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1.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 202: 111636, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665255

ABSTRACT

The stratification of mortality risk in COVID-19 patients remains extremely challenging for physicians, especially in older patients. Innovative minimally invasive molecular biomarkers are needed to improve the prediction of mortality risk and better customize patient management. In this study, aimed at identifying circulating miRNAs associated with the risk of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality, we analyzed serum samples of 12 COVID-19 patients by small RNA-seq and validated the findings in an independent cohort of 116 COVID-19 patients by qRT-PCR. Thirty-four significantly deregulated miRNAs, 25 downregulated and 9 upregulated in deceased COVID-19 patients compared to survivors, were identified in the discovery cohort. Based on the highest fold-changes and on the highest expression levels, 5 of these 34 miRNAs were selected for the analysis in the validation cohort. MiR-320b and miR-483-5p were confirmed to be significantly hyper-expressed in deceased patients compared to survived ones. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models, adjusted for relevant confounders, confirmed that patients with the 20% highest miR-320b and miR-483-5p serum levels had three-fold increased risk to die during in-hospital stay for COVID-19. In conclusion, high levels of circulating miR-320b and miR-483-5p can be useful as minimally invasive biomarkers to stratify older COVID-19 patients with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Circulating MicroRNA/blood , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , MicroRNAs/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Circulating MicroRNA/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , RNA-Seq , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Up-Regulation
2.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572377

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused millions of deaths worldwide. Early risk assessment of COVID-19 cases can help direct early treatment measures that have been shown to improve the prognosis of severe cases. Currently, circulating miRNAs have not been evaluated as canonical COVID-19 biomarkers, and identifying biomarkers that have a causal relationship with COVID-19 is imperative. To bridge these gaps, we aim to examine the causal effects of miRNAs on COVID-19 severity in this study using two-sample Mendelian randomization approaches. Multiple studies with available GWAS summary statistics data were retrieved. Using circulating miRNA expression data as exposure, and severe COVID-19 cases as outcomes, we identified ten unique miRNAs that showed causality across three phenotype groups of COVID-19. Using expression data from an independent study, we validated and identified two high-confidence miRNAs, namely, hsa-miR-30a-3p and hsa-miR-139-5p, which have putative causal effects on developing cases of severe COVID-19. Using existing literature and publicly available databases, the potential causative roles of these miRNAs were investigated. This study provides a novel way of utilizing miRNA eQTL data to help us identify potential miRNA biomarkers to make better and early diagnoses and risk assessments of severe COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Circulating MicroRNA/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Circulating MicroRNA/blood , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , MicroRNAs/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
3.
Virol J ; 18(1): 244, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a huge challenge worldwide. Although previous studies have suggested that type I interferon (IFN-I) could inhibit the virus replication, the expression characteristics of IFN-I signaling-related miRNAs (ISR-miRNAs) during acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and its relationship with receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG antibody response at the recovery phase remain unclear. METHODS: Expression profiles of 12 plasma ISR-miRNAs in COVID-19 patients and healthy controls were analyzed using RT-qPCR. The level of RBD-IgG antibody was determined using the competitive ELISA. Spearman correlation was done to measure the associations of plasma ISR-miRNAs with clinical characteristics during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and RBD-IgG antibody response at the recovery phase. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy controls, COVID-19 patients exhibited higher levels of miR-29b-3p (Z = 3.15, P = 0.002) and miR-1246 (Z = 4.98, P < 0.001). However, the expression of miR-186-5p and miR-15a-5p were significantly decreased. As the results shown, miR-30b-5p was negatively correlated with CD4 + T cell counts (r = - 0.41, P = 0.027) and marginally positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose in COVID-19 patients (r = 0.37, P = 0.052). The competitive ELISA analysis showed the plasma level of miR-497-5p at the acute phase was positively correlated with RBD-IgG antibody response (r = 0.48, P = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Our present results suggested that the expression level of ISR-miRNAs was not only associated with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection but also with RBD-IgG antibody response at the recovery phase of COVID-19. Future studies should be performed to explore the biological significance of ISR-miRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interferon Type I/genetics , MicroRNAs , Virus Replication/genetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Interferon Type I/blood , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512136

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is still a major global health problem, despite the development of several vaccines and diagnostic assays. Moreover, the broad symptoms, from none to severe pneumonia, and the various responses to vaccines and the assays, make infection control challenging. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop non-invasive biomarkers to quickly determine the infection severity. Circulating RNAs have been proven to be potential biomarkers for a variety of diseases, including infectious ones. This study aimed to develop a genetic network related to cytokines, with clinical validation for early infection severity prediction. (2) Methods: Extensive analyses of in silico data have established a novel IL11RA molecular network (IL11RNA mRNA, LncRNAs RP11-773H22.4 and hsa-miR-4257). We used different databases to confirm its validity. The differential expression within the retrieved network was clinically validated using quantitative RT-PCR, along with routine assessment diagnostic markers (CRP, LDH, D-dimmer, procalcitonin, Ferritin), in100 infected subjects (mild and severe cases) and 100 healthy volunteers. (3) Results: IL11RNA mRNA and LncRNA RP11-773H22.4, and the IL11RA protein, were significantly upregulated, and there was concomitant downregulation of hsa-miR-4257, in infected patients, compared to the healthy controls, in concordance with the infection severity. (4) Conclusion: The in-silico data and clinical validation led to the identification of a potential RNA/protein signature network for novel predictive biomarkers, which is in agreement with ferritin and procalcitonin for determination of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Gene Regulatory Networks , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Computational Biology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-11 Receptor alpha Subunit/blood , Interleukin-11 Receptor alpha Subunit/genetics , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , RNA, Long Noncoding/blood , RNA, Messenger/blood , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Cardiovasc Res ; 118(2): 461-474, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510904

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to multiorgan damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in blood reflect cell activation and tissue injury. We aimed to determine the association of circulating miRNAs with COVID-19 severity and 28 day intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed RNA-Seq in plasma of healthy controls (n = 11), non-severe (n = 18), and severe (n = 18) COVID-19 patients and selected 14 miRNAs according to cell- and tissue origin for measurement by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in a separate cohort of mild (n = 6), moderate (n = 39), and severe (n = 16) patients. Candidates were then measured by RT-qPCR in longitudinal samples of ICU COVID-19 patients (n = 240 samples from n = 65 patients). A total of 60 miRNAs, including platelet-, endothelial-, hepatocyte-, and cardiomyocyte-derived miRNAs, were differentially expressed depending on severity, with increased miR-133a and reduced miR-122 also being associated with 28 day mortality. We leveraged mass spectrometry-based proteomics data for corresponding protein trajectories. Myocyte-derived (myomiR) miR-133a was inversely associated with neutrophil counts and positively with proteins related to neutrophil degranulation, such as myeloperoxidase. In contrast, levels of hepatocyte-derived miR-122 correlated to liver parameters and to liver-derived positive (inverse association) and negative acute phase proteins (positive association). Finally, we compared miRNAs to established markers of COVID-19 severity and outcome, i.e. SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia, age, BMI, D-dimer, and troponin. Whilst RNAemia, age and troponin were better predictors of mortality, miR-133a and miR-122 showed superior classification performance for severity. In binary and triplet combinations, miRNAs improved classification performance of established markers for severity and mortality. CONCLUSION: Circulating miRNAs of different tissue origin, including several known cardiometabolic biomarkers, rise with COVID-19 severity. MyomiR miR-133a and liver-derived miR-122 also relate to 28 day mortality. MiR-133a reflects inflammation-induced myocyte damage, whilst miR-122 reflects the hepatic acute phase response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , MicroRNAs/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity
6.
Pathology ; 54(1): 104-110, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500188

ABSTRACT

Identification of human miRNAs involved in coronavirus-host interplay is important due to the current COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study aimed to measure the circulating plasma miR-155 expression level in COVID-19 patients and healthy controls to investigate its roles in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19 disease and to assess its usefulness as a clinical biomarker for the detection of COVID-19 disease and the severity of infection. A total of 150 COVID-19 patients and 50 controls were enrolled into our study. Beside the routine laboratory work and chest computed tomography (CT) scans of COVID-19 patients, plasma miR-155 expression level was measured using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) technique. Our results demonstrated increased miR-155 expression level in COVID-19 patients compared to controls, in severe compared to moderate COVID-19 patients, and in non-survival compared to survival COVID-19 patients. miR-155 expression level also had significant correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of COVID-19 patients such as chest CT findings, CRP, ferritin, mortality, D-dimer, WBC count, and lymphocytes and neutrophils percentages. Also, our results showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for miR-155 was 0.986 with 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity when used as a biomarker for the detection of COVID-19 disease; while in detection of severity of COVID-19 disease, AUC for miR-155 was 0.75 with 76% sensitivity and specificity. From these results we can conclude that miR-155 has a crucial role in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19; also, it could be a good diagnostic clinical biomarker for the detection of COVID-19 disease and the severity of infection.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , MicroRNAs/blood , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 46(1): 238-241, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461984

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, with studies demonstrating the prevalence of individuals with obesity admitted with COVID-19 ranging between 30 and 60%. We determined whether early changes in microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with dysregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the specific functional receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. ACE2 is a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7 the latter having cardioprotective and vasorelaxation effects. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of plasma samples for circulating miRNAs showed upregulation of miR-200c and miR-let-7b in otherwise healthy individuals with obesity. This was associated with significant downregulation of ACE2, a direct target for both miRNAs, in individuals with obesity. Correlation analysis confirmed a significant negative correlation between ACE2 and both the miRNAs. Studies showed that despite being the functional receptor, inhibition/downregulation of ACE2 did not reduce the severity of COVID-19 infection. In contrast, increased angiotensin II following inhibition of ACE2 may increase the severity of the disease. Taken together, our novel results identify that upregulation of miR-200c may increase the susceptibility of individuals with obesity to COVID-19. Considering miRNA are the earliest molecular regulators, the level of circulating miR-200c could be a potential biomarker in the early identification of those at the risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Disease Susceptibility , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , MicroRNAs/blood , Obesity/complications , Risk Factors , Up-Regulation
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438630

ABSTRACT

A high incidence of thromboembolic events associated with high mortality has been reported in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections with respiratory failure. The present study characterized post-transcriptional gene regulation by global microRNA (miRNA) expression in relation to activated coagulation and inflammation in 21 critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients. The cohort consisted of patients with moderate respiratory failure (n = 11) and severe respiratory failure (n = 10) at an acute stage (day 0-3) and in the later course of the disease (>7 days). All patients needed supplemental oxygen and severe patients were defined by the requirement of positive pressure ventilation (intubation). Levels of D-dimers, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 were significantly higher in patients with severe compared with moderate respiratory failure. Concurrently, next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis demonstrated increased dysregulation of miRNA expression with progression of disease severity connected to extreme downregulation of miR-320a, miR-320b and miR-320c. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed involvement in the Hippo signaling pathway, the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß signaling pathway and in the regulation of adherens junctions. The expression of all miR-320 family members was significantly correlated with CRP, IL-6, and D-dimer levels. In conclusion, our analysis underlines the importance of thromboembolic processes in patients with respiratory failure and emphasizes miRNA-320s as potential biomarkers for severe progressive SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/genetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Disease Progression , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/genetics , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
9.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(8): e23871, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To verify the differential expression of miR-30c and miR-142-3p between tuberculosis patients and healthy controls and to investigate the performance of microRNA (miRNA) and subsequently models for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: We followed up 460 subjects suspected of TB, and finally enrolled 132 patients, including 60 TB patients, 24 non-TB disease controls (TB-DCs), and 48 healthy controls (HCs). The differential expression of miR-30c and miR-142-3p in serum samples of the TB patients, TB-DCs, and HCs were identified by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR. Diagnostic models were developed by analyzing the characteristics of miRNA and electronic health records (EHRs). These models evaluated by the area under the curves (AUC) and calibration curves were presented as nomograms. RESULTS: There were differential expression of miR-30c and miR-142-3p between TB patients and HCs (p < 0.05). Individual miRNA has a limited diagnostic value for TB. However, diagnostic performance has been both significantly improved when we integrated miR-142-3p and ordinary EHRs to develop two models for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The AUC of the model for distinguishing tuberculosis patients from healthy controls has increased from 0.75 (95% CI: 0.66-0.84) to 0.96 (95% CI: 0.92-0.99) and the model for distinguishing tuberculosis patients from non-TB disease controls has increased from 0.67 (95% CI: 0.55-0.79) to 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Integrating serum miR-142-3p and EHRs is a good strategy for improving TB diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Electronic Health Records , MicroRNAs/blood , Nomograms , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve
10.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355047

ABSTRACT

Cleavage of double-stranded RNA is described as an evolutionary conserved host defense mechanism against viral infection. Small RNAs are the product and triggers of post transcriptional gene silencing events. Up until now, the relevance of this mechanism for SARS-CoV-2-directed immune responses remains elusive. Herein, we used high throughput sequencing to profile the plasma of active and convalescent COVID-19 patients for the presence of small circulating RNAs. The existence of SARS-CoV-2 derived small RNAs in plasma samples of mild and severe COVID-19 cases is described. Clusters of high siRNA abundance were discovered, homologous to the nsp2 3'-end and nsp4 virus sequence. Four virus-derived small RNA sequences have the size of human miRNAs, and a target search revealed candidate genes associated with ageusia and long COVID symptoms. These virus-derived small RNAs were detectable also after recovery from the disease. The additional analysis of circulating human miRNAs revealed differentially abundant miRNAs, discriminating mild from severe cases. A total of 29 miRNAs were reduced or absent in severe cases. Several of these are associated with JAK-STAT response and cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/blood , MicroRNAs/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Female , Genome, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 300, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351933

ABSTRACT

Elderly people and patients with comorbidities are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection, resulting in severe complications and high mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we investigate whether miRNAs in serum exosomes can exert antiviral functions and affect the response to COVID-19 in the elderly and people with diabetes. First, we identified four miRNAs (miR-7-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-145-5p and miR-223-3p) through high-throughput sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis, that are remarkably decreased in the elderly and diabetic groups. We further demonstrated that these miRNAs, either in the exosome or in the free form, can directly inhibit S protein expression and SARS-CoV-2 replication. Serum exosomes from young people can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and S protein expression, while the inhibitory effect is markedly decreased in the elderly and diabetic patients. Moreover, three out of the four circulating miRNAs are significantly increased in the serum of healthy volunteers after 8-weeks' continuous physical exercise. Serum exosomes isolated from these volunteers also showed stronger inhibitory effects on S protein expression and SARS-CoV-2 replication. Our study demonstrates for the first time that circulating exosomal miRNAs can directly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and may provide a possible explanation for the difference in response to COVID-19 between young people and the elderly or people with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , China , Circulating MicroRNA/blood , Circulating MicroRNA/genetics , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Exercise , Exosomes/genetics , Exosomes/metabolism , Exosomes/virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Virus Replication
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009759, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329138

ABSTRACT

The host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection provide insights into both viral pathogenesis and patient management. The host-encoded microRNA (miRNA) response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, remains poorly defined. Here we profiled circulating miRNAs from ten COVID-19 patients sampled longitudinally and ten age and gender matched healthy donors. We observed 55 miRNAs that were altered in COVID-19 patients during early-stage disease, with the inflammatory miR-31-5p the most strongly upregulated. Supervised machine learning analysis revealed that a three-miRNA signature (miR-423-5p, miR-23a-3p and miR-195-5p) independently classified COVID-19 cases with an accuracy of 99.9%. In a ferret COVID-19 model, the three-miRNA signature again detected SARS-CoV-2 infection with 99.7% accuracy, and distinguished SARS-CoV-2 infection from influenza A (H1N1) infection and healthy controls with 95% accuracy. Distinct miRNA profiles were also observed in COVID-19 patients requiring oxygenation. This study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a robust host miRNA response that could improve COVID-19 detection and patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ferrets , Gene Expression , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Longitudinal Studies , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Pandemics , Supervised Machine Learning
13.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314589

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs are gene expression regulators associated with several human pathologies, including those generated by viral infections. Their role in SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 has been investigated and reviewed in many informative studies; however, a thorough miRNA outline in SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant women (SIPW), at both systemic and placental levels, is missing. To fill this gap, blood and placenta biopsies collected at delivery from 15 asymptomatic SIPW were immediately analysed for: miRNA expression (n = 84) (QPCR array), antiviral/immune mRNA target expression (n = 74) (QGene) and cytokine/chemokines production (n = 27) (Multiplex ELISA). By comparing these results with those obtained from six uninfected pregnant women (UPW), we observed that, following SARS-CoV-2 infection, the transcriptomic profile of pregnant women is significantly altered in different anatomical districts, even in the absence of clinical symptoms and vertical transmission. This characteristic combination of miRNA and antiviral/immune factors seems to control both the infection and the dysfunctional immune reaction, thus representing a positive correlate of protection and a potential therapeutic target against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , MicroRNAs/analysis , MicroRNAs/blood , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transcriptome , Young Adult
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 685344, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295638

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is the best prophylaxis for the prevention of infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019. However, the efficacy of vaccines and onset of adverse reactions vary among individuals. Circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) regulate the immune responses after vaccination by delivering microRNAs (miRNAs) to myeloid and lymphoid cells. Among these, miR-192 levels in serum EVs increase with aging, in an IL-6-dependent manner, reducing excessive IL-6 expression in aged mice, creating a negative feedback loop. Excessive IL-6 expression reduces vaccination efficacy in aged mice, while EV miR-192 improves efficacy in these aged mice as well, making this miRNA an interesting focus of study. miR-21 levels in serum EVs also increase with aging, and regulates the expression of IL-12 required for Th1 responses; therefore, EV miR-21 is expected to regulate vaccine efficacy. miR-451a, another important miRNA, is abundant in serum EVs and controls the expression of cytokines, such as type I interferon and IL-6. However, levels differ among individuals and correlate with local inflammatory symptoms experienced after a seasonal flu vaccination. These findings suggest the importance of EV miRNAs as a tool to improve vaccine efficacy and also as biomarkers to predict the immune response and adverse reactions after vaccinations.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , MicroRNAs/blood , Aging/blood , Aging/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , Interleukin-12 Subunit p35/biosynthesis , Interleukin-12 Subunit p35/immunology , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Vaccination
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 15691-15693, 2021 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285615
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234744

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was associated with multiple organ failure and comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Risk factors, such as age, gender, and obesity, were associated with COVID-19 infection. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is known to use several host receptors for viral entry, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) in the lung and other organs. However, ACE2 could be shed from the surface to be soluble ACE2 (sACE2) in the circulation. The epigenetic factors affecting ACE2 expression include a type of small non-coding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we aimed at exploring the status of the sACE2 as well as serum levels of several upstream novel miRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers that might have a potential role in T2DM patients. Serum samples were collected from 50 T2DM patients and 50 healthy controls, and sACE2 levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, RNA was extracted, and TaqMan miRNA reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to measure serum miRNA levels. Our results revealed that sACE2 is decreased in the T2DM patients and is affected by age, gender, and obesity level. Additionally, 4 miRNAs, which are revealed by in silico analysis to be potentially upstream of ACE2 were detectable in the serum. Among them, miR-421 level was found to be decreased in the serum of diabetic patients, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetic complications, as well as being differential in various body mass index (BMI) groups. The other 3 miRNAs (miR-3909, miR-212-5p, and miR-4677-3p) showed associations with multiple factors including age, gender, BMI, and serum markers, in addition to being correlated to each other. In conclusion, our study reveals a decline in the circulating serum levels of sACE2 in T2DM patients and identified 4 novel miRNAs that were associated with T2DM, which are influenced by different clinical and demographic factors.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , MicroRNAs/blood , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Complications/genetics , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Down-Regulation , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/genetics
17.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 6635925, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175215

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was initially identified in China and currently worldwide dispersed, resulting in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Notably, COVID-19 is characterized by systemic inflammation. However, the potential mechanisms of the "cytokine storm" of COVID-19 are still limited. In this study, fourteen peripheral blood samples from COVID-19 patients (n = 10) and healthy donors (n = 4) were collected to perform the whole-transcriptome sequencing. Lung tissues of COVID-19 patients (70%) presenting with ground-glass opacity. Also, the leukocytes and lymphocytes were significantly decreased in COVID-19 compared with the control group (p < 0.05). In total, 25,482 differentially expressed messenger RNAs (DE mRNA), 23 differentially expressed microRNAs (DE miRNA), and 410 differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (DE lncRNAs) were identified in the COVID-19 samples compared to the healthy controls. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that the upregulated DE mRNAs were mainly involved in antigen processing and presentation of endogenous antigen, positive regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity, and positive regulation of gamma-delta T cell activation. The downregulated DE mRNAs were mainly concentrated in the glycogen biosynthetic process. We also established the protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of up/downregulated DE mRNAs and identified 4 modules. Functional enrichment analyses indicated that these module targets were associated with positive regulation of cytokine production, cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, leukocyte differentiation, and migration. A total of 6 hub genes were selected in the PPI module networks including AKT1, TNFRSF1B, FCGR2A, CXCL8, STAT3, and TLR2. Moreover, a competing endogenous RNA network showed the interactions between lncRNAs, mRNAs, and miRNAs. Our results highlight the potential pathogenesis of excessive cytokine production such as MSTRG.119845.30/hsa-miR-20a-5p/TNFRSF1B, MSTRG.119845.30/hsa-miR-29b-2-5p/FCGR2A, and MSTRG.106112.2/hsa-miR-6501-5p/STAT3 axis, which may also play an important role in the development of ground-glass opacity in COVID-19 patients. This study gives new insights into inflammation regulatory mechanisms of coding and noncoding RNAs in COVID-19, which may provide novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic avenues for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , RNA/blood , RNA/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytokines/genetics , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , MicroRNAs/genetics , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/blood , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Messenger/blood , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Signal Transduction , Whole Exome Sequencing , Young Adult
18.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(1): 65-73, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of cytokine storm in the immunopathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been implicated. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of microRNA (miRNA)-10b and serum levels of IL-2 and IL-8 in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 33 COVID-19 patients and 29 healthy subjects. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, the transcript level of miR-10b was determined by Real-time PCR. In addition, the serum levels of IL-2 and IL-8 were measured in subjects using ELISA. RESULTS: The patient group comprised of 33 patients with COVID-19 (62.4 ± 3.7 years old), 13 (39%) males and 20 (61%) females. In the control group, 29 subjects (56.6 ± 1.6 years old), 9 (31%) males and 20 (69%) females, were included. The expression of miR-10b was significantly downregulated in the peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients in comparison to the healthy controls (fold change= 0.12, P< 0.0001). The levels of IL-2 (P< 0.001) and IL-8 (P< 0.001) were significantly increased in the serum samples of COVID-19 patients compared to the healthy subjects. The expression level of miR-10b was correlated significantly with the serum levels of IL-2 and IL-8 as well as with the age of patients, ESR and CRP levels. CONCLUSIONS: miR-10b is downregulated in the COVID-19 patients and might result in increased levels of IL-2 and IL-8, hence contributing to cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Circulating MicroRNA/blood , Interleukin-2/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , MicroRNAs/blood , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Circulating MicroRNA/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
20.
RNA Biol ; 18(5): 688-695, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061120

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 emergency pandemic resulting from infection with SARS-CoV-2 represents a major threat to public health worldwide. There is an urgent clinical demand for easily accessible tools to address weaknesses and gaps in the management of COVID-19 patients. In this context, transcriptomic profiling of liquid biopsies, especially microRNAs (miRNAs), has recently emerged as a robust source of potential clinical indicators for medical decision-making. Nevertheless, the analysis of the circulating miRNA signature and its translation to clinical practice requires strict control of a wide array of methodological details. In this review, we indicate the main methodological aspects that should be addressed when evaluating the circulating miRNA profiles in COVID-19 patients, from preanalytical and analytical variables to the experimental design, impact of confounding, analysis of the data and interpretation of the findings, among others. Additionally, we provide practice points to ensure the rigour and reproducibility of miRNA-based biomarker investigations of this condition.Abbreviations: ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019; ERDN: early Detection Research Network; LMWH: low molecular weight heparin; miRNA: microRNA; ncRNA: noncoding RNA; SARS-CoV-2: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2; SOP: standard operating procedure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , MicroRNAs/blood , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression Profiling/standards , Genetic Markers , Humans , Liquid Biopsy/methods , Liquid Biopsy/standards , MicroRNAs/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Virus Inactivation
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