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1.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674739

ABSTRACT

An antiviral agent is urgently needed based on the high probability of the emergence and re-emergence of future viral disease, highlighted by the recent global COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence may be seen in the discovery of the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and recently discovered Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2. The need for strategies besides testing and isolation, social distancing, and vaccine development is clear. One of the strategies includes searching for an antiviral agent that provides effective results without toxicity, which is well-presented by significant results for carrageenan nasal spray in providing efficacy against human coronavirus-infected patients. As the primary producer of sulfated polysaccharides, marine plants, including macro- and microalgae, offer versatility in culture, production, and post-isolation development in obtaining the needed antiviral agent. Therefore, this review will describe an attempt to highlight the search for practical and safe antiviral agents from algal-based sulfated polysaccharides and to unveil their features for future development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/therapy , Microalgae/chemistry , Pandemics , Polysaccharides , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use
2.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(1): e24146, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is capable of human-to-human transmission and rapid global spread. Thus, the establishment of high-quality viral detection and quantification methods, and the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents are critical. METHODS: Here, we present the rapid detection of infectious SARS-CoV-2 particles using a plaque assay with 0.5% agarose-ME (Medium Electroosmosis) as an overlay medium. RESULTS: The plaques were capable of detecting the virus within 36-40 h post-infection. In addition, we showed that a monogalactosyl diacylglyceride isolated from a microalga (Coccomyxa sp. KJ) could inactivate the clinical isolates of SARS-CoV-2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: These results would allow rapid quantification of the infectious virus titers and help develop more potent virucidal agents against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Microalgae/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chlorophyta/chemistry , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vero Cells , Viral Plaque Assay
3.
Microb Pathog ; 160: 105189, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401715

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has affected millions of lives and it is one of the deadliest viruses ever known and the effort to find a cure for COVID-19 has been very high. The purpose of the study was to investigate the anti-COVID effect from the peptides derived from microalgae. The peptides from microalgae exhibit antimicrobial, anti-allergic, anti-hypersensitive, anti-tumor and immune-modulatory properties. In the In silico study, 13 cyanobacterial specific peptides were retrieved based on the extensive literature survey and their structures were predicted using Discovery Studios Visualizer. The spike protein of the novel COVID19 was retrieved from PDB (6LU7) and further molecular docking was done with the peptides through CDOCKER. The five peptides were bound clearly to the spike protein (SP) and their inhibitory effect towards the SP was promising among 13 peptides were investigated. Interestingly, LDAVNR derived from S.maxima have excellent binding and interaction energy showed -113.456 kcal/mol and -71.0736 kcal/mol respectively to target SP of COVID. The further investigation required for the in vitro confirmation of anti-COVID from indigenous microalgal species for the possible remedy in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Microalgae , Peptides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Computer Simulation , Microalgae/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation
4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(31): 12194-12201, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320215

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 can survive in wastewater for several days with a potential risk of waterborne human transmission, hence posing challenges in containing the virus and reducing its spread. Herein, we report on an active biohybrid microrobot system that offers highly efficient capture and removal of target virus from various aquatic media. The algae-based microrobot is fabricated by using click chemistry to functionalize microalgae with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The resulting ACE2-algae-robot displays fast (>100 µm/s) and long-lasting (>24 h) self-propulsion in diverse aquatic media including drinking water and river water, obviating the need for external fuels. Such movement of the ACE2-algae-robot offers effective "on-the-fly" removal of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Specifically, the active biohybrid microrobot results in 95% removal of viral spike protein and 89% removal of pseudovirus, significantly exceeding the control groups such as static ACE2-algae and bare algae. These results suggest considerable promise of biologically functionalized algae toward the removal of viruses and other environmental threats from wastewater.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Biotechnology/methods , Microalgae/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Waste Water/virology , Water Purification/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biotechnology/instrumentation , Cell Line , Click Chemistry , Humans , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Water Purification/instrumentation
5.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(5): 4757-4765, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240047

ABSTRACT

Recently, special attention has been paid to marine origin compounds such as carbohydrates, peptides, lipids, and carotenoids, which are extracted from microalgae and have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial (e.g., anti-COVID-19 activity), and antioxidant properties in biomedicine and pharmaceutical biotechnology. In addition, these photosynthetic marine microorganisms have several applications in biotechnology and are suitable hosts for the production of recombinant proteins/peptides, such as monoclonal antibodies and vaccines. Silica-based nanoparticles obtained from diatoms (a microalgae group) are used as drug delivery carriers owing to their biodegradability, easy functionalization, low cost, and simple features compared to synthetics, which make these agents proper alternatives for synthetic silica nanoparticles. Therefore, diatom-based nanoparticles are a viable option for the delivery of anti-cancer drugs and reducing the side-effects of cancer chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Biological Factors/pharmacology , Microalgae/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Biological Factors/chemistry , Drug Carriers , Nanoparticles , Photosynthesis
6.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 1226-1237, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189406

ABSTRACT

The world at large is facing a new threat with the emergence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Though imperceptible by the naked eye, the medical, sociological and economical implications caused by this newly discovered virus have been and will continue to be a great impediment to our lives. This health threat has already caused over two million deaths worldwide in the span of a year and its mortality rate is projected to continue rising. In this review, the potential of algae in combating the spread of COVID-19 is investigated since algal compounds have been tested against viruses and algal anti-inflammatory compounds have the potential to treat the severe symptoms of COVID-19. The possible utilization of algae in producing value-added products such as serological test kits, vaccines, and supplements that would either mitigate or hinder the continued health risks caused by the virus is prominent. Many of the characteristics in algae can provide insights on the development of microalgae to fight against SARS-CoV-2 or other viruses and contribute in manufacturing various green and high-value products.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Microalgae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rhodophyta/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Microalgae/genetics , Microalgae/metabolism , Pandemics , Rhodophyta/genetics , Rhodophyta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
7.
Mar Drugs ; 19(1)2021 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033055

ABSTRACT

Microalgae are at the start of the food chain, and many are known producers of a significant amount of lipids with essential fatty acids. However, the bioactivity of microalgal lipids for anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities have rarely been investigated. Therefore, for a sustainable source of the above bioactive lipids, the present study was undertaken. The total lipids of microalga Chlorococcum sp., isolated from the Irish coast, were fractionated into neutral-, glyco-, and phospho-lipids, and were tested in vitro for their anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities. All tested lipid fractions showed strong anti-platelet-activating factor (PAF) and antithrombin activities in human platelets (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging ~25-200 µg of lipid) with the highest activities in glyco- and phospho-lipid fractions. The structural analysis of the bioactive lipid fraction-2 revealed the presence of specific sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols (SQDG) bioactive molecules and the HexCer-t36:2 (t18:1/18:1 and 18:2/18:0) cerebrosides with a phytosphingosine (4-hydrosphinganine) base, while fraction-3 contained bioactive phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) molecules. These novel bioactive lipids of Chlorococcum sp. with putative health benefits may indicate that marine microalgae can be a sustainable alternative source for bioactive lipids production for food supplements and nutraceutical applications. However, further studies are required towards the commercial technology pathways development and biosafety analysis for the use of the microalga.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Fibrinolytic Agents/chemistry , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Lipids/chemistry , Lipids/pharmacology , Microalgae/chemistry , Antithrombins/pharmacology , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Humans , Platelet Activating Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Water Microbiology
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