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1.
Euro Surveill ; 27(18)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141534

ABSTRACT

Because cefixime and ceftriaxone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and gonorrhoea treatment failures were increasing, a response plan to control and manage multidrug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (MDR-NG) in Europe was published in 2012. The three main areas of the plan were to: (i) strengthen surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), (ii) implement monitoring of treatment failures and (iii) establish a communication strategy to increase awareness and disseminate AMR results. Since 2012, several additional extensively drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (XDR-NG) strains have emerged, and strains with high-level ceftriaxone resistance spread internationally. This prompted an evaluation and review of the 2012 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) response plan, revealing an overall improvement in many aspects of monitoring AMR in N. gonorrhoeae; however, treatment failure monitoring was a weakness. Accordingly, the plan was updated in 2019 to further support European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries in controlling and managing the threat of MDR/XDR-NG in Europe through further strengthening of AMR surveillance and clinical management including treatment failure monitoring. The plan will be assessed biennially to ensure its effectiveness and its value. Along with prevention, diagnostic, treatment and epidemiological surveillance strategies, AMR surveillance is essential for effective control of gonorrhoea.


Subject(s)
Gonorrhea , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/drug therapy , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 877, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections are a common complication in patients with seasonal viral respiratory tract infections and are associated with poor prognosis, increased risk of intensive care unit admission and 29-55% mortality. Yet, there is limited data on the burden of bacterial infections among COVID-19 patients in Africa, where underdeveloped healthcare systems are likely to play a pertinent role in the epidemiology of the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we evaluated the etiologies, antimicrobial resistance profiles, risk factors, and outcomes of bacterial infections in severely ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was adopted in severely ill COVID-19 patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya, from October to December 2021. We used a structured questionnaire and case report forms to collect sociodemographics, clinical presentation, and hospitalization outcome data. Blood, nasal/oropharyngeal swabs and tracheal aspirate samples were collected based on the patient's clinical presentation and transported to the Kenyatta National Hospital microbiology laboratory for immediate processing following the standard bacteriological procedures. RESULTS: We found at least one bacterial infection in 44.2% (53/120) of the patients sampled, with a 31.7% mortality rate. Pathogens were mainly from the upper respiratory tract (62.7%, 42/67), with gram-negative bacteria dominating (73.1%, 49/67). Males were about three times more likely to acquire bacterial infection (p = 0.015). Those aged 25 to 44 years (p = 0.009), immunized against SARS-CoV-2 (p = 0.027), and admitted to the infectious disease unit ward (p = 0.031) for a short length of stay (0-5 days, p < 0.001) were more likely to have a positive outcome. Multidrug-resistant isolates were the majority (64.3%, 46/67), mainly gram-negative bacteria (69.6%, 32/46). The predominant multidrug-resistant phenotypes were in Enterococcus cloacae (42.9%, 3/7), Klebsiella pneumonia (25%, 4/16), and Escherichia coli (40%, 2/5). CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in severely ill COVID-19 patients, with male gender as a risk factor for bacterial infection. Elderly Patients, non-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, intensive care unit admission, and long length of hospital stay were associated with poor outcomes. There is a need to emphasize strict adherence to infection and prevention at KNH-IDU and antimicrobial stewardship in line with local and global AMR control action plans.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals, Teaching , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Length of Stay , Referral and Consultation
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(46): 52334-52346, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117028

ABSTRACT

The high antibacterial and antiviral performance of synthesized copper(I) oxide (Cu2O) incorporated in zeolite nanoparticles (Cu-Z) was determined. Various Cu contents (1-9 wt %) in solutions were loaded in the zeolite matrix under neutral conditions at room temperature. All synthesized Cu-Z nanoparticles showed high selectivity of the cuprous oxide, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. An advantage of the prepared Cu-Z over the pristine Cu2O nanoparticles was its high thermal stability. The 7 and 9 wt % Cu contents (07Cu-Z and 09Cu-Z) exhibited the best activities to deactivate Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The film coated with 07Cu-Z nanoparticles also had high antiviral activities against porcine coronavirus (porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, PEDV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Specifically, the 07Cu-Z-coated film could reduce 99.93% of PEDV and 99.94% of SARS-CoV-2 viruses in 5 min of contact time, which were higher efficacies and faster than those of any previously reported works. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 virus film was coated on a low-cost PET or PVC film. A very small amount of cuprous oxide in zeolite was used to fabricate the antivirus film; therefore, the film was more transparent (79.4% transparency) than the cuprous oxide film or other commercial products. The toxicity of 07Cu-Z nanoparticles was determined by a toxicity test on zebrafish embryo and a skin irritation test to reconstruct a human epidermis (RhE) model. It was found that the impact on the aquatic environment and human skin was lower than that of the pristine Cu2O.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Zeolites , Humans , Swine , Animals , Zeolites/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Oxides , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Zebrafish , Copper/pharmacology , Copper/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
4.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 462022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116618

ABSTRACT

Abstract: From 1 January to 31 December 2021, forty-eight institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Enterococcal Surveillance Outcome Programme (AESOP). The aim of AESOP 2021 was to determine the proportion of enterococcal bacteraemia isolates in Australia that were antimicrobial resistant, and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the Enterococcus faecium isolates. Of the 1,297 unique episodes of enterococcal bacteraemia investigated, 94.4% were caused by either E. faecalis (54.1%) or E. faecium (40.3%). Ampicillin resistance was detected in one E. faecalis isolate and in 89.3% of E. faecium isolates. Vancomycin non-susceptibility was not detected in E. faecalis but was detected in 37.9% of E. faecium. Overall, 39.6% of E. faecium harboured the vanA and/or vanB genes. For the vanA/vanB positive E. faecium isolates, 35.8% harboured the vanA gene and 64.2% the vanB gene. Although the percentage of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium bacteraemia isolates was significantly lower than that reported in the 2020 AESOP report (presumably due to the COVID-19 elective surgery restrictions placed on hospitals), it remains substantially higher than that recorded in most European countries. Isolates of E. faecium consisted of 73 multi-locus sequence types (STs); 77.2% of isolates were classified into seven major STs each containing more than ten isolates. All major STs belonged to clonal cluster (CC) 17, a major hospital-adapted polyclonal E. faecium cluster. The major STs (ST17, ST1424, ST796, ST78, ST80, ST1421 and ST555) were found across most regions of Australia. The predominant ST was ST17 which was identified in all regions except the Northern Territory. Overall, 46.5% of isolates belonging to the seven major STs harboured the vanA or vanB gene. The AESOP 2021 has shown that enterococcal bacteraemia episodes in Australia are frequently caused by polyclonal ampicillin-resistant high-level gentamicin resistant vanA- or vanB-positive E. faecium which have limited treatment options.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Agar , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Vancomycin , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterococcus/genetics , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Northern Territory
6.
Nature ; 610(7932): 540-546, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084529

ABSTRACT

The spread of antibiotic resistance is attracting increased attention to combination-based treatments. Although drug combinations have been studied extensively for their effects on bacterial growth1-11, much less is known about their effects on bacterial long-term clearance, especially at cidal, clinically relevant concentrations12-14. Here, using en masse microplating and automated image analysis, we systematically quantify Staphylococcus aureus survival during prolonged exposure to pairwise and higher-order cidal drug combinations. By quantifying growth inhibition, early killing and longer-term population clearance by all pairs of 14 antibiotics, we find that clearance interactions are qualitatively different, often showing reciprocal suppression whereby the efficacy of the drug mixture is weaker than any of the individual drugs alone. Furthermore, in contrast to growth inhibition6-10 and early killing, clearance efficacy decreases rather than increases as more drugs are added. However, specific drugs targeting non-growing persisters15-17 circumvent these suppressive effects. Competition experiments show that reciprocal suppressive drug combinations select against resistance to any of the individual drugs, even counteracting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus both in vitro and in a Galleria mellonella larva model. As a consequence, adding a ß-lactamase inhibitor that is commonly used to potentiate treatment against ß-lactam-resistant strains can reduce rather than increase treatment efficacy. Together, these results underscore the importance of systematic mapping the long-term clearance efficacy of drug combinations for designing more-effective, resistance-proof multidrug regimes.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Staphylococcus aureus , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , beta-Lactamase Inhibitors/pharmacology , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Drug Combinations , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/cytology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Drug Synergism
7.
Eur Respir J ; 60(4)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079384

ABSTRACT

Drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis is rooted in a binary susceptible/resistant paradigm. While there are considerable advantages in measuring the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of a panel of drugs for an isolate, it is necessary to measure the epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFF/ECVs) to permit comparison with qualitative data. Here we present ECOFF/ECVs for 13 anti-tuberculosis compounds, including bedaquiline and delamanid, derived from 20 637 clinical isolates collected by 14 laboratories based in 11 countries on five continents. Each isolate was incubated for 14 days on a dry 96-well broth microdilution plate and then read. Resistance to most of the drugs due to prior exposure is expected and the MIC distributions for many of the compounds are complex, and therefore a phenotypically wild-type population could not be defined. Since a majority of samples also underwent genetic sequencing, we defined a genotypically wild-type population and measured the MIC of the 99th percentile by direct measurement and via fitting a Gaussian using interval regression. The proposed ECOFF/ECVs were then validated by comparing with the MIC distributions of high-confidence genetic variants that confer resistance and with qualitative drug susceptibility tests obtained via the Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system or Microscopic-Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) assay. These ECOFF/ECVs will inform and encourage the more widespread adoption of broth microdilution: this is a cheap culture-based method that tests the susceptibility of 12-14 antibiotics on a single 96-well plate and so could help personalise the treatment of tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
8.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 24(5): e13924, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current methods for benchmarking inpatient antimicrobial use (AU) could benefit from combining AU with antimicrobial resistance (AR) information to provide metrics benchmarked to microbiological data; this may yield more instructive and better risk-adjusted measurements than AU and AR in isolation. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, we computed facility-wide AU/AR ratios from 2019 to 2020 for specific antimicrobial agents and corresponding AR events, and compared median monthly AU/AR ratios between March 2019 through December 2019 (pre-COVID period) and March 2020 through December 2020 (COVID period). Aggregate AU was expressed as a ratio to aggregate AR events for antimicrobials that typically have activity against the AR organism and are frequently used to treat the AR organism in clinical practice. We also computed AU/AR ratios in our surgical intensive care unit in the pre-COVID period. RESULTS: High-median facility-wide monthly AU/AR ratios were observed for intravenous vancomycin/methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with 130.0 in the pre-COVID period and 121.3 in the COVID period (p =.520). Decreases in facility-wide median monthly AU/AR ratios were observed between periods for meropenem/ESBL Enterobacterales (20.9 vs. 7.9, p < .001), linezolid/vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (48.5 vs. 15.8, p =.004), and daptomycin/vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (32.2 vs. 4.8, p = .002). Increases in facility-wide median monthly AU/AR ratios were observed between periods for ceftazidime-avibactam/carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (0.0 vs. 3.2, p = .020) and ceftazidime-avibactam/multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.0 vs. 4.0, p = .017). The AU/AR ratio for intravenous vancomycin/methicillin-resistant S. aureus in the surgical intensive care unit was 191.5 in the pre-COVID period. CONCLUSIONS: AU/AR ratios may be used to supplement current AU and AR metrics. Future directions should include the development of more AU metrics benchmarked to microbiological information. AU metrics more specific to transplant infectious diseases should be developed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Daptomycin , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Benchmarking , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbapenems , Delivery of Health Care , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Inpatients , Linezolid , Meropenem , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Vancomycin
9.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071654

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), an acid-fast bacillus that causes Tuberculosis (TB), is a pathogen that caused 1.5 million deaths in 2020. As per WHO estimates, another 4.1 million people are suffering from latent TB, either asymptomatic or not diagnosed, and the frequency of drug resistance is increasing due to intrinsically linked factors from both host and bacterium. For instance, poor access to TB diagnosis and reduced treatment in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in more TB deaths and an 18% reduction in newly diagnosed cases of TB. Additionally, the detection of Mtb isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drugs (MDR, XDR, and TDR) has complicated the scenario in the pathogen's favour. Moreover, the conventional methods to detect drug resistance may miss mutations, making it challenging to decide on the treatment regimen. However, owing to collaborative initiatives, the last two decades have witnessed several advancements in both the detection methods and drug discovery against drug-resistant isolates. The majority of them belong to nucleic acid detection techniques. In this review, we highlight and summarize the molecular mechanism underlying drug resistance in Mtb, the recent advancements in resistance detection methods, and the newer drugs used against drug-resistant TB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Nucleic Acids , Tuberculosis , Humans , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
10.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066284

ABSTRACT

Three unique 5,6-seco-hexahydrodibenzopyrans (seco-HHDBP) machaeridiols A-C, reported previously from Machaerium Pers., have displayed potent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and E. faecalis (VRE). In order to enrich the pipeline of natural product-derived antimicrobial compounds, a series of novel machaeridiol-based analogs (1-17) were prepared by coupling stemofuran, pinosylvin, and resveratrol legends with monoterpene units R-(-)-α-phellandrene, (-)-p-mentha-2,8-diene-1-ol, and geraniol, and their inhibitory activities were profiled against MRSA ATCC 1708, VRE ATCC 700221, and cancer signaling pathways. Compounds 5 and 11 showed strong in vitro activities with MIC values of 2.5 µg/mL and 1.25 µg/mL against MRSA, respectively, and 2.50 µg/mL against VRE, while geranyl analog 14 was found to be moderately active (MIC 5 µg/mL). The reduction of the double bonds of the monoterpene unit of compound 5 resulted in 17, which had the same antibacterial potency (MIC 1.25 µg/mL and 2.50 µg/mL) as its parent, 5. Furthermore, a combination study between seco-HHDBP 17 and HHDBP machaeriol C displayed a synergistic effect with a fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) value of 0.5 against MRSA, showing a four-fold decrease in the MIC values of both 17 and machaeriol C, while no such effect was observed between vancomycin and 17. Compounds 11 and 17 were further tested in vivo against nosocomial MRSA at a single intranasal dose of 30 mg/kg in a murine model, and both compounds were not efficacious under these conditions. Finally, compounds 1-17 were profiled against a panel of luciferase genes that assessed the activity of complex cancer-related signaling pathways (i.e., transcription factors) using T98G glioblastoma multiforme cells. Among the compounds tested, the geranyl-substituted analog 14 exhibited strong inhibition against several signaling pathways, notably Smad, Myc, and Notch, with IC50 values of 2.17 µM, 1.86 µM, and 2.15 µM, respectively. In contrast, the anti-MRSA actives 5 and 17 were found to be inactive (IC50 > 20 µM) across the panel of these cancer-signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Biological Products , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Neoplasms , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Luciferases , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors , Vancomycin/pharmacology
11.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066283

ABSTRACT

Honey inhibits bacterial growth due to the high sugar concentration, hydrogen peroxide generation, and proteinaceous compounds present in it. In this study, the antibacterial activity of stingless and sting honey against foodborne pathogenic bacteria isolated from spoiled milk samples was examined. The isolated bacterial strains were confirmed as Bacillus cereus and Listeriamonocytogenes through morphological, biochemical, and 16 s RNA analysis. Physiochemical characterizations of the honey samples revealed that both of the honey samples had an acidic pH, low water content, moderate reducing sugar content, and higher proline content. Through the disc diffusion method, the antibacterial activities of the samples were assayed and better results were observed for the 50 mg/disc honey. Both stingless and sting honey showed the most positive efficacy against Bacillus cereus. Therefore, an in silico study was conducted against this bacterium with some common compounds of honey. From several retrieved constituents of stingless and sting honey, 2,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dimethyl 3(2H)-furan-3-one (furan) and 4H-pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro of both samples and beta.-D-glucopyranose from the stingless revealed high ligand-protein binding efficiencies for the target protein (6d5z, hemolysin II). The root-mean-square deviation, solvent-accessible surface area, the radius of gyration, root-mean-square fluctuations, and hydrogen bonds were used to ensure the binding stability of the docked complexes in the atomistic simulation and confirmed their stability. The combined effort of wet and dry lab-based work support, to some extent, that the antimicrobial properties of honey have great potential for application in medicine as well as in the food industries.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Honey , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Bacillus cereus , Furans , Hemolysin Proteins , Honey/analysis , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Ligands , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Proline , Pyrans , RNA , Solvents/analysis , Sugars , Water
12.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 24(6): 1168-1175, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059885

ABSTRACT

With the overuse and misuse of antibiotics amid COVID-19 pandemic, the antimicrobial resistance, which is already a global challenge, has accelerated its pace significantly. Finding novel and potential antibiotics seems one of the probable solutions. In this work, a novel Streptomyces sp. strain EMB24 was isolated and found to be an excellent source of antimicrobials as confirmed by agar-plug assay. It showed antibacterial activity against infection-causing bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, Streptomyces sp. strain EMB24 inhibited the growth methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), tetracycline-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and ampicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Furthermore, to get deep insights about the genome and biosynthetic gene clusters producing antibiotics, whole genome sequencing was done. The strain EMB24 is closely related to the Streptomyces longispororuber as revealed by phylogenetic analysis which is a potential source of antibiotics and pigments as undecylprodigiosin and metacycloprodigiosin belonging to the class prodigiosin. Naphthyridinomycin, alkylresorcinols, desferrioxamine B and E, venezuelin, aborycin, MS-271, and siamycin are potent therapeutics that shared 100% similarity with the reference strain as revealed by the online antiSMASH tool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Streptomyces , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phylogeny , Pandemics , Streptomyces/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli
13.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e258258, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054598

ABSTRACT

According to studies carried out, approximately 10 million people developed tuberculosis in 2018. Of this total, 1.5 million people died from the disease. To study the behavior of the genome sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the bacterium responsible for the development of tuberculosis (TB), an analysis was performed using k-mers (DNA word frequency). The k values ranged from 1 to 10, because the analysis was performed on the full length of the sequences, where each sequence is composed of approximately 4 million base pairs, k values above 10, the analysis is interrupted, as consequence of the program's capacity. The aim of this work was to verify the formation of the phylogenetic tree in each k-mer analyzed. The results showed the formation of distinct groups in some k-mers analyzed, taking into account the threshold line. However, in all groups, the multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains remained together and separated from the other strains.


Subject(s)
Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Cluster Analysis , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/genetics , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/microbiology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Phylogeny , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology
14.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0269864, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054309

ABSTRACT

Till now the exact mechanism and effect of biogenic silver nanoparticles on fungus is an indefinable question. To focus on this issue, the first time we prepared hydrothermal assisted thyme coated silver nanoparticles (T/AgNPs) and their toxic effect on Candida isolates were determined. The role of thyme (Thymus Vulgaris) in the reduction of silver ions and stabilization of T/AgNPs was estimated by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, structure and size of present silver nanoparticles were detected via atomic force microscopy as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The biological activity of T/AgNPs was observed against Candida isolates from COVID-19 Patients. Testing of virulence of Candida species using Multiplex PCR. T/AgNPs proved highly effective against Candida albicans, Candida kruzei, Candida glabrata and MIC values ranging from 156.25 to 1,250 µg/mL and MFC values ranging from 312.5 to 5,000 µg/mL. The structural and morphological modifications due to T/AgNPs on Candida albicans were detected by TEM. It was highly observed that when Candida albicans cells were subjected to 50 and 100 µg/mL T/AgNPs, a remarkable change in the cell wall and cell membrane was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida , Candida albicans , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Silver/chemistry
15.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 121, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 seems to change antibiotic resistance pattern. Certain conditions in the Covid-19 era may be contributing to the rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Due to the limited information on the impact of Covid-19 on antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the purpose of this research was to investigate the trend in antimicrobial resistance changes of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii in Hasheminezhad hospital. This hospital was a Corona center in Mashhad at the onset of this epidemic. METHODS: 1672 clinical samples were collected between January 21, 2020 and January 30, 2022from patients hospitalized at Hasheminezhad Hospital in Mashhad, Conventional microbiological procedures for identifying gram-negative bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility testing were used, according to the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) 2021. The two years of the pandemic, from the initial stage of the outbreak until the 6th peak, (January 2020 to and January 2022) were divided into 9 periods according to the seasons. RESULTS: Highest resistance rates were seen in E. coli (615 samples), K. pneumoniae (351 samples), P. aeruginosa (362 samples) and A. baumannii (344 samples) to Ampicillin (89.6%), Ampicillin (98%), Imipenem (91.8%), and Ceftazidime (94.6%), respectively. The largest change in antibiotic resistance was seen between Summer 2020 and Summer 2021 for K. pneumoniae with about a 30% rise in antibiotic resistance to Ceftriaxone. CONCLUSIONS: All 4 species evaluated in this study, have shown rising AMR rates during the first year of the pandemic in the northeast of Iran. This study revealed that E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii strains in Northern Iran have a higher level of antibiotic resistance than what was measured in similar studies conducted before the pandemic. This will further restrict treatment choices and jeopardize global public health.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Ampicillin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ceftazidime/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli , Humans , Imipenem/pharmacology , Iran/epidemiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
16.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 75(10): 535-541, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050352

ABSTRACT

In the course of our screening program for new anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus antibiotics, four novel antibiotics, termed wychimicins A-D, were isolated from the culture broth of the rare actinomycete Actinocrispum wychmicini strain MI503-AF4. Wychimicins are spirotetronates possessing a macrocyclic 13-membered ring containing trans-decalin and ß-D-xylo-hexopyranose moieties connected to C-17 by an O-glycosidic linkage according to MS, NMR and X-ray analyses. In X-ray crystal structure analysis, the Flack constant was 0.10 (11). The stereochemistry of the spirocarbon C-25 was R. Wychimicins had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.125-2 µg ml-1 against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria , Actinomycetales , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Polyketides , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
17.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(12): 230, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048467

ABSTRACT

Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in drug-resistant bacterial infections. The spread of bacterial infections has become a severe concern for the treatment system because of the simultaneous drug resistance bacteria and SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients. One of the most common bacteria in the development of drug resistance is Klebsiella strains, which is a severe threat due to the possibility of biofilm production. In this regard, recent nanotechnology studies have proposed using nanocarriers as a practical proposal to improve the performance of antibiotics and combat drug resistance. Among drug nanocarriers, niosomes are considered for their absorption mechanism, drug coverage, and biocompatibility. In this study, niosomal formulations were synthesized by the thin-layer method. After optimizing the synthesized niosomes, their properties were evaluated in terms of stability and drug release rate. The toxicity of the optimal formulation was then analyzed. The effect of free amikacin and amikacin encapsulated in niosome on biofilm inhibition were compared in multi-drug resistant isolated Klebsiella strains, and the mrkD gene expression was calculated. The MIC and MBC were measured for the free drug and amikacin loaded in the noisome. The particle size of synthesized amikacin-loaded niosomes ranged from 175.2 to 248.3 nm. The results showed that the amount of lipid and the molar ratio of tween 60 to span 60 has a positive effect on particle size, while the molar ratio of surfactant to cholesterol has a negative effect. The highest release rate in amikacin-loaded niosomes is visible in the first 8 h, and then a slower release occurs up to 72 h. The cytotoxicity induced by amikacin-loaded niosome is significantly less than the cytotoxicity of free amikacin in HFF cells (***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01). The mrkD mRNA expression level in the studied strains was significantly reduced after treatment with niosome-containing amikacin compared to free amikacin (***p < 0.001). It was confirmed that in the presence of the niosome, the amikacin antibacterial activity increased while the concentration of the drug used decreased, the formation of biofilm inhibited, and reduced antibiotics resistance in MDR Klebsiella strains.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Amikacin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cholesterol , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Lipids , Liposomes/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polysorbates/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043715

ABSTRACT

One of the public health issues faced worldwide is antibiotic resistance (AR). During the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, AR has increased. Since some studies have stated AR has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, and others have stated otherwise, this study aimed to explore this impact. Seven databases-PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane, Web of Science, and CINAHL-were searched using related keywords to identify studies relevant to AR during COVID-19 published from December 2019 to May 2022, according to PRISMA guidelines. Twenty-three studies were included in this review, and the evidence showed that AR has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. The most commonly reported resistant Gram-negative bacteria was Acinetobacterbaumannii, followed by Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A. baumannii and K. pneumonia were highly resistant to tested antibiotics compared with E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Moreover, K. pneumonia showed high resistance to colistin. Commonly reported Gram-positive bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium. The resistance of E. faecium to ampicillin, erythromycin, and Ciprofloxacin was high. Self-antibiotic medication, empirical antibiotic administration, and antibiotics prescribed by general practitioners were the risk factors of high levels of AR during COVID-19. Antibiotics' prescription should be strictly implemented, relying on the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) and guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) or Ministry of Health (MOH).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colistin , Ampicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ciprofloxacin , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Erythromycin , Escherichia coli , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
19.
Peptides ; 158: 170880, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042086

ABSTRACT

The fact that some antimicrobial peptides have been utilized clinically and as food preservatives stimulated the efforts in search of new candidates. In our previous studies, we succeeded in designing potent peptides against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), and Ebola viruses based on the database filtering technology. The designed peptides were proved highly potent. However, this ab initio method has not been utilized to design antifungal peptides. This study report two novel antifungal peptides with 21 and 15 amino acids designed by more effectively extracting the most probable parameters from ∼1200 antifungal peptides in the antimicrobial peptide database (APD). Subsequent hydrophobic diversification led to two peptide variants with enhanced activity against four fungal strains but reduced cytotoxicity to four mammalian cell lines. DFTAFP-1A (KWSGAAAKKLKSLLSGLGKLL) and DFTAFP-2A (KWSGLLLKLGAASKL) retained activity against Zygosaccharomyces bailii at pH 5.6 and 6.3 or after autoclave. The peptides could permeabilize fungal membranes and adopted helical conformations in membrane mimetic micelles. Collectively, this study demonstrated not only the successful design of two novel antifungal peptides based on the APD database but also optimization of desired peptide properties. This improved database approach may be utilized to design useful peptides to combat other drug-resistant pathogens as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Animals , Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/pharmacology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mammals
20.
PLoS Biol ; 20(8): e3001721, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039215

ABSTRACT

The Comprehensive Resistance Prediction for Tuberculosis: an International Consortium (CRyPTIC) presents here a data compendium of 12,289 Mycobacterium tuberculosis global clinical isolates, all of which have undergone whole-genome sequencing and have had their minimum inhibitory concentrations to 13 antitubercular drugs measured in a single assay. It is the largest matched phenotypic and genotypic dataset for M. tuberculosis to date. Here, we provide a summary detailing the breadth of data collected, along with a description of how the isolates were selected, collected, and uniformly processed in CRyPTIC partner laboratories across 23 countries. The compendium contains 6,814 isolates resistant to at least 1 drug, including 2,129 samples that fully satisfy the clinical definitions of rifampicin resistant (RR), multidrug resistant (MDR), pre-extensively drug resistant (pre-XDR), or extensively drug resistant (XDR). The data are enriched for rare resistance-associated variants, and the current limits of genotypic prediction of resistance status (sensitive/resistant) are presented by using a genetic mutation catalogue, along with the presence of suspected resistance-conferring mutations for isolates resistant to the newly introduced drugs bedaquiline, clofazimine, delamanid, and linezolid. Finally, a case study of rifampicin monoresistance demonstrates how this compendium could be used to advance our genetic understanding of rare resistance phenotypes. The data compendium is fully open source and it is hoped that it will facilitate and inspire future research for years to come.


Subject(s)
Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/microbiology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutation , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Phenotype , Rifampin , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/genetics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology
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