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1.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 172, 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a rare hyperinflammatory condition that occurs following SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a paucity of research describing risk factors, optimal management, and outcomes of this life-threatening condition. METHODS: This is a case series of 26 patients diagnosed with MIS-C in a West Michigan pediatric tertiary care center from April 2020 to February 2021. We describe the clinical, imaging, and laboratory characteristics of these patients and detail their treatments and outcomes with comparisons between Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and non-PICU patients. Categorical testing utilized Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests. Comparison between groups used T-tests or Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (57%) required intensive care. There was no statistically significant difference in demographics between PICU and non-PICU patients, however all Black patients required intensive care. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 22 patients (84%). Seventeen patients (65%) had Kawasaki-like features and 12 (46%) developed coronary artery dilation. Patients requiring intensive care were less likely to have a reported history of COVID-19 disease or exposure (p = 0.0362). Statistically significant differences were also noted in peak ferritin (p = 0.0075), procalcitonin, and BNP in those who required intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: Although overlap exists with other hyperinflammatory conditions, our study provides further evidence that MIS-C is a distinct, albeit heterogenous, disorder with various degrees of cardiac involvement. Anakinra, in conjunction with steroid use, appears to be effective and safe in the treatment of MIS-C. This report identifies procalcitonin, peak ferritin, and BNP as potentially useful biomarkers for severity of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
2.
JAMA Surg ; 156(7): 620-626, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573991

ABSTRACT

Importance: While telehealth use in surgery has shown to be feasible, telehealth became a major modality of health care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To assess patterns of telehealth use across surgical specialties before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: Insurance claims from a Michigan statewide commercial payer for new patient visits with a surgeon from 1 of 9 surgical specialties during one of the following periods: prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (period 1: January 5 to March 7, 2020), early pandemic (period 2: March 8 to June 6, 2020), and late pandemic (period 3: June 7 to September 5, 2020). Exposures: Telehealth implementation owing to the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: (1) Conversion rate defined as the rate of weekly new patient telehealth visits divided by mean weekly number of total new patient visits in 2019. This outcome adjusts for a substantial decrease in outpatient care during the pandemic. (2) Weekly number of new patient telehealth visits divided by weekly number of total new patient visits. Results: Among 4405 surgeons in the cohort, 2588 (58.8%) performed telehealth in any patient care context. Specifically for new patient visits, 1182 surgeons (26.8%) used telehealth. A total of 109 610 surgical new outpatient visits were identified during the pandemic. The median (interquartile range) age of telehealth patients was 46.8 (34.1-58.4) years compared with 52.6 (38.3-62.3) years for patients who received care in-person. Prior to March 2020, less than 1% (8 of 173 939) of new patient visits were conducted through telehealth. Telehealth use peaked in April 2020 (week 14) and facilitated 34.6% (479 of 1383) of all new patient visits during that week. The telehealth conversion rate peaked in April 2020 (week 15) and was equal to 8.2% of the 2019 mean weekly new patient visit volume. During period 2, a mean (SD) of 16.6% (12.0%) of all new patient surgical visits were conducted via telehealth (conversion rate of 5.1% of 2019 mean weekly new patient visit volumes). During period 3, 3.0% (2168 of 71 819) of all new patient surgical visits were conducted via telehealth (conversion rate of 2.5% of 2019 new patient visit volumes). Mean (SD) telehealth conversion rates varied by specialty with urology being the highest (14.3% [7.7%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Results from this study showed that telehealth use grew across all surgical specialties in Michigan in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. While rates of telehealth use have declined as in-person care has resumed, telehealth use remains substantially higher across all surgical specialties than it was prior to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Specialties, Surgical , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Humans , Michigan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: African Americans and males have elevated risks of infection, hospitalization, and death from SARS-CoV-2 in comparison with other populations. We report immune responses and renal injury markers in African American male patients hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study of 56 COVID-19 infected hospitalized African American males 50+ years of age selected from among non-intensive care unit (ICU) and ICU status patients. Demographics, hospitalization-related variables, and medical history were collected from electronic medical records. Plasma samples collected close to admission (≤2 days) were evaluated for cytokines and renal markers; results were compared to a control group (n = 31) and related to COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Among COVID-19 patients, eight (14.2%) suffered in-hospital mortality; seven (23.3%) in the ICU and one (3.8%) among non-ICU patients. Interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-33 were elevated at admission in COVID-19 patients in comparison with controls. IL-6, IL-18, MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3, IL-33, GST, and osteopontin were upregulated at admission in ICU patients in comparison with controls. In addition to clinical factors, MCP-1 and GST may provide incremental value for risk prediction of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitatively similar inflammatory responses were observed in comparison to other populations reported in the literature, suggesting non-immunologic factors may account for outcome differences. Further, we provide initial evidence for cytokine and renal toxicity markers as prognostic factors for COVID-19 in-hospital mortality among African American males.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Hospitals , Kidney/immunology , African Americans , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kidney/injuries , Male , Michigan , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 52(11): 593-600, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown on the presentation and management of acute, primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a single-center, consecutive case series with historic controls, examining patients during the COVID-19 "stay-at-home" order (March 24 to June 1, 2020), the subsequent reopening phase (June 1 to July 31, 2020), and corresponding preceding intervals (March 24 to July 31, 2016 to 2019). RESULTS: Despite a significant increase in patients presenting with macula-off RRD during the COVID-19 lockdown compared to the 2016 to 2019 timeframe (P = .03), the rate of single surgery anatomical success was similar between all groups (P = .66), as was final visual acuity (P = .61). No delays between presentation and surgical intervention were observed during the lockdown (P = .49). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitations of the COVID-19 lockdown, patients underwent surgery in a timely manner and achieved comparable visual outcomes to controls before COVID-19. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2021;52:593-600.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinal Detachment , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Michigan , Retinal Detachment/diagnosis , Retinal Detachment/etiology , Retinal Detachment/surgery , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome , Vitrectomy
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27422, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462561

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to spread, easy-to-use risk models that predict hospital mortality can assist in clinical decision making and triage. We aimed to develop a risk score model for in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) that was robust across hospitals and used clinical factors that are readily available and measured standardly across hospitals.In this retrospective observational study, we developed a risk score model using data collected by trained abstractors for patients in 20 diverse hospitals across the state of Michigan (Mi-COVID19) who were discharged between March 5, 2020 and August 14, 2020. Patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 during hospitalization or were discharged with an ICD-10 code for COVID-19 (U07.1) were included. We employed an iterative forward selection approach to consider the inclusion of 145 potential risk factors available at hospital presentation. Model performance was externally validated with patients from 19 hospitals in the Mi-COVID19 registry not used in model development. We shared the model in an easy-to-use online application that allows the user to predict in-hospital mortality risk for a patient if they have any subset of the variables in the final model.Two thousand one hundred and ninety-three patients in the Mi-COVID19 registry met our inclusion criteria. The derivation and validation sets ultimately included 1690 and 398 patients, respectively, with mortality rates of 19.6% and 18.6%, respectively. The average age of participants in the study after exclusions was 64 years old, and the participants were 48% female, 49% Black, and 87% non-Hispanic. Our final model includes the patient's age, first recorded respiratory rate, first recorded pulse oximetry, highest creatinine level on day of presentation, and hospital's COVID-19 mortality rate. No other factors showed sufficient incremental model improvement to warrant inclusion. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the derivation and validation sets were .796 (95% confidence interval, .767-.826) and .829 (95% confidence interval, .782-.876) respectively.We conclude that the risk of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients can be reliably estimated using a few factors, which are standardly measured and available to physicians very early in a hospital encounter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Creatinine/blood , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Oximetry , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(10): 1637-1643, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456099

ABSTRACT

Addressing health inequities for racial and ethnic minority populations is challenging. After passage of the Affordable Care Act, Michigan launched its Healthy Michigan Plan, which expanded Medicaid eligibility in the state. Our evaluation of the expansion provided the opportunity to study its impact on racial and ethnic minority groups, including Arab American and Chaldean American enrollees, an understudied population. Using data from telephone surveys collected in 2016, 2017, and 2018, we conducted an analysis to study the plan's impact on access to a regular source of care and health status among racial and ethnic minority groups. More than 90 percent of respondents of all racial and ethnic groups reported having a regular source of care after plan enrollment compared with 74.4 percent before enrollment. Respondents who identified as non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic reported improvements in health status after plan enrollment. Our study demonstrates the potential of health insurance access to narrow health inequities between racial and ethnic groups.


Subject(s)
Medicaid , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status , Humans , Michigan , Minority Groups , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Self Report , United States
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 740367, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438443

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is the only way to reach herd immunity and help people return to normal life. However, vaccination rollouts may not be as fast as expected in some regions due to individuals' vaccination hesitation. For this reason, in Detroit, Michigan, the city government has offered a $50 prepaid card to people who entice city residents to visit vaccination sites. This study examined vaccination rates in the US using Detroit, Michigan, as the setting. It sought to address two issues. First, we analyzed the vaccination diffusion process to predict whether any region would reach a vaccination completion level that ensures herd immunity. Second, we examined a natural experiment involving a vaccination incentive scheme in Detroit and discovered its causal inference. We collected weekly vaccination data and demographic Census data from the state of Michigan and employed the Bass model to study vaccination diffusion. Also, we used a synthetic control method to evaluate the causal inference of a vaccination incentive scheme utilized in Detroit. The results showed that many Michigan counties-as well as the city of Detroit-would not reach herd immunity given the progress of vaccination efforts. Also, we found that Detroit's incentive scheme indeed increased the weekly vaccination rate by 44.19% for the first dose (from 0.86 to 1.25%) but was ineffective in augmenting the rate of the second dose. The implications are valuable for policy makers to implement vaccination incentive schemes to boost vaccination rates in geographical areas where such rates remain inadequate for achieving herd immunity.


Subject(s)
Motivation , Vaccination , Cities , Diffusion , Humans , Michigan
10.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435063

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Use of non-invasive respiratory modalities in COVID-19 has the potential to reduce rates of intubation and mortality in severe disease however data regarding the use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in this population is limited. OBJECTIVE: To interrogate clinical and laboratory features of SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with high-flow failure. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate characteristics of high-flow therapy use early in the pandemic and interrogate factors associated with respiratory therapy failure. SETTING: Multisite single centre hospital system within the metropolitan Detroit region. PARTICIPANTS: Patients from within the Detroit Medical Center (n=104, 89% African American) who received HFNC therapy during a COVID-19 admission between March and May of 2020. PRIMARY OUTCOME: HFNC failure is defined as death or intubation while on therapy. RESULTS: Therapy failure occurred in 57% of the patient population, factors significantly associated with failure centred around markers of multiorgan failure including hepatic dysfunction/transaminitis (OR=6.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 19.4, p<0.01), kidney injury (OR=7.0, 95% CI 2.7 to 17.8, p<0.01) and coagulation dysfunction (OR=4.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 17.1, p=0.03). Conversely, comorbidities, admission characteristics, early oxygen requirements and evaluation just prior to HFNC therapy initiation were not significantly associated with success or failure of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In a population disproportionately affected by COVID-19, we present key indicators of likely HFNC failure and highlight a patient population in which aggressive monitoring and intervention are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency , African Americans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Cannula , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Retrospective Studies
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e27265, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434547

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: During the spring 2020 COVID-19 surge, hospitals in Southeast Michigan were overwhelmed, and hospital beds were limited. However, it is unknown whether threshold for hospital admission varied across hospitals or over time.Using a statewide registry, we performed a retrospective cohort study. We identified adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Southeast Michigan (3/1/2020-6/1/2020). We classified disease severity on admission using the World Health Organization (WHO) ordinal scale. Our primary measure of interest was the proportion of patients admitted on room air. We also determined the proportion without acute organ dysfunction on admission or any point during hospitalization. We quantified variation across hospitals and over time by half-month epochs.Among 1315 hospitalizations across 22 hospitals, 57.3% (754/1,315) were admitted on room air, and 26.1% (343/1,315) remained on room air for the duration of hospitalization. Across hospitals, the proportion of COVID-19 hospitalizations admitted on room air varied from 32.3% to 80.0%. Across half-month epochs, the proportion ranged from 49.4% to 69.4% and nadired in early April 2020. Among patients admitted on room air, 75.1% (566/754) had no acute organ dysfunction on admission, and 35.3% (266/754) never developed acute organ dysfunction at any point during hospitalization; there was marked variation in both proportions across hospitals. In-hospital mortality was 13.7% for patients admitted on room air vs 26.3% for patients requiring nasal cannula oxygen.Among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during the spring 2020 surge in Southeast Michigan, more than half were on room air and a third had no acute organ dysfunction upon admission, but experienced high rates of disease progression and in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
14.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(11): 3635-3658, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406167

ABSTRACT

AIM: To report revolutionary reorganization of academic gastroenterology division from COVID-19 pandemic surge at metropolitan Detroit epicenter from 0 infected patients on March 9, 2020, to > 300 infected patients in hospital census in April 2020 and > 200 infected patients in April 2021. SETTING: GI Division, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, has 36 GI clinical faculty; performs > 23,000 endoscopies annually; fully accredited GI fellowship since 1973; employs > 400 house staff annually since 1995; tertiary academic hospital; predominantly voluntary attendings; and primary teaching hospital, Oakland-University-Medical-School. METHODS: This was a prospective study. Expert opinion. Personal experience includes Hospital GI chief > 14 years until 2020; GI fellowship program director, several hospitals > 20 years; author of > 300 publications in peer-reviewed GI journals; committee-member, Food-and-Drug-Administration-GI-Advisory Committee > 5 years; and key hospital/medical school committee memberships. Computerized PubMed literature review was performed on hospital changes and pandemic. Study was exempted/approved by Hospital IRB, April 14, 2020. RESULTS: Division reorganized patient care to add clinical capacity and minimize risks to staff of contracting COVID-19 infection. Affiliated medical school changes included: changing "live" to virtual lectures; canceling medical student GI electives; exempting medical students from treating COVID-19-infected patients; and graduating medical students on time despite partly missing clinical electives. Division was reorganized by changing "live" GI lectures to virtual lectures; four GI fellows temporarily reassigned as medical attendings supervising COVID-19-infected patients; temporarily mandated intubation of COVID-19-infected patients for esophagogastroduodenoscopy; postponing elective GI endoscopies; and reducing average number of endoscopies from 100 to 4 per weekday during pandemic peak! GI clinic visits reduced by half (postponing non-urgent visits), and physical visits replaced by virtual visits. Economic pandemic impact included temporary, hospital deficit subsequently relieved by federal grants; hospital employee terminations/furloughs; and severe temporary decline in GI practitioner's income during surge. Hospital temporarily enhanced security and gradually ameliorated facemask shortage. GI program director contacted GI fellows twice weekly to ameliorate pandemic-induced stress. Divisional parties held virtually. GI fellowship applicants interviewed virtually. Graduate medical education changes included weekly committee meetings to monitor pandemic-induced changes; program managers working from home; canceling ACGME annual fellowship survey, changing ACGME physical to virtual site visits; and changing national conventions from physical to virtual. CONCLUSION: Reports profound and pervasive GI divisional changes to maximize clinical resources devoted to COVID-19-infected patients and minimize risks of transmitting infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Economics, Hospital/organization & administration , Gastroenterology/education , Hospital Administration/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Cities/economics , Cities/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Graduate/organization & administration , Gastroenterology/economics , Hospital Administration/economics , Humans , Internship and Residency , Michigan/epidemiology , Organizational Affiliation/economics , Organizational Affiliation/organization & administration , Prospective Studies , Schools, Medical/organization & administration
15.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(5): 400-402, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394713

ABSTRACT

Background: On January 20, 2020, the first documented case of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) was reported in the United States. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention continues to report more morbidity and mortality in adults than in children. Early in Pandemic, there was a concern that patients with asthma would be affected disproportionately from COVID-19, but this was not manifested. It is now recognized that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors that are used by the coronavirus for infection have low expression in children with atopy that may contribute to decreased infectivity in children who are atopic. There are several early reports of decreased emergency department (ED) visits for children with asthma. The authors previously reported a decrease in pediatric ED visits in the spring of 2020, which correlated with school closure. Objective: To determine if this trend of decreased ED visits for pediatric asthma was sustained throughout the first COVID-19 pandemic year. Methods: ED data from one inner city children's hospital were collected by using standard medical claims codes. Conclusion: We reported a sustained year of decreased ED visits for children with asthma in one pediatric ED in an inner-city hospital; this seemed to be secondary to school closure and decreased exposure to upper respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Progression , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan , Physical Distancing , Schools , Urban Health
17.
J Forensic Nurs ; 17(2): 93-97, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371766

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite a global focus on intimate partner violence during the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been little exploration into how the pandemic and its associated restrictions have impacted sexual assault survivors and their ability to access specialized care and resources. The purpose of this research brief is to use longitudinal data to compare the number of medical forensic examinations done seasonally prepandemic and during the COVID-19 pandemic shelter-in-place order. METHODS: This analysis uses retrospective data on medical forensic examinations from January 2010 through November 2020 from one large academic Midwestern hospital. RESULTS: Results show that monthly medical forensic examinations have increased over time, from a mean of 4.5 cases per month (range: 1-9) in 2010 to a mean of 9 cases per month (range: 7-11) in 2019. In April 2020, when COVID-19-related shutdowns were at their first peak, cases dropped to a historic low of 0 examinations (the lowest number of cases in the past 10 years). CONCLUSIONS: The data show an initial drop in the number of survivors seeking postassault care after the COVID shutdown; however, cases rebounded through the second full month of shutdown orders. Programs that provide medical forensic examinations need to be prepared for subsequent waves of survivors, who may be COVID-19 positive. We must be better prepared for many of the adverse consequences impacting individuals around the country related to COVID-19 responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Crime Victims , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Physical Examination/trends , Sex Offenses , Survivors , Humans , Michigan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Hypertens Pregnancy ; 40(3): 226-235, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371660

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate of COVID-19 disease in pregnant women and its association with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.Design: Retrospective Cohort StudySetting: Multicenter study from a large metropolitan hospital systemMethods: Patients who tested positive for COVID-19 during their pregnancy and delivered were compared to the three subsequent deliveries of patients who tested negative (controls). We evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.Results: Compared with pregnancies negative for SARs-CoV-2 infection, maternal SARs-CoV-2 infection was associated with an increased risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (OR 3.68, 95% CI 1.67 - 8.10).Tweetable AbstractPatients who test positive for COVID-19 during their pregnancy are at increased risk of developing a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Earlier SARs-CoV-2 infection results in an increased risk of developing a hypertensive disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Michigan/epidemiology , Multivariate Analysis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(6): 476-481, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Examine the effect of a universal facemask policy for healthcare workers (HCW) and incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity. METHODS: Daily number of symptomatic HCW tested, SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates, and HCW job-descriptions were collected pre and post Universal HCW facemask policy (March 26, 2020). Multiple change point regression was used to model positive-test-rate data. SARS-CoV-2 testing and positivity rates were compared for pre-intervention, transition, post-intervention, and follow-up periods. RESULTS: Between March 12 and August 10, 2020, 19.2% of HCW were symptomatic for COVID-19 and underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing. A single change point was identified ∼March 28-30 (95% probability). Before the change point, the odds of a tested HCW having a positive result doubled every 4.5 to 7.5 days. Post-change-point, the odds of a tested HCW having a positive result halved every 10.5 to 13.5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Universal facemasks were associated with reducing HCW's risk of acquiring COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Masks , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel/classification , Humans , Michigan/epidemiology
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2120728, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366205

ABSTRACT

Importance: Emergency department (ED) and emergency medical services (EMS) volumes decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the amount attributable to voluntary refusal vs effects of the pandemic and public health restrictions is unknown. Objective: To examine the factors associated with EMS refusal in relation to COVID-19 cases, public health interventions, EMS responses, and prehospital deaths. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Detroit, Michigan, from March 1 to June 30, 2020. Emergency medical services responses geocoded to Census tracts were analyzed by individuals' age, sex, date, and community resilience using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Social Vulnerability Index. Response counts were adjusted with Poisson regression, and odds of refusals and deaths were adjusted by logistic regression. Exposures: A COVID-19 outbreak characterized by a peak in local COVID-19 incidence and the strictest stay-at-home orders to date, followed by a nadir in incidence and broadly lifted restrictions. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable-adjusted difference in 2020 vs 2019 responses by incidence rate and refusals or deaths by odds. The Social Vulnerability Index was used to capture community social determinants of health as a risk factor for death or refusal. The index contains 4 domain subscores; possible overall score is 0 to 15, with higher scores indicating greater vulnerability. Results: A total of 80 487 EMS responses with intended ED transport, 2059 prehospital deaths, and 16 064 refusals (62 636 completed EMS to ED transports) from 334 Census tracts were noted during the study period. Of the cohort analyzed, 38 621 were women (48%); mean (SD) age was 49.0 (21.4) years, and mean (SD) Social Vulnerability Index score was 9.6 (1.6). Tracts with the highest per-population EMS transport refusal rates were characterized by higher unemployment, minority race/ethnicity, single-parent households, poverty, disability, lack of vehicle access, and overall Social Vulnerability Index score (9.6 vs 9.0, P = .002). At peak COVID-19 incidence and maximal stay-at-home orders, there were higher total responses (adjusted incident rate ratio [aIRR], 1.07; 1.03-1.12), odds of deaths (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.60; 95% CI, 1.20-2.12), and refusals (aOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 2.09-2.60) but fewer completed ED transports (aIRR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78-0.86). With public health restrictions lifted and the nadir of COVID-19 cases, responses (aIRR, 1.01; 0.97-1.05) and deaths (aOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.81-1.41) returned to 2019 baselines, but differences in refusals (aOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.14-1.41) and completed transports (aIRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99) remained. Multivariable-adjusted 2020 refusal was associated with female sex (aOR, 2.71; 95% CI, 2.43-3.03 in 2020 at the peak; aOR 1.47; 95% CI, 1.32-1.64 at the nadir). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, EMS transport refusals increased with the COVID-19 outbreak's peak and remained elevated despite receding public health restrictions, COVID-19 incidence, total EMS responses, and prehospital deaths. Voluntary refusal was associated with decreased EMS transports to EDs, disproportionately so among women and vulnerable communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Transportation of Patients/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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