Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 40
Filter
1.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 206(7): 846-856, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053497

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Bacterial lung microbiota are correlated with lung inflammation and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and altered in severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, the association between lung microbiota (including fungi) and resolution of ARDS in COVID-19 remains unclear. We hypothesized that increased lung bacterial and fungal burdens are related to nonresolving ARDS and mortality in COVID-19. Objectives: To determine the relation between lung microbiota and clinical outcomes of COVID-19-related ARDS. Methods: This observational cohort study enrolled mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. All patients had ARDS and underwent bronchoscopy with BAL. Lung microbiota were profiled using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR targeting the 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Key features of lung microbiota (bacterial and fungal burden, α-diversity, and community composition) served as predictors. Our primary outcome was successful extubation adjudicated 60 days after intubation, analyzed using a competing risk regression model with mortality as competing risk. Measurements and Main Results: BAL samples of 114 unique patients with COVID-19 were analyzed. Patients with increased lung bacterial and fungal burden were less likely to be extubated (subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.64 [95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.97]; P = 0.034 and 0.59 [95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.83]; P = 0.0027 per log10 increase in bacterial and fungal burden, respectively) and had higher mortality (bacterial burden, P = 0.012; fungal burden, P = 0.0498). Lung microbiota composition was associated with successful extubation (P = 0.0045). Proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α) were associated with the microbial burdens. Conclusions: Bacterial and fungal lung microbiota are related to nonresolving ARDS in COVID-19 and represent an important contributor to heterogeneity in COVID-19-related ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Humans , Lung/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Respiration, Artificial , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 885029, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039674

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis was an inflammatory disease associated with a dysbiosis of the oral flora characterized by a chronic sustained inflammation inducing the resorption of alveolar bone and leading to tooth loss. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) was a metabolic disease caused by impaired insulin action. The oral microbiome played a crucial role in modulating both the innate and adaptive immune system during the trigger and exacerbation of periodontitis and T2D. The bidirectional relationship of T2D and periodontitis had been the focus of intensive research, but those were not well explored. In this commentary, an in-depth analysis of the changes of microbiome and bacterial metabolites in periodontitis with or without diabetes was described. The promotion of periodontitis to T2D might involve inflammatory factors/receptors, oxidative stress, microRNA and so on. The effect of diabetes on periodontitis might involve adipose factor pathway, AGE/RAGE and RANK/RANKL pathway etc. Generally, periodontitis and diabetes are closely related to the microecological-epithelial interaction, soft tissue degradation, bone coupling disorder, immune regulation and gene transcription. The viruses, including HBV, HCV, HSV-1, Coronavirus, HCMV, EBV, HIV, phageome and so on, played an important role in the development of T2D and periodontitis. An in-depth understanding of the relationship between microbiome and host was of great significance to clarify the bidirectional mechanisms, suggesting that the periodontitis or T2D remission will have a positive impact on the other.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulins , MicroRNAs , Microbiota , Periodontitis , Viruses , Bacteria/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Microbiota/genetics , Viruses/genetics
3.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 214, 2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tongue coating is an important health indicator in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The tongue coating microbiome can distinguish disease patients from healthy controls. To study the relationship between different types of tongue coatings and health, we analyzed the species composition of different types of tongue coatings and the co-occurrence relationships between microorganisms in Chinese adults. From June 2019 to October 2020, 158 adults from Hangzhou and Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province, were enrolled. We classified the TCM tongue coatings into four different types: thin white tongue fur (TWF), thin yellow tongue fur (TYF), white greasy tongue fur (WGF), and yellow greasy tongue fur (YGF). Tongue coating specimens were collected and used for 16S rRNA gene sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq system. Wilcoxon rank-sum and permutational multivariate analysis of variance tests were used to analyze the data. The microbial networks in the four types of tongue coatings were inferred independently using sparse inverse covariance estimation for ecological association inference. RESULTS: The microbial composition was similar among the different tongue coatings; however, the abundance of microorganisms differed. TWF had a higher abundance of Fusobacterium periodonticum and Neisseria mucosa, the highest α-diversity, and a highly connected community (average degree = 3.59, average closeness centrality = 0.33). TYF had the lowest α-diversity, but the most species in the co-occurrence network diagram (number of nodes = 88). The platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) was associated with tongue coating (P = 0.035), and the YGF and TYF groups had higher PLR values. In the co-occurrence network, Aggregatibacter segnis was the "driver species" of the TWF and TYF groups and correlated with C-reactive protein (P < 0.05). Streptococcus anginosus was the "driver species" in the YGF and TWF groups and was positively correlated with body mass index and weight (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Different tongue coatings have similar microbial compositions but different abundances of certain bacteria. The co-occurrence of microorganisms in the different tongue coatings also varies. The significance of different tongue coatings in TCM theory is consistent with the characteristics and roles of the corresponding tongue-coating microbes. This further supports considering tongue coating as a risk factor for disease.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Tongue , Adult , Bacteria/genetics , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Tongue/microbiology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987799

ABSTRACT

The compositional analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing datasets is applied to characterize the bacterial structure of airborne samples collected in different locations of a hospital infection disease department hosting COVID-19 patients, as well as to investigate the relationships among bacterial taxa at the genus and species level. The exploration of the centered log-ratio transformed data by the principal component analysis via the singular value decomposition has shown that the collected samples segregated with an observable separation depending on the monitoring location. More specifically, two main sample clusters were identified with regards to bacterial genera (species), consisting of samples mostly collected in rooms with and without COVID-19 patients, respectively. Human pathogenic genera (species) associated with nosocomial infections were mostly found in samples from areas hosting patients, while non-pathogenic genera (species) mainly isolated from soil were detected in the other samples. Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus pettenkoferi, Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum, and jeikeium were the main pathogenic species detected in COVID-19 patients' rooms. Samples from these locations were on average characterized by smaller richness/evenness and diversity than the other ones, both at the genus and species level. Finally, the ρ metrics revealed that pairwise positive associations occurred either between pathogenic or non-pathogenic taxa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Bacteria , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Analysis , Genes, rRNA , Hospitals , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13404, 2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972664

ABSTRACT

We aimed to analyze the nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles in pregnant women with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection, considered a vulnerable population during COVID-19 pandemic. Pregnant women were enrolled from a multicenter prospective population-based cohort during the first SARS-CoV-2 wave in Spain (March-June 2020 in Barcelona, Spain) in which the status of SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by nasopharyngeal RT-PCR and antibodies in peripheral blood. Women were randomly selected for this cross-sectional study on microbiota. DNA was extracted from nasopharyngeal swab samples, and the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA of bacteria was amplified using region-specific primers. The differential abundance of taxa was tested, and alpha/beta diversity was evaluated. Among 76 women, 38 were classified as positive and 38 as negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All positive women were diagnosed by SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM/IgA antibodies, and 14 (37%) also had a positive RT-PCR. The overall composition of the nasopharyngeal microbiota differ in pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection (positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies), compared to those without the infection (negative SARS-CoV-2 antibodies) (p = 0.001), with a higher relative abundance of the Tenericutes and Bacteroidetes phyla and a higher abundance of the Prevotellaceae family. Infected women presented a different pattern of microbiota profiling due to beta diversity and higher richness (observed ASV < 0.001) and evenness (Shannon index < 0.001) at alpha diversity. These changes were also present in women after acute infection, as revealed by negative RT-PCR but positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, suggesting a potential association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and long-lasting shift in the nasopharyngeal microbiota. No significant differences were reported in mild vs. severe cases. This is the first study on nasopharyngeal microbiota during pregnancy. Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection had a different nasopharyngeal microbiota profile compared to negative cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(11): 5284-5293, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935699

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the characteristics of respiratory tract microbiome in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inpatients with different severity. We conducted a study that expected to clarify these characteristics as much as possible. A cross-sectional study was conducted to characterize respiratory tract microbial communities of 69 COVID-19 inpatients from 64 nasopharyngeal swabs and 5 sputum specimens using 16S ribosomal RNA gene V3-V4 region sequencing. The bacterial profiles were analyzed to find potential biomarkers by the two-step method, the combination of random forest model and the linear discriminant analysis effect size, and explore the connections with clinical characteristics by Spearman's rank test. Compared with mild COVID-19 patients, severe patients had significantly decreased bacterial diversity (p-values were less than 0.05 in the alpha and beta diversity) and relative lower abundance of opportunistic pathogens, including Actinomyces, Prevotella, Rothia, Streptococcus, Veillonella. Eight potential biomarkers including Treponema, Leptotrichia, Lachnoanaerobaculum, Parvimonas, Alloprevotella, Porphyromonas, Gemella, and Streptococcus were found to distinguish the mild COVID-19 patients from the severe COVID-19 patients. The genera of Actinomyces and Prevotella were negatively correlated with age in two groups. Intensive care unit admission, neutrophil count, and lymphocyte count were significantly correlated with different genera in the two groups. In addition, there was a positive correlation between Klebsiella and white blood cell count in two groups. The respiratory tract microbiome had significant differences in COVID-19 patients with different severity. The value of the respiratory tract microbiome as predictive biomarkers for COVID-19 severity deserves further exploration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Respiratory System , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Microb Pathog ; 170: 105685, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the prevalence of COVID-19, infection symptoms are different in children and adults. In this study to investigate the differences in the upper respiratory tract microbiome profile between healthy children and adults and to explore which microbiome protect them from COVID-19. METHODS: Thirty healthy children and 24 healthy adults were enrolled between October 2020 and January 2021. Nasal and throat swabs were obtained at enrollment, and DNA was extracted. We performed 16S rDNA sequencing to compare the alpha and beta diversity of the nasal and throat microbiomes between children and adults and assessed potential microbiome biomarkers. RESULTS: In the nasal microbiome, there were significant differences between healthy children and adults, and Moraxella occupied the largest proportion in healthy children. Notably, there was no significant difference between healthy children and adults in the throat microbiome, and it was predominated by Firmicutes. In the function analysis, compared with adults, there was increased enrichment in pathways related to amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism, in children. CONCLUSIONS: In the upper respiratory tract microbiome profiles, Moraxella may be involved in protecting children from COVID-19 infections and may be involved the amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Adult , Amino Acids , Child , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Moraxella , Nose , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
8.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939013

ABSTRACT

The increased incidence of COVID-19 cases and deaths in Spain in March 2020 led to the declaration by the Spanish government of a state of emergency imposing strict confinement measures on the population. The objective of this study was to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children and adults and its relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity during the pandemic lockdown in Spain. This cross-sectional study included family households located in metropolitan Barcelona, Spain, with one adult with a previous confirmed COVID-19 episode and one or more exposed co-habiting child contacts. Nasopharyngeal swabs were used to determine SARS-CoV-2 infection status, characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota and determine common respiratory DNA/RNA viral co-infections. A total of 173 adult cases and 470 exposed children were included. Overall, a predominance of Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum and a limited abundance of common pathobionts including Haemophilus and Streptococcus were found both among adults and children. Children with current SARS-CoV-2 infection presented higher bacterial richness and increased Fusobacterium, Streptococcus and Prevotella abundance than non-infected children. Among adults, persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA was associated with an increased abundance of an unclassified member of the Actinomycetales order. COVID-19 severity was associated with increased Staphylococcus and reduced Dolosigranulum abundance. The stringent COVID-19 lockdown in Spain had a significant impact on the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children, reflected in the limited abundance of common respiratory pathobionts and the predominance of Corynebacterium, regardless of SARS-CoV-2 detection. COVID-19 severity in adults was associated with decreased nasopharynx levels of healthy commensal bacteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Viruses , Adult , Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus , Viruses/genetics
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 260-265, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914472

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Infectious diseases are common but are not easily or readily diagnosed with current methodologies. This problem is further exacerbated by the constant presence of mutated, emerging, and novel pathogens. One of the most common sites of infection by many pathogens is the human throat. However, there is no universal diagnostic test that can distinguish these pathogens. Metatranscriptomic (MT) analysis of the throat represents an important and novel development in infectious disease detection and characterization, because it is able to identify all pathogens using a fully unbiased approach. METHODS: To test the utility of an MT approach to pathogen detection, throat samples were collected from participants before, during, and after an acute sickness. RESULTS: Clear sickness-associated shifts in pathogenic microorganisms were detected in the patients. Important insights into microbial functions and antimicrobial resistance genes were obtained. CONCLUSION: MT analysis of the throat represents an effective method for the unbiased identification and characterization of pathogens. Because MT data include all microorganisms in the sample, this approach should not only allow the identification of pathogens, but provide an understanding of the effects of the resident throat microbiome in the context of human health and disease.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Pharynx , Humans , Microbiota/genetics
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e928-e937, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children are less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and typically have milder illness courses than adults, but the factors underlying these age-associated differences are not well understood. The upper respiratory microbiome undergoes substantial shifts during childhood and is increasingly recognized to influence host defense against respiratory pathogens. Thus, we sought to identify upper respiratory microbiome features associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility and illness severity. METHODS: We collected clinical data and nasopharyngeal swabs from 285 children, adolescents, and young adults (<21 years) with documented SARS-CoV-2 exposure. We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome and evaluated for age-adjusted associations between microbiome characteristics and SARS-CoV-2 infection status and respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal microbiome composition varied with age (PERMANOVA, P < .001; R2 = 0.06) and between SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with and without respiratory symptoms (PERMANOVA, P  = .002; R2 = 0.009). SARS-CoV-2-infected participants with Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum-dominant microbiome profiles were less likely to have respiratory symptoms than infected participants with other nasopharyngeal microbiome profiles (OR: .38; 95% CI: .18-.81). Using generalized joint attributed modeling, we identified 9 bacterial taxa associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 6 taxa differentially abundant among SARS-CoV-2-infected participants with respiratory symptoms; the magnitude of these associations was strongly influenced by age. CONCLUSIONS: We identified interactive relationships between age and specific nasopharyngeal microbiome features that are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility and symptoms in children, adolescents, and young adults. Our data suggest that the upper respiratory microbiome may be a mechanism by which age influences SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and illness severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Adolescent , Bacteria/genetics , Child , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0231121, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846341

ABSTRACT

The modulators of severe COVID-19 have emerged as the most intriguing features of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. This is especially true as we are encountering variants of concern (VOC) with increased transmissibility and vaccination breakthroughs. Microbial co-infections are being investigated as one of the crucial factors for exacerbation of disease severity and complications of COVID-19. A key question remains whether early transcriptionally active microbial signature/s in COVID-19 patients can provide a window for future disease severity susceptibility and outcome? Using complementary metagenomics sequencing approaches, respiratory virus oligo panel (RVOP) and Holo-seq, our study highlights the possible functional role of nasopharyngeal early resident transcriptionally active microbes in modulating disease severity, within recovered patients with sub-phenotypes (mild, moderate, severe) and mortality. The integrative analysis combines patients' clinical parameters, SARS-CoV-2 phylogenetic analysis, microbial differential composition, and their functional role. The clinical sub-phenotypes analysis led to the identification of transcriptionally active bacterial species associated with disease severity. We found significant transcript abundance of Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Bacillus cereus in the mortality, Leptotrichia buccalis in the severe, Veillonella parvula in the moderate, and Actinomyces meyeri and Halomonas sp. in the mild COVID-19 patients. Additionally, the metabolic pathways, distinguishing the microbial functional signatures between the clinical sub-phenotypes, were also identified. We report a plausible mechanism wherein the increased transcriptionally active bacterial isolates might contribute to enhanced inflammatory response and co-infections that could modulate the disease severity in these groups. Current study provides an opportunity for potentially using these bacterial species for screening and identifying COVID-19 patient sub-groups with severe disease outcome and priority medical care. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 is invariably a disease of diverse clinical manifestation, with multiple facets involved in modulating the progression and outcome. In this regard, we investigated the role of transcriptionally active microbial co-infections as possible modulators of disease pathology in hospital admitted SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Specifically, can there be early nasopharyngeal microbial signatures indicative of prospective disease severity? Based on disease severity symptoms, the patients were segregated into clinical sub-phenotypes: mild, moderate, severe (recovered), and mortality. We identified significant presence of transcriptionally active isolates, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Bacillus cereus in the mortality patients. Importantly, the bacterial species might contribute toward enhancing the inflammatory responses as well as reported to be resistant to common antibiotic therapy, which together hold potential to alter the disease severity and outcome.


Subject(s)
Achromobacter denitrificans , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Microbiota , Achromobacter denitrificans/genetics , Bacillus cereus , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Phylogeny , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0195621, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846337

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infectious disease responsible for many infections worldwide. Differences in respiratory microbiota may correlate with disease severity. Samples were collected from 20 severe and 51 mild COVID-19 patients. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to analyze the bacterial community composition of the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The indices of diversity were analyzed. When one genus accounted for >50% of reads from a sample, it was defined as a super dominant pathobiontic bacterial genus (SDPG). In the upper respiratory tract, uniformity indices were significantly higher in the mild group than in the severe group (P < 0.001). In the lower respiratory tract, uniformity indices, richness indices, and the abundance-based coverage estimator were significantly higher in the mild group than in the severe group (P < 0.001). In patients with severe COVID-19, SDPGs were detected in 40.7% of upper and 63.2% of lower respiratory tract samples. In patients with mild COVID-19, only 10.8% of upper and 8.5% of lower respiratory tract samples yielded SDPGs. SDPGs were present in both upper and lower tracts in seven patients (35.0%), among which six (30.0%) patients possessed the same SDPG in the upper and lower tracts. However, no patients with mild infections had an SDPG in both tracts. Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Acinetobacter were the main SDPGs. The number of SDPGs identified differed significantly between patients with mild and severe COVID-19 (P < 0.001). SDPGs in nasopharyngeal microbiota cause secondary bacterial infection in COVID-19 patients and aggravate pneumonia. IMPORTANCE The nasopharyngeal microbiota is composed of a variety of not only the true commensal bacterial species but also the two-face pathobionts, which are one a harmless commensal bacterial species and the other a highly invasive and deadly pathogen. In a previous study, we found that the diversity of nasopharyngeal microbiota was lost in severe influenza patients. We named the genus that accounted for over 50% of microbiota abundance as super dominant pathobiontic genus, which could invade to cause severe pneumonia, leading to high fatality. Similar phenomena were found here for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The diversity of nasopharyngeal microbiota was lost in severe COVID-19 infection patients. SDPGs in nasopharyngeal microbiota were frequently detected in severe COVID-19 patients. Therefore, the SDPGs in nasopharynx microbiota might invade into low respiratory and be responsible for secondary bacterial pneumonia in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Microbiota , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Environ Microbiol ; 24(9): 4299-4316, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819862

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has emerged as an important organ influencing the propensity to and potentially the severity of the related COVID-19 disease. However, the contribution of the SARS-CoV-2 intestinal infection on COVID-19 pathogenesis remains to be clarified. In this exploratory study, we highlighted a possible link between alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota and the levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the gastrointestinal tract, which could be more important than the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the respiratory tract, COVID-19 severity and GI symptoms. As established by metaproteomics, altered molecular functions in the microbiota profiles of high SARS-CoV-2 RNA level faeces highlight mechanisms such as inflammation-induced enterocyte damage, increased intestinal permeability and activation of immune response that may contribute to vicious cycles. Uncovering the role of this gut microbiota dysbiosis could drive the investigation of alternative therapeutic strategies to favour the clearance of the virus and potentially mitigate the effect of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Dysbiosis , Feces , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
15.
Microb Pathog ; 165: 105506, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763898

ABSTRACT

Since its first appearance, the SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly in the human population, reaching the pandemic scale with >280 million confirmed infections and more than 5 million deaths to date (https://covid19.who.int/). These data justify the urgent need to enhance our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 effects in the respiratory system, including those linked to co-infections. The principal aim of our study is to investigate existing correlations in the nasopharynx between the bacterial community, potential pathogens, and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The main aim of this study was to provide evidence pointing to possible relationships between components of the bacterial community and SARS-CoV-2 in the nasopharynx. Meta-transcriptomic profiling of the nasopharyngeal microbial community was carried out in 89 SARS-Cov-2 positive subjects from the Campania Region in Italy. To this end, RNA extracted from nasopharyngeal swabs collected at different times during the initial phases of the pandemic was analyzed by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). Results show a consistently high presence of members of the Proteobacteria (41.85%), Firmicutes (28.54%), and Actinobacteria (16.10%) phyla, and an inverted correlation between the host microbiome, co-infectious bacteria, and super-potential pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In depth characterization of microbiota composition in the nasopharynx can provide clues to understand its potential contribution to the clinical phenotype of Covid-19, clarifying the interaction between SARS-Cov-2 and the bacterial flora of the host, and highlighting its dysbiosis and the presence of pathogens that could affect the patient's disease progression and outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Microbiota , Bacteria/genetics , Coinfection/epidemiology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 50, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several reports suggest that the microbiome of the digestive system affects vaccine efficacy and that the severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is associated with decreased diversity of the oral and/or intestinal microbiome. The present study examined the effects of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccine on the oral microbiome. METHODS: Forty healthy Japanese oral healthcare personnel were recruited, and unstimulated saliva was collected before vaccination, after the 1st vaccination, and after the 2nd vaccination. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva samples, and PCR amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene were analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology 2. In addition, alterations in microbial function were assessed using PICRUSt2. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination significantly increased oral bacterial diversity and significantly decreased the proportion of the genus Bacteroides. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine alters the oral microbiome; accordingly, vaccination might have beneficial effects on oral health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
17.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1670-1688, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718413

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh is experiencing a second wave of COVID-19 since March 2021, despite the nationwide vaccination drive with ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccine from early February 2021. Here, we characterized 19 nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples from COVID-19 suspect patients using genomic and metagenomic approaches. Screening for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and metagenomic sequencing revealed 17 samples of COVID-19 positive (vaccinated = 10, nonvaccinated = 7) and 2 samples of COVID-19 negative. We did not find any significant correlation between associated factors including vaccination status, age or sex of the patients, diversity or abundance of the coinfected organisms/pathogens, and the abundance of SARS-CoV-2. Though the first wave of the pandemic was dominated by clade 20B, Beta, V2 (South African variant) dominated the second wave (January 2021 to May 2021), while the third wave (May 2021 to September 2021) was responsible for Delta variants of the epidemic in Bangladesh including both vaccinated and unvaccinated infections. Noteworthily, the receptor binding domain (RBD) region of S protein of all the isolates harbored similar substitutions including K417N, E484K, and N501Y that signify the Beta, while D614G, D215G, D80A, A67V, L18F, and A701V substitutions were commonly found in the non-RBD region of Spike proteins. ORF7b and ORF3a genes underwent a positive selection (dN/dS ratio 1.77 and 1.24, respectively), while the overall S protein of the Bangladeshi SARS-CoV-2 isolates underwent negative selection pressure (dN/dS = 0.621). Furthermore, we found different bacterial coinfections like Streptococcus agalactiae, Neisseria meningitidis, Elizabethkingia anophelis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, expressing a number of antibiotic resistance genes such as tetA and tetM. Overall, this approach provides valuable insights on the SARS-CoV-2 genomes and microbiome composition from both vaccinated and nonvaccinated patients in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Metagenomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Genome, Bacterial/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Microbiota/genetics , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Selection, Genetic , Vaccination , Viral Proteins/genetics , Young Adult
19.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 81, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526078

ABSTRACT

The oral microbiome has been connected with lung health and may be of significance in the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Saliva-based SARS-CoV-2 tests provide the opportunity to leverage stored samples for assessing the oral microbiome. However, these collection kits have not been tested for their accuracy in measuring the oral microbiome. Saliva is highly enriched with human DNA and reducing it prior to shotgun sequencing may increase the depth of bacterial reads. We examined both the effect of saliva collection method and sequence processing on measurement of microbiome depth and diversity by 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomics. We collected 56 samples from 22 subjects. Each subject provided saliva samples with and without preservative, and a subset provided a second set of samples the following day. 16S rRNA gene (V4) sequencing was performed on all samples, and shotgun metagenomics was performed on a subset of samples collected with preservative with and without human DNA depletion before sequencing. We observed that the beta diversity distances within subjects over time was smaller than between unrelated subjects, and distances within subjects were smaller in samples collected with preservative. Samples collected with preservative had higher alpha diversity measuring both richness and evenness. Human DNA depletion before extraction and shotgun sequencing yielded higher total and relative reads mapping to bacterial sequences. We conclude that collecting saliva with preservative may provide more consistent measures of the oral microbiome and depleting human DNA increases yield of bacterial sequences.


Subject(s)
Microbiota/genetics , Saliva/microbiology , Adult , Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , DNA/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Metagenome/genetics , Metagenomics/methods , Middle Aged , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
20.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(10): e1008794, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523394

ABSTRACT

There has been a spate of interest in association networks in biological and medical research, for example, genetic interaction networks. In this paper, we propose a novel method, the extended joint hub graphical lasso (EDOHA), to estimate multiple related interaction networks for high dimensional omics data across multiple distinct classes. To be specific, we construct a convex penalized log likelihood optimization problem and solve it with an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm. The proposed method can also be adapted to estimate interaction networks for high dimensional compositional data such as microbial interaction networks. The performance of the proposed method in the simulated studies shows that EDOHA has remarkable advantages in recognizing class-specific hubs than the existing comparable methods. We also present three applications of real datasets. Biological interpretations of our results confirm those of previous studies and offer a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanism in disease.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/methods , Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , Algorithms , Databases, Genetic , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL