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1.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 142: 38-44, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487821

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine against the SARS-Cov-2 Beta variant. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Israel's mass vaccination program, using two doses of the Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine, successfully curtailed the Alpha variant outbreak during winter 2020-2021, However, the virus may mutate and partially evade the immune system. To monitor this, sequencing of selected positive swab samples of interest was initiated. Comparing vaccinated with unvaccinated PCR positive persons, we estimated the odds ratio for a vaccinated case to have the Beta vs. the Alpha variant, using logistic regression, controlling for important confounders. RESULTS: There were 19 cases of Beta variant (3.2%) among those vaccinated more than 14 days before the positive sample and 79 (3.4%) among the unvaccinated. The estimated odds ratio was 1.26 (95% CI: 0.65-2.46). Assuming the effectiveness against the Alpha variant to be 95%, the estimated effectiveness against the Beta variant was 94% (95% CI: 88%-98%). CONCLUSION: Despite concerns over the Beta variant, the BNT162b2 vaccine seemed to provide substantial immunity against both the Beta and the Alpha variants. From 14 days following the second vaccine dose, the effectiveness of BNT162b2 vaccine was at most marginally affected by the Beta variant.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Israel , Logistic Models , Male , Mass Vaccination , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Young Adult
3.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244885, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251754

ABSTRACT

Human influenza virus infections occur annually worldwide and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Hence, development of novel anti-influenza drugs is urgently required. Rice Power® extract developed by the Yushin Brewer Co. Ltd. is a novel aqueous extract of rice obtained via saccharization and fermentation with various microorganisms, such as Aspergillus oryzae, yeast [such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae], and lactic acid bacteria, possessing various biological and pharmacological properties. In our previous experimental screening with thirty types of Rice Power® extracts, we observed that the 30th Rice Power® (Y30) extract promoted the survival of influenza A virus-infected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Therefore, to identify compounds for the development of novel anti-influenza drugs, we aimed to investigate whether the Y30 extract exhibits anti-influenza A virus activity. In the present study, we demonstrated that the Y30 extract strongly promoted the survival of influenza A H1N1 Puerto Rico 8/34 (A/PR/8/34), California 7/09, or H3N2 Aichi 2/68 (A/Aichi/2/68) viruses-infected MDCK cells and inhibited A/PR/8/34 or A/Aichi/2/68 viruses infection and growth in the co-treatment and pre-infection experiments. The pre-treatment of Y30 extract on MDCK cells did not induce anti-influenza activity in the cell. The Y30 extract did not significantly affect influenza A virus hemagglutination, and neuraminidase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activities. Interestingly, the electron microscopy experiment revealed that the Y30 extract disrupts the integrity of influenza A virus particles by permeabilizing the viral membrane envelope, suggesting that Y30 extract has a direct virucidal effect against influenza A virus. Furthermore, we observed that compared to the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract, the water extract of Y30 extract considerably promoted the survival of cells infected with A/PR/8/34 virus. These results indicated that more anti-influenza components were present in the water extract of Y30 extract than in the EtOAc extract. Our results highlight the potential of a rice extract fermented with A. oryzae and S. cerevisiae as an anti-influenza medicine and a drug source for the development of anti-influenza compounds.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus oryzae/metabolism , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Oryza/chemistry , Oryza/microbiology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Water/chemistry , Acetates/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Dogs , Fermentation , Influenza A virus/growth & development , Influenza A virus/physiology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Microbial Viability/drug effects
4.
J Hosp Infect ; 111: 35-39, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has resulted in high levels of exposure of medical workers to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Hand decontamination is one of the actions recommended to reduce the risk of infection. AIM: Two disinfectants - BIAKOS antimicrobial skin and wound cleanser (AWC) and AWC2 (Sanara MedTech, Fort Worth, TX, USA) - were tested to determine whether they can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 upon contact or as a coating applied before contact with the virus. METHODS: The ability of AWC and AWC2 to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 was tested in liquid and dried form on plastic surfaces and porcine skin. FINDINGS: AWC and AWC2 were effective in reducing the infectious titre of SARS-CoV-2 in liquid form during application and in dried form 4 h after application. Virus on skin was reduced up to 2 log10-fold and 3.5 log10-fold after treatment with AWC and AWC2, respectively. CONCLUSION: Application of AWC and AWC2 to skin reduces the level of SARS-CoV-2 and the risk of infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Sanitizers/administration & dosage , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Skin/virology , Administration, Topical , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Hosp Infect ; 110: 33-36, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051767

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global health threat with a huge number of confirmed cases and deaths all over the world. Human-to-human transmission via respiratory droplets and contact with aerosol-infected surfaces are the major routes of virus spread. Because SARS-CoV-2 can remain in the air and on surfaces from several hours to several days, disinfection of frequently touched surfaces and critical rooms, in addition to observing individual hygiene tips, is required to reduce the virus spreading. Here we report on an investigation into the use of gaseous ozone as a potentially effective sanitizing method against the new coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Disinfection/methods , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Ozone , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aerosols , Humans
7.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 6(9): 4858-4861, 2020 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841401

ABSTRACT

In this letter, we report the ability of the nanostructured aluminum Al 6063 alloy surfaces to inactivate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There was no recoverable viable virus after 6 h of exposure to the nanostructured surface, elucidating a 5-log reduction compared to a flat Al 6063 surface. The nanostructured surfaces were fabricated using wet-etching techniques which generated nanotextured, randomly aligned ridges approximately 23 nm wide on the Al 6063 alloy surfaces. In addition to the excellent mechanical resilience properties previously shown, the etched surfaces have also demonstrated superior corrosion resistance compared to the control surfaces. Such nanostructured surfaces have the potential to be used in healthcare environment such as hospitals and public spaces to reduce the surface transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Alloys/chemistry , Aluminum/chemistry , Aluminum/pharmacology , Corrosion , Surface Properties
8.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 100(2_suppl): 192S-196S, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788410

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From the first reported cases in December 2019, the virus has spread to over 4 million people worldwide. Human-to-human transmission occurs mainly through the aerosolization of respiratory droplets. Transmission also occurs through contact with contaminated surfaces and other fomites. Improved antisepsis of human and nonhuman surfaces has been identified as a key feature of transmission reduction. There are no previous studies of povidone iodine (PVP-I) against SARS-CoV-2. This study evaluated nasal and oral antiseptic formulations of PVP-I for virucidal activity against SARS-CoV-2. This is the first report on the efficacy of PVP-I against the virus that causes COVID-19. METHODS: Povidone iodine nasal antiseptic formulations and PVP-I oral rinse antiseptic formulations from 1% to 5% concentrations as well as controls were studied for virucidal efficacy against the SARS-CoV-2. Test compounds were evaluated for ability to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 as measured in a virucidal assay. SARS-CoV-2 was exposed directly to the test compound for 60 seconds, compounds were then neutralized, and surviving virus was quantified. RESULTS: All concentrations of nasal antiseptics and oral rinse antiseptics evaluated completely inactivated the SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Nasal and oral PVP-I antiseptic solutions are effective at inactivating the SARS-CoV-2 at a variety of concentrations after 60-second exposure times. The formulations tested may help to reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 if used for nasal decontamination, oral decontamination, or surface decontamination in known or suspected cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Topical , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Mouth Mucosa , Mouthwashes , Nasal Lavage , Nasal Mucosa
10.
Small ; 16(13): e1906206, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479

ABSTRACT

With the gradual usage of carbon dots (CDs) in the area of antiviral research, attempts have been stepped up to develop new antiviral CDs with high biocompatibility and antiviral effects. In this study, a kind of highly biocompatible CDs (Gly-CDs) is synthesized from active ingredient (glycyrrhizic acid) of Chinese herbal medicine by a hydrothermal method. Using the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) as a model, it is found that the Gly-CDs inhibit PRRSV proliferation by up to 5 orders of viral titers. Detailed investigations reveal that Gly-CDs can inhibit PRRSV invasion and replication, stimulate antiviral innate immune responses, and inhibit the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by PRRSV infection. Proteomics analysis demonstrates that Gly-CDs can stimulate cells to regulate the expression of some host restriction factors, including DDX53 and NOS3, which are directly related to PRRSV proliferation. Moreover, it is found that Gly-CDs also remarkably suppress the propagation of other viruses, such as pseudorabies virus (PRV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), suggesting the broad antiviral activity of Gly-CDs. The integrated results demonstrate that Gly-CDs possess extraordinary antiviral activity with multisite inhibition mechanisms, providing a promising candidate for alternative therapy for PRRSV infection.


Subject(s)
Carbon/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Microbial Viability , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/drug effects , Swine , Virus Replication/drug effects
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