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1.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667057

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still ongoing, as is research on the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular infection by coronaviruses, with the hope of developing therapeutic agents against this pandemic. Other important respiratory viruses such as 2009 pandemic H1N1 and H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV), influenza A viruses, are also responsible for a possible outbreak due to their respiratory susceptibility. However, the interaction of these viruses with host cells and the regulation of post-transcriptional genes remains unclear. In this study, we detected and analyzed the comparative transcriptome profiling of SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1 (A/California/07/2009), and H7N9 (A/Shanghai/1/2013) infected cells. The results showed that the commonly upregulated genes among the three groups were mainly involved in autophagy, pertussis, and tuberculosis, which indicated that autophagy plays an important role in viral pathogenicity. There are three groups of commonly downregulated genes involved in metabolic pathways. Notably, unlike panH1N1 and H7N9, SARS-CoV-2 infection can inhibit the m-TOR pathway and activate the p53 signaling pathway, which may be responsible for unique autophagy induction and cell apoptosis. Particularly, upregulated expression of IRF1 was found in SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1, and H7N9 infection. Further analysis showed SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1, and H7N9 infection-induced upregulation of lncRNA-34087.27 could serve as a competitive endogenous RNA to stabilize IRF1 mRNA by competitively binding with miR-302b-3p. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , RNA/immunology , Transcriptome/immunology , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/physiology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/immunology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA/genetics , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/immunology , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA-Seq/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Transcriptome/genetics
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 784028, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581324

ABSTRACT

Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mediators of cell-to-cell communication in inflammatory lung diseases. They function as carriers for miRNAs which regulate mRNA transcripts and signaling pathways after uptake into recipient cells. We investigated whether miRNAs associated with circulating EVs regulate immunologic processes in COVID-19. Methods: We prospectively studied 20 symptomatic patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, 20 mechanically ventilated patients with severe COVID-19 (severe acute respiratory corona virus-2 syndrome, ARDS) and 20 healthy controls. EVs were isolated by precipitation, total RNA was extracted, profiled by small RNA sequencing and evaluated by differential gene expression analysis (DGE). Differentially regulated miRNAs between groups were bioinformatically analyzed, mRNA target transcripts identified and signaling networks constructed, thereby comparing COVID-19 pneumonia to the healthy state and pneumonia to severe COVID-19 ARDS. Results: DGE revealed 43 significantly and differentially expressed miRNAs (25 downregulated) in COVID-19 pneumonia when compared to controls, and 20 miRNAs (15 downregulated) in COVID-19 ARDS patients in comparison to those with COVID-19 pneumonia. Network analysis for comparison of COVID-19 pneumonia to healthy controls showed upregulated miR-3168 (log2FC=2.28, padjusted<0.001), among others, targeting interleukin-6 (IL6) (25.1, 15.2 - 88.2 pg/ml in COVID-19 pneumonia) and OR52N2, an olfactory smell receptor in the nasal epithelium. In contrast, miR-3168 was significantly downregulated in COVID-19 ARDS (log2FC=-2.13, padjusted=0.003) and targeted interleukin-8 (CXCL8) in a completely activated network. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was inhibited in COVID-19 pneumonia by miR-146a-5p and upregulated in ARDS by let-7e-5p. Conclusion: EV-derived miRNAs might have important regulative functions in the pathophysiology of COVID-19: CXCL8 regulates neutrophil recruitment into the lung causing epithelial damage whereas activated TLR4, to which SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds strongly, increases cell surface ACE2 expression and destroys type II alveolar cells that secrete pulmonary surfactants; both resulting in pulmonary-capillary leakage and ARDS. These miRNAs may serve as biomarkers or as possible therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , MicroRNAs/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/immunology
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108172, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446735

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, as the causative agent of COVID-19, is an enveloped positives-sense single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Beta-CoVs sub-family. A sophisticated hyper-inflammatory reaction named cytokine storm is occurred in patients with severe/critical COVID-19, following an imbalance in immune-inflammatory processes and inhibition of antiviral responses by SARS-CoV-2, which leads to pulmonary failure, ARDS, and death. The miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs with an average length of 22 nucleotides which play various roles as one of the main modulators of genes expression and maintenance of immune system homeostasis. Recent evidence has shown that Homo sapiens (hsa)-miRNAs have the potential to work in three pivotal areas including targeting the virus genome, regulating the inflammatory signaling pathways, and reinforcing the production/signaling of IFNs-I. However, it seems that several SARS-CoV-2-induced interfering agents such as viral (v)-miRNAs, cytokine content, competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), etc. preclude efficient function of hsa-miRNAs in severe/critical COVID-19. This subsequently leads to increased virus replication, intense inflammatory processes, and secondary complications development. In this review article, we provide an overview of hsa-miRNAs roles in viral genome targeting, inflammatory pathways modulation, and IFNs responses amplification in severe/critical COVID-19 accompanied by probable interventional factors and their function. Identification and monitoring of these interventional elements can help us in designing the miRNAs-based therapy for the reduction of complications/mortality rate in patients with severe/critical forms of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , MicroRNAs/immunology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112247, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446461

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pneumonia-like disease with highly transmittable and pathogenic properties caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which infects both animals and humans. Although many efforts are currently underway to test possible therapies, there is no specific FDA approved drug against SARS-CoV-2 yet. miRNA-directed gene regulation controls the majority of biological processes. In addition, the development and progression of several human diseases are associated with dysregulation of miRNAs. In this regard, it has been shown that changes in miRNAs are linked to severity of COVID-19 especially in patients with respiratory diseases, diabetes, heart failure or kidney problems. Therefore, targeting these small noncoding-RNAs could potentially alleviate complications from COVID-19. Here, we will review the roles and importance of host and RNA virus encoded miRNAs in COVID-19 pathogenicity and immune response. Then, we focus on potential miRNA therapeutics in the patients who are at increased risk for severe disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Genetic Therapy/methods , MicroRNAs/administration & dosage , Animals , Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/immunology
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8112783, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378089

ABSTRACT

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to participate in regulating many biological processes, including immune response to influenza A virus (IAV). However, the association between lncRNA expression profiles and influenza infection susceptibility has not been well elucidated. Here, we analyzed the expression profiles of lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs among IAV-infected adult rat (IAR), normal adult rat (AR), IAV-infected junior rat (IJR), and normal junior rat (JR) by RNA sequencing. Compared with differently expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) between AR and IAR, 24 specific DElncRNAs were found between IJR and JR. Then, based on the fold changes and P value, the top 5 DElncRNAs, including 3 upregulated and 2 downregulated lncRNAs, were chosen to establish a ceRNA network for further disclosing their regulatory mechanisms. To visualize the differentially expressed genes in the ceRNA network, GO and KEGG pathway analysis was performed to further explore their roles in influenza infection of junior rats. The results showed that the downregulated DElncRNA-target genes were mostly enriched in the IL-17 signaling pathway. It indicated that the downregulated lncRNAs conferred the susceptibility of junior rats to IAV via mediating the IL-17 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , MicroRNAs/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression Profiling , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-17/immunology , MicroRNAs/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , RNA, Long Noncoding/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
6.
J Clin Invest ; 131(11)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249494

ABSTRACT

With increasing age, individuals are more vulnerable to viral infections such as with influenza or the SARS-CoV-2 virus. One age-associated defect in human T cells is the reduced expression of miR-181a. miR-181ab1 deficiency in peripheral murine T cells causes delayed viral clearance after infection, resembling human immune aging. Here we show that naive T cells from older individuals as well as miR-181ab1-deficient murine T cells develop excessive replication stress after activation, due to reduced histone expression and delayed S-phase cell cycle progression. Reduced histone expression was caused by the miR-181a target SIRT1 that directly repressed transcription of histone genes by binding to their promoters and reducing histone acetylation. Inhibition of SIRT1 activity or SIRT1 silencing increased histone expression, restored cell cycle progression, diminished the replication-stress response, and reduced the production of inflammatory mediators in replicating T cells from old individuals. Correspondingly, treatment with SIRT1 inhibitors improved viral clearance in mice with miR-181a-deficient T cells after LCMV infection. In conclusion, SIRT1 inhibition may be beneficial to treat systemic viral infection in older individuals by targeting antigen-specific T cells that develop replication stress due to miR-181a deficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cellular Senescence/immunology , Histones/deficiency , MicroRNAs/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Female , Histones/immunology , Humans , Male , Mice, Knockout , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sirtuin 1/genetics , Sirtuin 1/immunology
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 653344, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191684

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a heterogeneous syndrome caused by a dysregulated host response during the process of infection. Neutrophils are involved in the development of sepsis due to their essential role in host defense. COVID-19 is a viral sepsis. Disfunction of neutrophils in sepsis has been described in previous studies, however, little is known about the role of microRNA-let-7b (miR-let-7b), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity in neutrophils and how they participate in the development of sepsis. In this study, we investigated the regulatory pathway of miR-let-7b/TLR4/NF-κB in neutrophils. We also explored the downstream cytokines released by neutrophils following miR-let-7b treatment and its therapeutic effects in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced septic mice. Six-to-eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice underwent CLP following treatment with miR-let-7b agomir. Survival (n=10), changes in liver and lungs histopathology (n=4), circulating neutrophil counts (n=4), the liver-body weight ratio (n=4-7), and the lung wet-to-dry ratio (n=5-6) were recorded. We found that overexpression of miR-let-7b could significantly down-regulate the expression of human-derived neutrophilic TLR4 at a post-transcriptional level, a decreased level of proinflammatory factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and an upregulation of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 in vitro. After miR-let-7b agomir treatment in vivo, neutrophil recruitment was inhibited and thus the injuries of liver and lungs in CLP-induced septic mice were alleviated (p=0.01 and p=0.04, respectively), less weight loss was reduced, and survival in septic mice was also significantly improved (p=0.013). Our study suggested that miR-let-7b could be a potential target of sepsis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , MicroRNAs/immunology , NF-kappa B/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology
8.
Infect Genet Evol ; 91: 104832, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164210

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs are gene expression regulators, associated with several human pathologies, including the ones caused by virus infections. Although their role in infection diseases is not completely known, they can exert double functions in the infected cell, by mediating the virus infection and/or regulating the immunity-related gene targets through complex networks of virus-host cell interactions. In this systematic review, the Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, Lilacs, Scielo, and EBSCO databases were searched for research articles published until October 22nd, 2020 that focused on describing the role, function, and/or association of miRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 human infection and COVID-19. Following the PRISMA 2009 protocol, 29 original research articles were selected. Most of the studies reported miRNA data based on the genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 isolates and computational prediction analysis. The latter predicted, by at least one independent study, 1266 host miRNAs to target the viral genome. Thirteen miRNAs were identified by four independent studies to target SARS-CoV-2 specific genes, suggested to act by interfering with their cleavage and/or translation process. The studies selected also reported on viral and host miRNAs that targeted host genes, on the expression levels of miRNAs in biological specimens of COVID-19 patients, and on the impact of viral genome mutations on miRNA function. Also, miRNAs that regulate the expression levels of the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteins, which are critical for the virus entrance in the host cells, were reported. In conclusion, despite the limited number of studies identified, based on the search terms and eligibility criteria applied, this systematic review provides evidence on the impact of miRNAs on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. Although most of the reported viral/host miRNAs interactions were based on in silico prediction analysis, they demonstrate the relevance of the viral/host miRNA interaction for viral activity and host responses. In addition, the identified studies highlight the potential use of miRNAs as therapeutic targets against COVID-19, and other viral human diseases (This review was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database (#CRD42020199290).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , MicroRNAs/classification , MicroRNAs/immunology , Mutation , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
FASEB J ; 35(4): e21441, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145196

ABSTRACT

An excessive, non-resolving inflammatory response underlies severe COVID-19 that may have fatal outcomes. Therefore, the investigation of endogenous pathways leading to resolution of inflammation is of interest to uncover strategies for mitigating inflammation in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This becomes particularly urgent in individuals with preexisting pathologies characterized by chronic respiratory inflammation and prone to bacterial infection, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, we analyzed the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 virion spike 1 glycoprotein (S1) of macrophages (MΦ) from volunteers with and without CF and tested the efficacy of resolvins (Rv) D1 and D2 in regulating the inflammatory and antimicrobial functions of MΦ exposed to S1. S1 significantly increased chemokine release, including interleukin (IL)-8, in CF and non-CF MΦ, while it enhanced IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in non-CF MΦ, but not in CF cells. S1 also triggered the biosynthesis of RvD1 and modulated microRNAs miR-16, miR-29a, and miR-103, known to control the inflammatory responses. RvD1 and RvD2 treatment abated S1-induced inflammatory responses in CF and non-CF MΦ, significantly reducing the release of select chemokines and cytokines including IL-8 and TNF-α. RvD1 and RvD2 both restored the expression of miR-16 and miR-29a, while selectively increasing miR-223 and miR-125a, which are involved in NF-κB activation and MΦ inflammatory polarization. During Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, S1 stimulated the MΦ phagocytic activity that was further enhanced by RvD1 and RvD2. These results provide a map of molecular responses to SARS-CoV-2 in MΦ, key determinants of COVID-19-related inflammation, unveiling some peculiarity in the response of cells from individuals with CF. They also demonstrate beneficial, regulatory actions of RvD1 and RvD2 on SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Docosahexaenoic Acids/pharmacology , Macrophages , Pseudomonas Infections , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cystic Fibrosis/immunology , Cystic Fibrosis/microbiology , Cystic Fibrosis/pathology , Cystic Fibrosis/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/microbiology , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/microbiology , Macrophages/pathology , Macrophages/virology , Male , MicroRNAs/immunology , Pseudomonas Infections/immunology , Pseudomonas Infections/pathology , Pseudomonas Infections/virology
10.
FEBS J ; 288(24): 7123-7142, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085289

ABSTRACT

The adaptive immune system has the enormous challenge to protect the host through the generation and differentiation of pathogen-specific short-lived effector T cells while in parallel developing long-lived memory cells to control future encounters with the same pathogen. A complex regulatory network is needed to preserve a population of naïve cells over lifetime that exhibit sufficient diversity of antigen receptors to respond to new antigens, while also sustaining immune memory. In parallel, cells need to maintain their proliferative potential and the plasticity to differentiate into different functional lineages. Initial signs of waning immune competence emerge after 50 years of age, with increasing clinical relevance in the 7th-10th decade of life. Morbidity and mortality from infections increase, as drastically exemplified by the current COVID-19 pandemic. Many vaccines, such as for the influenza virus, are poorly effective to generate protective immunity in older individuals. Age-associated changes occur at the level of the T-cell population as well as the functionality of its cellular constituents. The system highly relies on the self-renewal of naïve and memory T cells, which is robust but eventually fails. Genetic and epigenetic modifications contribute to functional differences in responsiveness and differentiation potential. To some extent, these changes arise from defective maintenance; to some, they represent successful, but not universally beneficial adaptations to the aging host. Interventions that can compensate for the age-related defects and improve immune responses in older adults are increasingly within reach.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Aged , Aging/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6/genetics , Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/immunology , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/genetics , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/immunology , Positive Regulatory Domain I-Binding Factor 1/genetics , Positive Regulatory Domain I-Binding Factor 1/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/virology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/virology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/virology
11.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(2): 341-356, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053104

ABSTRACT

In the end of 2019 COVID-19 emerged as a new threat worldwide and this disease present impaired immune system, exacerbated production of inflammatory cytokines, and coagulation disturbs. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a therapeutic option due to its intrinsic properties to alleviate inflammatory responses, capable to promote the restoring of injured tissue. EVs contain heterogeneous cargo, including active microRNAs, small noncoding sequences involved in post-transcriptional gene repression or degradation and can attach in multiple targets. This study investigated whether the MSC-EVs miRNA cargo has the capacity to modulate the exacerbated cytokines, cell death and coagulation disturbs present in severe COVID-19. Through bioinformatics analysis, four datasets of miRNA, using different stem cell tissue sources (bone marrow, umbilical cord and adipose tissue), and one dataset of mRNA (bone marrow) were analyzed. 58 miRNAs overlap in the four miRNA datasets analyzed. Sequentially, those miRNAs present in at least two datasets, were analyzed using miRWalk for the 3'UTR binding target mRNA. The result predicted 258 miRNAs for exacerbated cytokines and chemokines, 266 miRNAs for cell death genes and 148 miRNAs for coagulation cascades. Some miRNAs may simultaneously attenuate inflammatory agents, inhibit cell death genes and key factors of coagulation cascade, consequently preventing tissue damage and coagulation disturbs. Therefore, the MSC-derived EVs due to their heterogeneous cargo are a potential multitarget approach able to improve the survival rates of severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , MicroRNAs/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/virology , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 586592, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976198

ABSTRACT

The present study focuses on the role of human miRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 infection. An extensive analysis of human miRNA binding sites on the viral genome led to the identification of miR-1207-5p as potential regulator of the viral Spike protein. It is known that exogenous RNA can compete for miRNA targets of endogenous mRNAs leading to their overexpression. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 virus can act as an exogenous competing RNA, facilitating the over-expression of its endogenous targets. Transcriptomic analysis of human alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells confirmed that the CSF1 gene, a known target of miR-1207-5p, is over-expressed following SARS-CoV-2 infection. CSF1 enhances macrophage recruitment and activation and its overexpression may contribute to the acute inflammatory response observed in severe COVID-19. In summary, our results indicate that dysregulation of miR-1207-5p-target genes during SARS-CoV-2 infection may contribute to uncontrolled inflammation in most severe COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , MicroRNAs/immunology , Pulmonary Alveoli/immunology , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
13.
J Adv Res ; 30: 133-145, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950741

ABSTRACT

Background: Micro-RNAs (miRNAS) are non-coding, small RNAs that have essential roles in different biological processes through silencing genes, they consist of 18-24 nucleotide length RNA molecules. Recently, miRNAs have been viewed as important modulators of viral infections they can function as suppressors of gene expression by targeting cellular or viral RNAs during infection. Aim of review: We describe the biological roles and effects of miRNAs on SARS-CoV-2 life-cycle and pathogenicity, and we discuss the modulation of the immune system with micro-RNAs which would serve as a new foundation for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections. Key scientific concepts of review: miRNAs are the key players that regulate the expression of the gene in the post-transcriptional phase and have important effects on viral infections, thus are potential targets in the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of viral infections. Besides, micro-RNAs (miRNAs) modulation of immune-pathogenesis responses to viral infection is one of the most-known indirect effects, which leads to suppressing of the interferon (IFN-α/ß) signalling cascade or upregulation of the IFN-α/ß production another IFN-stimulated gene (ISGs) that inhibit replication of the virus. These virus-mediated alterations in miRNA levels lead to an environment that might either enhance or inhibit virus replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity/genetics , MicroRNAs/immunology , RNA, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Gene Silencing/immunology , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Up-Regulation/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology
14.
Virus Res ; 286: 198064, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830464

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs play vital roles in regulating the battle between pathogens and host cells during viral challenging. MiR-4331 aggravates transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) -induced mitochondrial damage, also suppresses transcription of TGEV gene 7 via targeting cellular CDCA7. Otherwise, miR-4331-5p affects H1N1/2009 influenza A virus replication by targeting viral HA and NS. However, whether microRNA ssc-miR-4331-5p (miR-4331-5p) regulates foot and mouth virus (FMDV) replication remains unclear. To explore the role of miR-4331-5p in FMDV infection, we detected the expression level of miR-4331-5p in porcine kidney (PK-15) cells. The results showed that FMDV infection directly upregulates miR-4331-5p expression, while transfection of mimics or inhibitor of miR-4331-5p promotes or inhibits FMDV replication. Further investigation clearly showed that miR-4331-5p increases FMDV replication through inhibiting type I interferon pathways. These data demonstrate that miR-4331-5p plays an important role in regulating FMDV replication.


Subject(s)
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Interferon Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , MicroRNAs/genetics , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Line , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , MicroRNAs/immunology , Swine , Up-Regulation
15.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(2): 137-145, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780230

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). It is believed that early reports of COVID-19 cases were noticed in December 2019 and soon after it became a global public health emergency. It is advised that COVID-19 transmits through human to human contact and in most cases, it remains asymptomatic. Several approaches are being utilized to control the outbreak of this fatal viral disease. microRNAs (miRNAs) are known signature therapeutic tool for the viral diseases; they are small non-coding RNAs that target the mRNAs to inhibit their post-transcriptional expression, therefore, impeding their functions, can serve as watchdogs or micromanagers in the cells. AREAS COVERED: This review work delineated COVID-19 and its association with SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), the possible role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and therapeutic potential of miRNAs and their effective delivery to treat COVID-19. EXPERT OPINION: This review highlighted the importance of various miRNAs and their potential role in fighting with this pandemic as therapeutic molecules utilizing nanotechnology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Nanomedicine , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Genome, Viral , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/immunology , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanomedicine/trends
16.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(3): L444-L455, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695277

ABSTRACT

Cold viruses have generally been considered fairly innocuous until the appearance of the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019, which caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic. Two previous viruses foreshadowed that a coronavirus could potentially have devastating consequences in 2002 [severe acute respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV)] and in 2012 [Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)]. The question that arises is why these viruses are so different from the relatively harmless cold viruses. On the basis of an analysis of the current literature and using bioinformatic approaches, we examined the potential human miRNA interactions with the SARS-CoV-2's genome and compared the miRNA target sites in seven coronavirus genomes that include SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and four nonpathogenic coronaviruses. Here, we discuss the possibility that pathogenic human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, could modulate host miRNA levels by acting as miRNA sponges to facilitate viral replication and/or to avoid immune responses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Replication , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 835-843, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71756

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus with great economic impact on the poultry industry, causing an acute and highly contagious disease in chickens that primarily affects the respiratory and reproductive systems. The cellular regulation of IBV pathogenesis and the host immune responses involved remain to be fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of crucial regulators of numerous cellular processes, including responses to viral infections. Here, we employed a high-throughput sequencing approach to analyze the miRNA composition of the spleen and the lungs of chicken embryos upon IBV infection. Compared to healthy chicken embryos, 13 and six miRNAs were upregulated in the spleen and the lungs, respectively, all predicted to influence viral transcription, cytokine production, and lymphocyte functioning. Subsequent downregulation of NFATC3, NFAT5, SPPL3, and TGFB2 genes in particular was observed only in the spleen, demonstrating the biological functionality of the miRNAs in this lymphoid organ. This is the first study that describes the modulation of miRNAs and the related host immune factors by IBV in chicken embryos. Our data provide novel insight into complex virus-host interactions and specifically highlight components that could affect the host's immune response to IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Gammacoronavirus/physiology , MicroRNAs/immunology , Ovum/virology , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Gammacoronavirus/genetics , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , MicroRNAs/genetics , Ovum/immunology , Poultry Diseases/genetics , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Spleen/immunology , Spleen/pathology
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