, especially in athletes.

La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) fue declarada pandemia el 11 de marzo de 2020; una consecuencia ha sido el incremento en el sedentarismo y la reducción de la actividad deportiva. El ejercicio beneficia el sistema inmunitario de defensa, especialmente en adultos mayores. Se recomienda guardar distancia de 1.5 metros entre personas, y si se realiza caminata o trote, el espacio debe ser de hasta 5 y 10 metros respectivamente. Los casos reportados son en su mayoría leves hasta en un 80%, y pueden ser críticos hasta en 4.7%; los factores de riesgo son bien conocidos: hipertensión, diabetes y enfermedad cardiaca previa. Los casos graves o críticos se presentan como cuadros de síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo y ante afección cardiovascular cursan principalmente como miopericarditis, síndromes coronarios agudos, choque cardiogénico y eventos trombóticos, entre otros. El ejercicio después de la recuperación de infección por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2) siempre está recomendado, sin embargo, dependerá del cuadro clínico qué medidas se deben tomar previo a su inicio, y es en casos moderados y especialmente en los graves donde la evaluación y prescripción previa al retorno al ejercicio o deporte debe ser guiada por personal médico experto en rehabilitación cardiopulmonar, en especial en deportistas.

COVID-19 , Return to Sport , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Cardiology , Humans , Mexico , Pandemics
Health Promot Int ; 38(3)2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320459


Little is known about the role of WhatsApp in spreading misinformation during the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico. The aim of this study is to analyze the message content, format, authorship, time trends and social media distribution channels of misinformation in WhatsApp messages in Mexico. From March 18 to June 30, 2020 the authors collected all WhatsApp messages received via their personal contacts and their social networks that contained information about COVID-19. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the scientifically inaccurate messages and the relationship between variables, respectively. Google image and video searches were carried out to identify sharing on other social media. Out of a total of 106 messages, the most frequently mentioned COVID-19 related message topics were prevention (20.0%), conspiracy (18.5%), therapy (15.4%) and origin of the virus (10.3%), changing throughout the pandemic according to users' concerns. Half of all WhatsApp messages were either images or videos. WhatsApp images were also shared on Facebook (80%) and YouTube (~50%). Our findings indicate that the design of information and health promotion campaigns requires to be proactive in adapting to the changes in message content and format of misinformation shared through encrypted social media.

As an encrypted social media platform with hardly accessible content, little is known about the role of WhatsApp in spreading misinformation messages (either false or misleading information) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico. In this study, researchers studied the content, format, time and channel of distribution of WhatsApp messages containing information about COVID-19 collected via their personal contacts and their social networks from March 18 to June 30, 2020. Half of all messages were visually-appealing and the content changed according to the population´s concerns. WhatsApp messages were also distributed in several other social media platforms. Understanding the format and content of misinformation may help to design dynamic health information and promotion campaigns against it. Regulations of public social media such as Youtube can have a positive impact on WhatsApp.

COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Pandemics , Mexico , Communication , Social Networking
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 37(4): 266-275, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319606


BACKGROUND: Linked datasets that enable longitudinal assessments are scarce in low and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the linkage of administrative databases of live births and under-five child deaths to explore mortality and trends for preterm, small (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) in Mexico. METHODS: We linked individual-level datasets collected by National statistics from 2008 to 2019. Linkage was performed based on agreement on birthday, sex, residential address. We used the Centre for Data and Knowledge Integration for Health software to identify the best candidate pairs based on similarity. Accuracy was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. We evaluated completeness by comparing the number of linked records with reported deaths. We described the percentage of linked records by baseline characteristics to identify potential bias. Using the linked dataset, we calculated mortality rate ratios (RR) in neonatal, infants, and children under-five according to gestational age, birthweight, and size. RESULTS: For the period 2008-2019, a total of 24,955,172 live births and 321,165 under-five deaths were available for linkage. We excluded 1,539,046 records (6.2%) with missing or implausible values. We succesfully linked 231,765 deaths (72.2%: range 57.1% in 2009 and 84.3% in 2011). The rate of neonatal mortality was higher for preterm compared with term (RR 3.83, 95% confidence interval, [CI] 3.78, 3.88) and for SGA compared with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) (RR 1.22 95% CI, 1.19, 1.24). Births at <28 weeks had the highest mortality (RR 35.92, 95% CI, 34.97, 36.88). LGA had no additional risk vs AGA among children under five (RR 0.92, 95% CI, 0.90, 0.93). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the utility of linked data to understand neonatal vulnerability and child mortality. We created a linked dataset that would be a valuable resource for future population-based research.

Infant Mortality , Live Birth , Infant , Pregnancy , Female , Child , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Live Birth/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Birth Weight , Weight Gain , Information Storage and Retrieval
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 254, 2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319586


BACKGROUND: On March 24, 2020, the Mexican Government established social distancing measures to address the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The resulting home confinement affected daily lifestyle habits such as eating, sleeping, and physical activity (PA). The objectives of this study were to determine changes in PA behaviors among Mexican women due to the COVID-19 pandemic and to assess potential factors associated with these changes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on an anonymous online questionnaire developed by the Task Force on Physical Activity for Persons with Disabilities (PAPD) within the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM). Descriptive, quantitative statistics were used for data analysis. A Chi-squared (χ²) test was used to explore associations between dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: A total of 1882 surveys were completed. Among the respondents, 53.3% declared that their PA was reduced during the pandemic, 26.6% reported similar PA behavior, and 20.1% declared that their PA had increased during the pandemic. Lower PA behavior during the pandemic was associated with lower education levels, stricter pandemic constraints, obesity, and lower self-perceived functioning levels. A statistically significant association between poorer self-perceived mental health and decreased PA behaviors was also found. Respondents who were younger, self-perceived as unimpaired, not overweight, and whose income was not impacted by COVID-19 were associated with higher levels of reported physical and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The study results identify disparities experienced in PA behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic among Mexican women and highlights the need for social support for PA participation.

COVID-19 , Exercise , Health Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Female , Pandemics , Mexico , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged