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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253656

ABSTRACT

Functional or compositional perturbations of the microbiome can occur at different sites, of the body and this dysbiosis has been linked to various diseases. Changes in the nasopharyngeal microbiome are associated to patient's susceptibility to multiple viral infections, supporting the idea that the nasopharynx may be playing an important role in health and disease. Most studies on the nasopharyngeal microbiome have focused on a specific period in the lifespan, such as infancy or the old age, or have other limitations such as low sample size. Therefore, detailed studies analyzing the age- and sex-associated changes in the nasopharyngeal microbiome of healthy people across their whole life are essential to understand the relevance of the nasopharynx in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases, particularly viral infections. One hundred twenty nasopharyngeal samples from healthy subjects of all ages and both sexes were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Nasopharyngeal bacterial alpha diversity did not vary in any case between age or sex groups. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in all the age groups, with several sex-associated. Acinetobacter, Brevundimonas, Dolosigranulum, Finegoldia, Haemophilus, Leptotrichia, Moraxella, Peptoniphilus, Pseudomonas, Rothia, and Staphylococcus were the only 11 bacterial genera that presented significant age-associated differences. Other bacterial genera such as Anaerococcus, Burkholderia, Campylobacter, Delftia, Prevotella, Neisseria, Propionibacterium, Streptococcus, Ralstonia, Sphingomonas, and Corynebacterium appeared in the population with a very high frequency, suggesting that their presence might be biologically relevant. Therefore, in contrast to other anatomical areas such as the gut, bacterial diversity in the nasopharynx of healthy subjects remains stable and resistant to perturbations throughout the whole life and in both sexes. Age-associated abundance changes were observed at phylum, family, and genus levels, as well as several sex-associated changes probably due to the different levels of sex hormones present in both sexes at certain ages. Our results provide a complete and valuable dataset that will be useful for future research aiming for studying the relationship between changes in the nasopharyngeal microbiome and susceptibility to or severity of multiple diseases.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Virus Diseases , Male , Female , Humans , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Genes, rRNA , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , Aging , Virus Diseases/genetics
2.
mSystems ; 8(1): e0057622, 2023 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287221

ABSTRACT

Shopping malls offer various niches for microbial populations, potentially serving as sources and reservoirs for the spread of microorganisms of public health concern. However, knowledge about the microbiome and the distribution of human pathogens in malls is largely unknown. Here, we examine the microbial community dynamics and genotypes of potential pathogens from floor and escalator surfaces in shopping malls and adjacent road dusts and greenbelt soils. The distribution pattern of microbial communities is driven primarily by habitats and seasons. A significant enrichment of human-associated microbiota in the indoor environment indicates that human interactions with surfaces might be another strong driver for mall microbiomes. Neutral community models suggest that the microbial community assembly is strongly driven by stochastic processes. Distinct performances of microbial taxonomic signatures for environmental classifications indicate the consistent differences of microbial communities of different seasons/habitats and the strong anthropogenic effect on homogenizing microbial communities of shopping malls. Indoor environments harbored higher concentrations of human pathogens than outdoor samples, also carrying a high proportion of antimicrobial resistance-associated multidrug efflux genes and virulence genes. These findings enhanced the understanding of the microbiome in the built environment and the interactions between humans and the built environment, providing a basis for tracking biothreats and communicable diseases and developing sophisticated early warning systems. IMPORTANCE Shopping malls are distinct microbial environments which can facilitate a constant transmission of microorganisms of public health concern between humans and the built environment or between human and human. Despite extensive investigation of the natural environmental microbiome, no comprehensive profile of microbial ecology has been reported in malls. Characterizing microbial distribution, potential pathogens, and antimicrobial resistance will enhance our understanding of how these microbial communities are formed, maintained, and transferred and help establish a baseline for biosurveillance of potential public health threats in malls.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollutants , Microbiota , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Soil , Public Health , Built Environment
3.
Biomolecules ; 13(1)2022 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237631

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate oropharyngeal microbiota alterations during the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by analyzing these alterations during the infection and clearance processes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed by using positive SARS-CoV-2 quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The alterations in abundance, diversity, and potential function of the oropharyngeal microbiome were identified using metatranscriptomic sequencing analyses of oropharyngeal swab specimens from 47 patients with COVID-19 (within a week after diagnosis and within two months after recovery from COVID-19) and 40 healthy individuals. As a result, in the infection process of SARS-CoV-2, compared to the healthy individuals, the relative abundances of Prevotella, Aspergillus, and Epstein-Barr virus were elevated; the alpha diversity was decreased; the beta diversity was disordered; the relative abundance of Gram-negative bacteria was increased; and the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria was decreased. After the clearance of SARS-CoV-2, compared to the healthy individuals and patients with COVID-19, the above disordered alterations persisted in the patients who had recovered from COVID-19 and did not return to the normal level observed in the healthy individuals. Additionally, the expressions of several antibiotic resistance genes (especially multi-drug resistance, glycopeptide, and tetracycline) in the patients with COVID-19 were higher than those in the healthy individuals. After SARS-CoV-2 was cleared, the expressions of these genes in the patients who had recovered from COVID-19 were lower than those in the patients with COVID-19, and they were different from those in the healthy individuals. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that potential secondary infections with oropharyngeal bacteria, fungi, and viruses in patients who have recovered from COVID-19 should not be ignored; this evidence also highlights the clinical significance of the oropharyngeal microbiome in the early prevention of potential secondary infections of COVID-19 and suggests that it is imperative to choose appropriate antibiotics for subsequent bacterial secondary infection in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Microbiota , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Microbiota/genetics , Bacteria
4.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0279830, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hmong men in Minnesota exhibit a high prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia. Although evidence of vitamin C's effectiveness as a treatment for gout is mixed, analysis of therapeutic benefit based on an individual's multiomic signature may identify predictive markers of treatment success. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the Hmong Microbiome ANd Gout, Obesity, Vitamin C (HMANGO-C) study was to assess the effectiveness of vitamin C on serum urate in Hmong adults with and without gout/hyperuricemia. The secondary objectives were to assess if 1) vitamin C impacts the taxonomic and functional patterns of microbiota; 2) taxonomic and functional patterns of microbiota impact vitamin C's urate-lowering effects; 3) genetic variations impact vitamin C's urate-lowering effects; 4) differential microbial biomarkers exist for patients with or without gout; and 5) there is an association between obesity, gut microbiota and gout/hyperuricemia. METHODS: This prospective open-labelled clinical trial was guided by community-based participatory research principles and conducted under research safety restrictions for SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to enroll a convenient sample of 180 Hmong adults (120 with gout/hyperuricemia and 60 without gout/hyperuricemia) who provided medical, demographic, dietary and anthropometric information. Participants took vitamin C 500mg twice daily for 8 weeks and provided pre-and post- samples of blood and urine for urate measurements as well as stool samples for gut microbiome. Salivary DNA was also collected for genetic markers relevant to uric acid disposition. EXPECTED RESULTS: We expected to quantify the impact of vitamin C on serum urate in Hmong adults with and without gout/hyperuricemia. The outcome will enhance our understanding of how gut microbiome and genomic variants impact the urate-lowering of vitamin C and associations between obesity, gut microbiota and gout/hyperuricemia. Ultimately, findings may improve our understanding of the causes and potential interventions that could be used to address health disparities in the prevalence and management of gout in this underserved population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04938024 (first posted: 06/24/2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gout , Hyperuricemia , Microbiota , Male , Adult , Humans , Uric Acid , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Gout/drug therapy , Gout/epidemiology , Gout/genetics , Gout Suppressants/therapeutic use , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/complications , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Microbiota/genetics , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic
5.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274401, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154242

ABSTRACT

The microbiota gut-brain-axis is a bidirectional circuit that links the neural, endocrine, and immunological systems with gut microbial communities. The gut microbiome plays significant roles in human mind and behavior, specifically pain perception, learning capacity, memory, and temperament. Studies have shown that disruptions in the gut microbiota have been associated with substance use disorders. The interplay of gut microbiota in substance abuse disorders has not been elucidated; however, postmortem microbiome profiles may produce promising avenues for future forensic investigations. The goal of the current study was to determine gut microbiome composition in substance abuse disorder cases using transverse colon tissues of 21 drug overdose versus 19 non-overdose-related cases. We hypothesized that postmortem samples of the same cause of death will reveal similar microbial taxonomic relationships. We compared microbial diversity profiles using amplicon-based sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V4 hypervariable region. The results demonstrated that the microbial abundance in younger-aged cases were found to have significantly more operational taxonomic units than older cases. Using weighted UniFrac analysis, the influence of substances in overdose cases was found to be a significant factor in determining microbiome similarity. The results also revealed that samples of the same cause of death cluster together, showing a high degree of similarity between samples and a low degree of similarity among samples of different causes of death. In conclusion, our examination of human transverse colon microflora in decomposing remains extends emerging literature on postmortem microbial communities, which will ultimately contribute to advanced knowledge of human putrefaction.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Microbiota , Substance-Related Disorders , Aged , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Postmortem Changes , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
6.
Microb Ecol ; 86(2): 1428-1437, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158019

ABSTRACT

The microbiome of upper respiratory tract (URT) acts as a gatekeeper to respiratory health of the host. However, little is still known about the impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the microbial species composition and co-occurrence correlations of the URT microbiome, especially the relationships between SARS-CoV-2 and other microbes. Here, we characterized the URT microbiome based on RNA metagenomic-sequencing datasets from 1737 nasopharyngeal samples collected from COVID-19 patients. The URT-microbiome network consisting of bacteria, archaea, and RNA viruses was built and analyzed from aspects of core/periphery species, cluster composition, and balance between positive and negative interactions. It is discovered that the URT microbiome in the COVID-19 patients is enriched with Enterobacteriaceae, a gut associated family containing many pathogens. These pathogens formed a dense cooperative guild that seemed to suppress beneficial microbes collectively. Besides bacteria and archaea, 72 eukaryotic RNA viruses were identified in the URT microbiome of COVID-19 patients. Only five of these viruses were present in more than 10% of all samples, including SARS-CoV-2 and a bat coronavirus (i.e., BatCoV BM48-31) not detected in humans by routine means. SARS-CoV-2 was inhibited by a cooperative alliance of 89 species, but seems to cooperate with BatCoV BM48-31 given their statistically significant, positive correlations. The presence of cooperative bat-coronavirus partner of SARS-CoV-2 (BatCoV BM48-31), which was previously discovered in bat but not in humans to the best of our knowledge, is puzzling and deserves further investigation given their obvious implications. Possible microbial translocation mechanism from gut to URT also deserves future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Microbiota , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Microbiota/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , Respiratory System
7.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278543, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140711

ABSTRACT

Co-infections or secondary infections with SARS-CoV-2 have the potential to affect disease severity and morbidity. Additionally, the potential influence of the nasal microbiome on COVID-19 illness is not well understood. In this study, we analyzed 203 residual samples, originally submitted for SARS-CoV-2 testing, for the presence of viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens and non-pathogens using a comprehensive microarray technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA). Eighty-seven percent of the samples were nasopharyngeal samples, and 23% of the samples were oral, nasal and oral pharyngeal swabs. We conducted bioinformatics analyses to examine differences in microbial populations of these samples, as a proxy for the nasal and oral microbiome, from SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative specimens. We found 91% concordance with the LLMDA relative to a diagnostic RT-qPCR assay for detection of SARS-CoV-2. Sixteen percent of all the samples (32/203) revealed the presence of an opportunistic bacterial or frank viral pathogen with the potential to cause co-infections. The two most detected bacteria, Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae, were present in both SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative samples. Human metapneumovirus was the most prevalent viral pathogen in the SARS-CoV-2 negative samples. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA was also conducted to evaluate bacterial diversity and confirm LLMDA results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Microbiota , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , Microbiota/genetics
8.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 121, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the rapid accumulation of microbiome-wide association studies, a great amount of microbiome data are available to study the microbiome's role in human disease and advance the microbiome's potential use for disease prediction. However, the unique features of microbiome data hinder its utility for disease prediction. METHODS: Motivated from the polygenic risk score framework, we propose a microbial risk score (MRS) framework to aggregate the complicated microbial profile into a summarized risk score that can be used to measure and predict disease susceptibility. Specifically, the MRS algorithm involves two steps: (1) identifying a sub-community consisting of the signature microbial taxa associated with disease and (2) integrating the identified microbial taxa into a continuous score. The first step is carried out using the existing sophisticated microbial association tests and pruning and thresholding method in the discovery samples. The second step constructs a community-based MRS by calculating alpha diversity on the identified sub-community in the validation samples. Moreover, we propose a multi-omics data integration method by jointly modeling the proposed MRS and other risk scores constructed from other omics data in disease prediction. RESULTS: Through three comprehensive real-data analyses using the NYU Langone Health COVID-19 cohort, the gut microbiome health index (GMHI) multi-study cohort, and a large type 1 diabetes cohort separately, we exhibit and evaluate the utility of the proposed MRS framework for disease prediction and multi-omics data integration. In addition, the disease-specific MRSs for colorectal adenoma, colorectal cancer, Crohn's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis based on the relative abundances of 5, 6, 12, and 6 microbial taxa, respectively, are created and validated using the GMHI multi-study cohort. Especially, Crohn's disease MRS achieves AUCs of 0.88 (0.85-0.91) and 0.86 (0.78-0.95) in the discovery and validation cohorts, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed MRS framework sheds light on the utility of the microbiome data for disease prediction and multi-omics integration and provides a great potential in understanding the microbiome's role in disease diagnosis and prognosis. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Crohn Disease , Microbiota , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Risk Factors
9.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 206(7): 846-856, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053497

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Bacterial lung microbiota are correlated with lung inflammation and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and altered in severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, the association between lung microbiota (including fungi) and resolution of ARDS in COVID-19 remains unclear. We hypothesized that increased lung bacterial and fungal burdens are related to nonresolving ARDS and mortality in COVID-19. Objectives: To determine the relation between lung microbiota and clinical outcomes of COVID-19-related ARDS. Methods: This observational cohort study enrolled mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. All patients had ARDS and underwent bronchoscopy with BAL. Lung microbiota were profiled using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR targeting the 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Key features of lung microbiota (bacterial and fungal burden, α-diversity, and community composition) served as predictors. Our primary outcome was successful extubation adjudicated 60 days after intubation, analyzed using a competing risk regression model with mortality as competing risk. Measurements and Main Results: BAL samples of 114 unique patients with COVID-19 were analyzed. Patients with increased lung bacterial and fungal burden were less likely to be extubated (subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.64 [95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.97]; P = 0.034 and 0.59 [95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.83]; P = 0.0027 per log10 increase in bacterial and fungal burden, respectively) and had higher mortality (bacterial burden, P = 0.012; fungal burden, P = 0.0498). Lung microbiota composition was associated with successful extubation (P = 0.0045). Proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α) were associated with the microbial burdens. Conclusions: Bacterial and fungal lung microbiota are related to nonresolving ARDS in COVID-19 and represent an important contributor to heterogeneity in COVID-19-related ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Humans , Lung/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Respiration, Artificial , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 885029, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039674

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis was an inflammatory disease associated with a dysbiosis of the oral flora characterized by a chronic sustained inflammation inducing the resorption of alveolar bone and leading to tooth loss. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) was a metabolic disease caused by impaired insulin action. The oral microbiome played a crucial role in modulating both the innate and adaptive immune system during the trigger and exacerbation of periodontitis and T2D. The bidirectional relationship of T2D and periodontitis had been the focus of intensive research, but those were not well explored. In this commentary, an in-depth analysis of the changes of microbiome and bacterial metabolites in periodontitis with or without diabetes was described. The promotion of periodontitis to T2D might involve inflammatory factors/receptors, oxidative stress, microRNA and so on. The effect of diabetes on periodontitis might involve adipose factor pathway, AGE/RAGE and RANK/RANKL pathway etc. Generally, periodontitis and diabetes are closely related to the microecological-epithelial interaction, soft tissue degradation, bone coupling disorder, immune regulation and gene transcription. The viruses, including HBV, HCV, HSV-1, Coronavirus, HCMV, EBV, HIV, phageome and so on, played an important role in the development of T2D and periodontitis. An in-depth understanding of the relationship between microbiome and host was of great significance to clarify the bidirectional mechanisms, suggesting that the periodontitis or T2D remission will have a positive impact on the other.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulins , MicroRNAs , Microbiota , Periodontitis , Viruses , Bacteria/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Microbiota/genetics , Viruses/genetics
11.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 214, 2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tongue coating is an important health indicator in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The tongue coating microbiome can distinguish disease patients from healthy controls. To study the relationship between different types of tongue coatings and health, we analyzed the species composition of different types of tongue coatings and the co-occurrence relationships between microorganisms in Chinese adults. From June 2019 to October 2020, 158 adults from Hangzhou and Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province, were enrolled. We classified the TCM tongue coatings into four different types: thin white tongue fur (TWF), thin yellow tongue fur (TYF), white greasy tongue fur (WGF), and yellow greasy tongue fur (YGF). Tongue coating specimens were collected and used for 16S rRNA gene sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq system. Wilcoxon rank-sum and permutational multivariate analysis of variance tests were used to analyze the data. The microbial networks in the four types of tongue coatings were inferred independently using sparse inverse covariance estimation for ecological association inference. RESULTS: The microbial composition was similar among the different tongue coatings; however, the abundance of microorganisms differed. TWF had a higher abundance of Fusobacterium periodonticum and Neisseria mucosa, the highest α-diversity, and a highly connected community (average degree = 3.59, average closeness centrality = 0.33). TYF had the lowest α-diversity, but the most species in the co-occurrence network diagram (number of nodes = 88). The platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) was associated with tongue coating (P = 0.035), and the YGF and TYF groups had higher PLR values. In the co-occurrence network, Aggregatibacter segnis was the "driver species" of the TWF and TYF groups and correlated with C-reactive protein (P < 0.05). Streptococcus anginosus was the "driver species" in the YGF and TWF groups and was positively correlated with body mass index and weight (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Different tongue coatings have similar microbial compositions but different abundances of certain bacteria. The co-occurrence of microorganisms in the different tongue coatings also varies. The significance of different tongue coatings in TCM theory is consistent with the characteristics and roles of the corresponding tongue-coating microbes. This further supports considering tongue coating as a risk factor for disease.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Tongue , Adult , Bacteria/genetics , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Tongue/microbiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987799

ABSTRACT

The compositional analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing datasets is applied to characterize the bacterial structure of airborne samples collected in different locations of a hospital infection disease department hosting COVID-19 patients, as well as to investigate the relationships among bacterial taxa at the genus and species level. The exploration of the centered log-ratio transformed data by the principal component analysis via the singular value decomposition has shown that the collected samples segregated with an observable separation depending on the monitoring location. More specifically, two main sample clusters were identified with regards to bacterial genera (species), consisting of samples mostly collected in rooms with and without COVID-19 patients, respectively. Human pathogenic genera (species) associated with nosocomial infections were mostly found in samples from areas hosting patients, while non-pathogenic genera (species) mainly isolated from soil were detected in the other samples. Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus pettenkoferi, Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum, and jeikeium were the main pathogenic species detected in COVID-19 patients' rooms. Samples from these locations were on average characterized by smaller richness/evenness and diversity than the other ones, both at the genus and species level. Finally, the ρ metrics revealed that pairwise positive associations occurred either between pathogenic or non-pathogenic taxa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Bacteria , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Analysis , Genes, rRNA , Hospitals , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13404, 2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972664

ABSTRACT

We aimed to analyze the nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles in pregnant women with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection, considered a vulnerable population during COVID-19 pandemic. Pregnant women were enrolled from a multicenter prospective population-based cohort during the first SARS-CoV-2 wave in Spain (March-June 2020 in Barcelona, Spain) in which the status of SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by nasopharyngeal RT-PCR and antibodies in peripheral blood. Women were randomly selected for this cross-sectional study on microbiota. DNA was extracted from nasopharyngeal swab samples, and the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA of bacteria was amplified using region-specific primers. The differential abundance of taxa was tested, and alpha/beta diversity was evaluated. Among 76 women, 38 were classified as positive and 38 as negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All positive women were diagnosed by SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM/IgA antibodies, and 14 (37%) also had a positive RT-PCR. The overall composition of the nasopharyngeal microbiota differ in pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection (positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies), compared to those without the infection (negative SARS-CoV-2 antibodies) (p = 0.001), with a higher relative abundance of the Tenericutes and Bacteroidetes phyla and a higher abundance of the Prevotellaceae family. Infected women presented a different pattern of microbiota profiling due to beta diversity and higher richness (observed ASV < 0.001) and evenness (Shannon index < 0.001) at alpha diversity. These changes were also present in women after acute infection, as revealed by negative RT-PCR but positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, suggesting a potential association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and long-lasting shift in the nasopharyngeal microbiota. No significant differences were reported in mild vs. severe cases. This is the first study on nasopharyngeal microbiota during pregnancy. Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection had a different nasopharyngeal microbiota profile compared to negative cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Med Virol ; 94(11): 5284-5293, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935699

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the characteristics of respiratory tract microbiome in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inpatients with different severity. We conducted a study that expected to clarify these characteristics as much as possible. A cross-sectional study was conducted to characterize respiratory tract microbial communities of 69 COVID-19 inpatients from 64 nasopharyngeal swabs and 5 sputum specimens using 16S ribosomal RNA gene V3-V4 region sequencing. The bacterial profiles were analyzed to find potential biomarkers by the two-step method, the combination of random forest model and the linear discriminant analysis effect size, and explore the connections with clinical characteristics by Spearman's rank test. Compared with mild COVID-19 patients, severe patients had significantly decreased bacterial diversity (p-values were less than 0.05 in the alpha and beta diversity) and relative lower abundance of opportunistic pathogens, including Actinomyces, Prevotella, Rothia, Streptococcus, Veillonella. Eight potential biomarkers including Treponema, Leptotrichia, Lachnoanaerobaculum, Parvimonas, Alloprevotella, Porphyromonas, Gemella, and Streptococcus were found to distinguish the mild COVID-19 patients from the severe COVID-19 patients. The genera of Actinomyces and Prevotella were negatively correlated with age in two groups. Intensive care unit admission, neutrophil count, and lymphocyte count were significantly correlated with different genera in the two groups. In addition, there was a positive correlation between Klebsiella and white blood cell count in two groups. The respiratory tract microbiome had significant differences in COVID-19 patients with different severity. The value of the respiratory tract microbiome as predictive biomarkers for COVID-19 severity deserves further exploration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Respiratory System , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939013

ABSTRACT

The increased incidence of COVID-19 cases and deaths in Spain in March 2020 led to the declaration by the Spanish government of a state of emergency imposing strict confinement measures on the population. The objective of this study was to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children and adults and its relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity during the pandemic lockdown in Spain. This cross-sectional study included family households located in metropolitan Barcelona, Spain, with one adult with a previous confirmed COVID-19 episode and one or more exposed co-habiting child contacts. Nasopharyngeal swabs were used to determine SARS-CoV-2 infection status, characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota and determine common respiratory DNA/RNA viral co-infections. A total of 173 adult cases and 470 exposed children were included. Overall, a predominance of Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum and a limited abundance of common pathobionts including Haemophilus and Streptococcus were found both among adults and children. Children with current SARS-CoV-2 infection presented higher bacterial richness and increased Fusobacterium, Streptococcus and Prevotella abundance than non-infected children. Among adults, persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA was associated with an increased abundance of an unclassified member of the Actinomycetales order. COVID-19 severity was associated with increased Staphylococcus and reduced Dolosigranulum abundance. The stringent COVID-19 lockdown in Spain had a significant impact on the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children, reflected in the limited abundance of common respiratory pathobionts and the predominance of Corynebacterium, regardless of SARS-CoV-2 detection. COVID-19 severity in adults was associated with decreased nasopharynx levels of healthy commensal bacteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Viruses , Adult , Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus , Viruses/genetics
16.
Microb Pathog ; 170: 105685, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the prevalence of COVID-19, infection symptoms are different in children and adults. In this study to investigate the differences in the upper respiratory tract microbiome profile between healthy children and adults and to explore which microbiome protect them from COVID-19. METHODS: Thirty healthy children and 24 healthy adults were enrolled between October 2020 and January 2021. Nasal and throat swabs were obtained at enrollment, and DNA was extracted. We performed 16S rDNA sequencing to compare the alpha and beta diversity of the nasal and throat microbiomes between children and adults and assessed potential microbiome biomarkers. RESULTS: In the nasal microbiome, there were significant differences between healthy children and adults, and Moraxella occupied the largest proportion in healthy children. Notably, there was no significant difference between healthy children and adults in the throat microbiome, and it was predominated by Firmicutes. In the function analysis, compared with adults, there was increased enrichment in pathways related to amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism, in children. CONCLUSIONS: In the upper respiratory tract microbiome profiles, Moraxella may be involved in protecting children from COVID-19 infections and may be involved the amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Adult , Amino Acids , Child , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Moraxella , Nose , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 260-265, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914472

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Infectious diseases are common but are not easily or readily diagnosed with current methodologies. This problem is further exacerbated by the constant presence of mutated, emerging, and novel pathogens. One of the most common sites of infection by many pathogens is the human throat. However, there is no universal diagnostic test that can distinguish these pathogens. Metatranscriptomic (MT) analysis of the throat represents an important and novel development in infectious disease detection and characterization, because it is able to identify all pathogens using a fully unbiased approach. METHODS: To test the utility of an MT approach to pathogen detection, throat samples were collected from participants before, during, and after an acute sickness. RESULTS: Clear sickness-associated shifts in pathogenic microorganisms were detected in the patients. Important insights into microbial functions and antimicrobial resistance genes were obtained. CONCLUSION: MT analysis of the throat represents an effective method for the unbiased identification and characterization of pathogens. Because MT data include all microorganisms in the sample, this approach should not only allow the identification of pathogens, but provide an understanding of the effects of the resident throat microbiome in the context of human health and disease.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Pharynx , Humans , Microbiota/genetics
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e928-e937, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children are less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and typically have milder illness courses than adults, but the factors underlying these age-associated differences are not well understood. The upper respiratory microbiome undergoes substantial shifts during childhood and is increasingly recognized to influence host defense against respiratory pathogens. Thus, we sought to identify upper respiratory microbiome features associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility and illness severity. METHODS: We collected clinical data and nasopharyngeal swabs from 285 children, adolescents, and young adults (<21 years) with documented SARS-CoV-2 exposure. We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome and evaluated for age-adjusted associations between microbiome characteristics and SARS-CoV-2 infection status and respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal microbiome composition varied with age (PERMANOVA, P < .001; R2 = 0.06) and between SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with and without respiratory symptoms (PERMANOVA, P  = .002; R2 = 0.009). SARS-CoV-2-infected participants with Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum-dominant microbiome profiles were less likely to have respiratory symptoms than infected participants with other nasopharyngeal microbiome profiles (OR: .38; 95% CI: .18-.81). Using generalized joint attributed modeling, we identified 9 bacterial taxa associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 6 taxa differentially abundant among SARS-CoV-2-infected participants with respiratory symptoms; the magnitude of these associations was strongly influenced by age. CONCLUSIONS: We identified interactive relationships between age and specific nasopharyngeal microbiome features that are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility and symptoms in children, adolescents, and young adults. Our data suggest that the upper respiratory microbiome may be a mechanism by which age influences SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and illness severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Adolescent , Bacteria/genetics , Child , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0231121, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846341

ABSTRACT

The modulators of severe COVID-19 have emerged as the most intriguing features of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. This is especially true as we are encountering variants of concern (VOC) with increased transmissibility and vaccination breakthroughs. Microbial co-infections are being investigated as one of the crucial factors for exacerbation of disease severity and complications of COVID-19. A key question remains whether early transcriptionally active microbial signature/s in COVID-19 patients can provide a window for future disease severity susceptibility and outcome? Using complementary metagenomics sequencing approaches, respiratory virus oligo panel (RVOP) and Holo-seq, our study highlights the possible functional role of nasopharyngeal early resident transcriptionally active microbes in modulating disease severity, within recovered patients with sub-phenotypes (mild, moderate, severe) and mortality. The integrative analysis combines patients' clinical parameters, SARS-CoV-2 phylogenetic analysis, microbial differential composition, and their functional role. The clinical sub-phenotypes analysis led to the identification of transcriptionally active bacterial species associated with disease severity. We found significant transcript abundance of Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Bacillus cereus in the mortality, Leptotrichia buccalis in the severe, Veillonella parvula in the moderate, and Actinomyces meyeri and Halomonas sp. in the mild COVID-19 patients. Additionally, the metabolic pathways, distinguishing the microbial functional signatures between the clinical sub-phenotypes, were also identified. We report a plausible mechanism wherein the increased transcriptionally active bacterial isolates might contribute to enhanced inflammatory response and co-infections that could modulate the disease severity in these groups. Current study provides an opportunity for potentially using these bacterial species for screening and identifying COVID-19 patient sub-groups with severe disease outcome and priority medical care. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 is invariably a disease of diverse clinical manifestation, with multiple facets involved in modulating the progression and outcome. In this regard, we investigated the role of transcriptionally active microbial co-infections as possible modulators of disease pathology in hospital admitted SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Specifically, can there be early nasopharyngeal microbial signatures indicative of prospective disease severity? Based on disease severity symptoms, the patients were segregated into clinical sub-phenotypes: mild, moderate, severe (recovered), and mortality. We identified significant presence of transcriptionally active isolates, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Bacillus cereus in the mortality patients. Importantly, the bacterial species might contribute toward enhancing the inflammatory responses as well as reported to be resistant to common antibiotic therapy, which together hold potential to alter the disease severity and outcome.


Subject(s)
Achromobacter denitrificans , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Microbiota , Achromobacter denitrificans/genetics , Bacillus cereus , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Phylogeny , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0195621, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846337

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infectious disease responsible for many infections worldwide. Differences in respiratory microbiota may correlate with disease severity. Samples were collected from 20 severe and 51 mild COVID-19 patients. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to analyze the bacterial community composition of the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The indices of diversity were analyzed. When one genus accounted for >50% of reads from a sample, it was defined as a super dominant pathobiontic bacterial genus (SDPG). In the upper respiratory tract, uniformity indices were significantly higher in the mild group than in the severe group (P < 0.001). In the lower respiratory tract, uniformity indices, richness indices, and the abundance-based coverage estimator were significantly higher in the mild group than in the severe group (P < 0.001). In patients with severe COVID-19, SDPGs were detected in 40.7% of upper and 63.2% of lower respiratory tract samples. In patients with mild COVID-19, only 10.8% of upper and 8.5% of lower respiratory tract samples yielded SDPGs. SDPGs were present in both upper and lower tracts in seven patients (35.0%), among which six (30.0%) patients possessed the same SDPG in the upper and lower tracts. However, no patients with mild infections had an SDPG in both tracts. Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Acinetobacter were the main SDPGs. The number of SDPGs identified differed significantly between patients with mild and severe COVID-19 (P < 0.001). SDPGs in nasopharyngeal microbiota cause secondary bacterial infection in COVID-19 patients and aggravate pneumonia. IMPORTANCE The nasopharyngeal microbiota is composed of a variety of not only the true commensal bacterial species but also the two-face pathobionts, which are one a harmless commensal bacterial species and the other a highly invasive and deadly pathogen. In a previous study, we found that the diversity of nasopharyngeal microbiota was lost in severe influenza patients. We named the genus that accounted for over 50% of microbiota abundance as super dominant pathobiontic genus, which could invade to cause severe pneumonia, leading to high fatality. Similar phenomena were found here for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The diversity of nasopharyngeal microbiota was lost in severe COVID-19 infection patients. SDPGs in nasopharyngeal microbiota were frequently detected in severe COVID-19 patients. Therefore, the SDPGs in nasopharynx microbiota might invade into low respiratory and be responsible for secondary bacterial pneumonia in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Microbiota , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
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