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1.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 73: 127044, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936888

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a rapidly spreading disease, which has caught the world by surprise. Millions of people suffer from illness, and the mortality rates are dramatically high. Currently, there is no specific and immediate treatment for this disease. Remedies are limited to supportive regiments and few antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs. The lack of a definite cure for COVID-19 is the reason behind its high mortality and global prevalence. COVID-19 can lead to a critical illness with severe respiratory distress and cytokine release. Increased oxidative stress and excessive production of inflammatory cytokines are vital components of severe COVID-19. Micronutrients, metalloids, and vitamins such as iron, manganese, selenium, Zinc, Copper, vitamin A, B family, and C are among the essential and trace elements that play a pivotal role in human nutrition and health. They participate in metabolic processes that lead to energy production. In addition, they support immune functions and act as antioxidants. Therefore, maintaining an optimal level of micronutrients intake, particularly those with antioxidant activities, is essential to fight against oxidative stress, modulate inflammation, and boost the immune system. Therefore, these factors could play a crucial role in COVID-19 prevention and treatment. In this review, we aimed to summarize antiviral properties of different vitamins and minerals. Moreover, we will investigate the correlation between them and their effects in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Selenium , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Minerals/therapeutic use , Selenium/therapeutic use , Vitamin A , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
2.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911495

ABSTRACT

A trace element is a chemical element with a concentration (or other measures of an amount) that is very low. The essential TEs, such as copper (Cu), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and the electrolyte magnesium (Mg) are among the most commonly studied micronutrients. Each element has been shown to play a distinctive role in human health, and TEs, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), are among the essential elements required for the organisms' well-being as they play crucial roles in several metabolic pathways where they act as enzyme co-factors, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. Epidemics of infectious diseases are becoming more frequent and spread at a faster pace around the world, which has resulted in major impacts on the economy and health systems. Different trace elements have been reported to have substantial roles in the pathogenesis of viral infections. Micronutrients have been proposed in various studies as determinants of liver disorders, COVID-19 and T2DM risks. This review article sheds light on the roles and mechanisms of micronutrients in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic hepatitis B, C and E, as well as Coronavirus-19 infection and type-2 diabetes mellitus. An update on the status of the aforementioned micronutrients in pre-clinical and clinical settings is also briefly summarized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Selenium , Trace Elements , Copper/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Humans , Iron/metabolism , Micronutrients/metabolism , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Selenium/metabolism , Selenium/therapeutic use , Trace Elements/metabolism , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Zinc/metabolism , Zinc/therapeutic use
3.
Nutrients ; 14(12)2022 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896909

ABSTRACT

The immune system is highly dynamic and susceptible to many alterations throughout pregnancy. Since December 2019, a pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has swept the globe. To contain the spread of COVID-19, immediate measures such as quarantine and isolation were implemented. These containment measures have contributed to exacerbate situations of anxiety and stress, especially in pregnant women, who are already particularly anxious about their condition. Alterations in the psychological state of pregnant women are related to alterations in the immune system, which is more vulnerable under stress. COVID-19 could therefore find fertile soil in these individuals and risk more severe forms. Normally a controlled dietary regimen is followed during pregnancy, but the use of particular vitamins and micronutrients can help counteract depressive-anxiety states and stress, can improve the immune system, and provide an additional weapon in the defense against COVID-19 to bring the pregnancy to fruition. This review aims to gather data on the impact of COVID-19 on the immune system and psychological condition of pregnant women and to assess whether some micronutrients can improve their psychophysical symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immune System , Micronutrients , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology
4.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869722

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global health crisis and the factors behind its differential impact on COVID-19 among populations are still being known. Geographical differences in nutrient profile could be a relevant factor, especially considering that scientific evidence supports that 10 micronutrients are essential for proper immune system function. This study aims to evaluate these micronutrient intakes in the territories of Spain and to analyze their relationship with epidemiological indicators of COVID-19 from the first two waves of COVID-19, when neither specific vaccines nor drugs had yet come into play. Results showed that vitamin D, A, B9, and zinc intakes were particularly insufficient in Spain. The joint intake of these four micronutrients was lower in regions with the highest COVID-19 incidence and mortality, and of particular importance, was the insufficient intake of vitamin D. A pattern of food consumption associated with lower COVID-19 impact was observed. In conclusion, the results show the relevance of the optimal consumption of foods rich in essential nutrients for the immune system. Therefore, this assessment could serve to launch specific dietary recommendations to strengthen the immune system in Spanish territories to better face potential new COVID-19 variants and/or further infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Micronutrients , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immune System , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamins
5.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869717

ABSTRACT

Enteral nutrition (EN) provides critical macro and micronutrients to individuals who cannot maintain sufficient oral intake to meet their nutritional needs. EN is most commonly required for neurological conditions that impair swallow function, such as stroke, amytrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. An inability to swallow due to mechanical ventilation and altered mental status are also common conditions that necessitate the use of EN. EN can be short or long term and delivered gastrically or post-pylorically. The expected duration and site of feeding determine the type of feeding tube used. Many commercial EN formulas are available. In addition to standard formulations, disease specific, peptide-based, and blenderized formulas are also available. Several other factors should be considered when providing EN, including timing and rate of initiation, advancement regimen, feeding modality, and risk of complications. Careful and comprehensive assessment of the patient will help to ensure that nutritionally complete and clinically appropriate EN is delivered safely.


Subject(s)
Enteral Nutrition , Food, Formulated , Clinical Protocols , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Humans , Intubation, Gastrointestinal , Micronutrients
7.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834855

ABSTRACT

Magnesium may contribute to the immune response during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection by acting as a cofactor for immunoglobulin production and other processes required for T and B cell activity. Considering magnesium as a recommended dietary supplement during pregnancy and the possible role of magnesium deficiency in COVID-19 and its complications, the current study sought to determine the effect of magnesium and magnesium-containing nutritional supplements on the immune response following SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women, as well as to observe differences in pregnancy outcomes based on the supplements taken during pregnancy. The study followed a cross-sectional design, where patients with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection during their pregnancy were surveyed for their preferences in nutritional supplementation and their profile compared with existing records from the institutional database. A cohort of 448 pregnant women with COVID-19 during 22 months of the pandemic was assembled, out of which 13.6% took a magnesium-only supplement, and 16.5% supplemented their diet with a combination of calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Around 60% of patients in the no-supplementation group had the SARS-CoV-2 anti-RBD lower than 500 U/mL, compared with 50% in those who took magnesium-based supplements. A quantity of magnesium >450 mg in the taken supplements determined higher levels of antibody titers after COVID-19. Low magnesium dosage (<450 mg) was an independent risk factor for a weak immune response (OR-1.25, p-value = 0.003). The observed findings suggest supplementing the nutritional intake of pregnant women with magnesium-based supplements to determine higher levels of SARS-CoV-2 anti-RBD antibodies, although causality remains unclear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnesium , Calcium , Calcium, Dietary , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Immunity , Micronutrients , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc
8.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A higher risk for severe clinical courses of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been linked to deficiencies of several micronutrients. We therefore studied the prevalence of deficiencies of eight different micronutrients in a cohort of hospitalized COVID-19-patients. METHODS: We measured admission serum/plasma levels of vitamins A, B12, D, and E, as well as folic acid, zinc, selenium, and copper in 57 consecutively admitted adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 and analyzed prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies and correlations among micronutrient levels. Further, we studied associations of micronutrient levels with severe disease progression, a composite endpoint consisting of in-hospital mortality and/or need for intensive care unit (ICU) treatment with logistic regression. RESULTS: Median age was 67.0 years (IQR 60.0, 74.2) and 60% (n = 34) were male. Overall, 79% (n = 45) of patients had at least one deficient micronutrient level and 33% (n = 19) had ≥3 deficiencies. Most prevalent deficiencies were found for selenium, vitamin D, vitamin A, and zinc (51%, 40%, 39%, and 39%, respectively). We found several correlations among micronutrients with correlation coefficients ranging from r = 0.27 to r = 0.42. The strongest associations with lower risk for severe COVID-19 disease progression (adjusted odds ratios) were found for higher levels of vitamin A (0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.69, p = 0.01), zinc (0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.98, p = 0.03), and folic acid (0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.98, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: We found a high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in mostly older patients hospitalized for COVID-19, particularly regarding selenium, vitamin D, vitamin A, and zinc. Several deficiencies were associated with a higher risk for more severe COVID-19 courses. Whether supplementation of micronutrients is useful for prevention of severe clinical courses or treatment of COVID-19 warrants further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Selenium , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Folic Acid , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Micronutrients , Prevalence , Vitamin A , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Zinc/therapeutic use
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809942

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection is a highly contagious viral infection, which has claimed millions of lives in the last two years. The infection can cause acute respiratory distress, myocarditis, and systemic inflammatory response in severe cases. The interaction of the viral spike protein with the angiotensin-converting enzyme in various tissues causes damage to vital organs and tissues, leading to complications in the post-infection period. Vaccines and antiviral drugs have improved patient response to the infection, but the long-term effect on vital organs is still unknown. Investigations are now focused on supportive nutrient therapies, which can mitigate the susceptibility as well as the long-term complications of COVID-19. Selenium is one such micronutrient that plays a vital role in preventing oxidative stress induced by the virus. Further, selenium is important for effective immune response, controlling systemic inflammation, and maintain overall health of humans. We examine the role of selenium in various aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection and address the importance of selenium supplementation in reducing the susceptibility and severity of infection in this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Selenium , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Micronutrients , SARS-CoV-2 , Selenium/therapeutic use
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Childhood malnutrition is an important public health problem. Animal protein provides essential amino acids in a more adequate pattern than plant-based protein. However, the production of sufficient animal-sourced protein to feed the growing world population is a serious challenge. This review aims to explore the evidence on the use of edible insects as an alternative source of protein and micronutrients in complementary foods for children and their potential to address childhood malnutrition. METHODS: Searches were conducted in two electronic databases PubMed and Cochrane. The reference lists of included studies were also searched. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in this review. All insect-enriched formulations (e.g., biscuits, cereals, porridge, paste, etc.) exceeded the daily recommended amount of protein and fat for children's complementary foods and showed good acceptability. Only two studies assessed the efficacy of insect-enriched foods on nutritional indicators and found no effect on the reduction of stunting and wasting. However, one study found improvements in the haemoglobin levels and fewer cases of anaemia in the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Insect-enriched complementary foods for children are safe, acceptable and have the potential to tackle micronutrient deficiencies. More studies are needed to examine their effect on nutritional status in children.


Subject(s)
Edible Insects , Malnutrition , Animals , Child , Food, Fortified , Humans , Infant , Micronutrients , Nutritional Status
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(29): 43516-43531, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782918

ABSTRACT

The immune system protects human health from the effects of pathogenic organisms; however, its activity is affected when individuals become infected. These activities require a series of molecules, substrates, and energy sources that are derived from diets. The consumed nutrients from diets help to enhance the immunity of infected individuals as it relates to COVID-19 patients. This study aims to review and highlight requirement and role of macro- and micronutrients of COVID-19 patients in enhancing their immune systems. Series of studies were found to have demonstrated the enhancing potentials of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins, copper, zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, and selenium) in supporting the immune system's fight against respiratory infections. Each of these nutrients performs a vital role as an antiviral defense in COVID-19 patients. Appropriate consumption or intake of dietary sources that yield these nutrients will help provide the daily requirement to support the immune system in its fight against pathogenic viruses such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Selenium , Diet , Humans , Micronutrients , Vitamins/pharmacology
12.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 61(5): 647-661, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778228

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether micronutrients (vitamins/minerals) benefit attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and irritability in a North American pediatric sample. METHOD: A 3-site, 8-week, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of micronutrients was conducted in nonmedicated children aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD and at least 1 impairing irritability symptom by parent report on the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5). A priori-defined primary outcomes were Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) (CGI-I of 1 or 2 = treatment responder) and parent-rated CASI-5 composite score of ADHD, oppositional defiant, disruptive mood dysregulation, and peer conflict symptoms, including impairment scores. RESULTS: Of 135 randomized (mean age 9.8 years), 126 youths (93%) comprised the modified intention-to-treat population. Blinding was maintained. For the CGI-I, 54% of the micronutrient and 18% of the placebo group were responders (risk ratio = 2.97, 97.5% CI = 1.50, 5.90, p < .001). CASI-5 composite scores improved significantly for both groups (p < .01), with a mean change of -0.31 (95% CI = -0.39, -0.23) in the micronutrient group and a mean change of -0.28 (95% CI = -0.38, -0.19) in the placebo group. However, the between-group difference was not significant (mean change = -0.02; 97.5% CI = -0.16, 0.12, effect size = 0.07, p = .70). The micronutrient group grew 6 mm more than the placebo group (p = .002). No serious adverse events or clinically significant changes from baseline in blood and urine tests occurred. CONCLUSION: Micronutrients showed global benefit over placebo by blinded clinician rating, but not by parent-report CASI-5 composite rating in a population with ADHD and irritability. Micronutrients showed greater height growth. Micronutrients were well tolerated, and the majority of participants adhered to the number of capsules prescribed. This randomized controlled trial replicates safety and efficacy reported for ADHD in 2 smaller trials of a similar formula containing all vitamins and known essential minerals in amounts between the Recommended Dietary Allowance and Upper Tolerable Intake Level. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: Micronutrients for ADHD in Youth (MADDY) Study; https://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT03252522.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Adolescent , Affect , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/chemically induced , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Child , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Micronutrients/adverse effects , Minerals/pharmacology , Minerals/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
13.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the SARS-CoV-2 lockdown on dietary habits, body weight, left hepatic lobe volume, use of micronutrient supplements, micronutrient status, frequency of physical activity, and evolution of comorbidities in patients undergoing preoperative care for BS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the dietary habits (including use of micronutrient supplements and frequency of physical activity) of 36 patients who were candidates for BS from March to May 2020; 7-day food dietary records, body weight, left hepatic lobe volume by ultrasound, micronutrient status, and evolution of comorbidities were assessed. RESULTS: All patients completed the study. Of the participants, 44.4% (16/36), 47.2% (17/36), and 27.8% (10/36) followed the preoperative indications for vegetables, fruits, and legumes, respectively, whereas over 50% did not. Furthermore, 30.6% (11/36) and 55.6% (20/36) of participants followed the prescribed recommendations for carbohydrates/sweets products and alcohol, respectively. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of participants experienced new foods and new culinary preparations. In addition, at the time of the study, we found that only 11.1% (4/36) were engaged in prescribed physical activity and only 36.1% (13/36) were taking prescribed micronutrient supplements. Compared to the initial weight, we observed an increased body weight and body mass index (+4.9%, p = 0.115; +1.89%, p = 0.0692, respectively), and no improvement in left hepatic lobe volume, micronutrient status, or comorbidities was recorded for any patient in the anamnesis. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown determined by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has negatively affected the preoperative program of BS candidates, resulting in a postponement to the resumption of bariatric surgical activity.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Obesity, Morbid , Trace Elements , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Micronutrients , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Preoperative Care , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760647

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is second-most common disabling neurological disorder worldwide, and unfortunately, there is not yet a definitive way to prevent it. Polyphenols have been widely shown protective efficacy against various PD symptoms. However, data on their effect on physio-pathological mechanisms underlying this disease are still lacking. In the present work, we evaluated the activity of a mixture of polyphenols and micronutrients, named A5+, in the murine neuroblastoma cell line N1E115 treated with 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), an established neurotoxic stimulus used to induce an in vitro PD model. We demonstrate that a pretreatment of these cells with A5+ causes significant reduction of inflammation, resulting in a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, and CXCL1), a reduction in ROS production and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, and a decrease in apoptotic mechanisms with the related increase in cell viability. Intriguingly, A5+ treatment promoted cellular differentiation into dopaminergic neurons, as evident by the enhancement in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, a well-established dopaminergic neuronal marker. Overall, these results demonstrate the synergic and innovative efficacy of A5+ mixture against PD cellular pathological processes, although further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effect.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Dopaminergic Neurons/metabolism , Mice , Micronutrients/metabolism , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Oxidopamine/pharmacology , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/etiology , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Polyphenols/metabolism , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use
16.
J Nutr ; 152(5): 1306-1315, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children in resource-limited settings remain vulnerable to zinc deficiency and its consequences. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of different doses, durations, and frequencies of zinc supplementation on the incidence of diarrhea and change in linear growth among young children. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, partially double-blind, controlled, 6-arm, community-based efficacy trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Children aged 9-11 mo were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the following interventions for 24 wk: 1) standard micronutrient powder (MNP) containing 4.1 mg zinc and 10 mg iron, daily; 2) high-zinc (10 mg), low-iron (6 mg) (HiZn LoFe) MNP, daily; 3) HiZn (10 mg) LoFe (6 mg)/HiZn (10 mg), no-iron MNPs on alternating days; 4) dispersible zinc tablet (10 mg), daily; 5) dispersible zinc tablet (10 mg), daily for 2 wk at enrollment and 12 wk; 6) placebo powder, daily. Primary outcomes were incidence of diarrhea and change in length-for-age z-score (LAZ) over the 24-wk intervention period. Home visits were conducted twice weekly to assess diarrhea and other morbidity. Incidence and prevalence outcomes were compared among groups with Poisson regression; continuous outcomes were compared using ANCOVA. RESULTS: A total of 2886 children were enrolled between February 2018 and July 2019. The mean incidence and prevalence of diarrhea among all participants was 1.21 episodes per 100 d and 3.76 d per 100 d, respectively. There were no differences in the incidence or prevalence of diarrhea across intervention groups. The decline in LAZ was slightly smaller among children in the daily HiZn LoFe MNP group compared with the placebo powder group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The dose of zinc in MNPs as well as the duration and frequency of supplementation evaluated in this trial were not effective in reducing diarrhea; however, the daily HiZn LoFe MNP formulation offered modest improvements in linear growth among young children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03406793.


Subject(s)
Trace Elements , Zinc , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Infant , Iron , Micronutrients , Powders , Tablets , Trace Elements/therapeutic use
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3323825, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745633

ABSTRACT

During the infection and treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, age and comorbidities play a major role in the successful management of COVID-19. The nutritional status changes which occur in the body vary with the age and underlying conditions and has a vital role in the functioning of the immune system and cellular membrane integrity, thus minimizing the vulnerability to the infection. Considering the data already published by eminent researchers, a few micronutrients have shown outstanding results as supportive therapies in the treatment of viral infections. Micronutrient like zinc improves the membrane barrier integrity, has anti-inflammatory activity, and is involved in antibody production. Vitamin A supports the phagocytic activity of macrophages, while vitamin C reduces the worsening of respiratory tract infections by restoring the dysfunctional epithelial barrier of the lungs. Vitamin D, vitamin E, selenium, and omega-3 fatty acid metabolites play a major role in immunomodulation and in the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production. Magnesium is involved in the synthesis of antibodies, while copper, vitamin B12, and folate have significant effects on immune cells. A few researchers suggest that iron supplementation has reduced the risk of acquiring respiratory tract infections in children. As the age of the patient increases, the need for micronutrients increases, thus leading to an imbalanced nutritional status which in turn increases the risk and fatality of the infections. The use of micronutrients in modulating the inflammatory, immune responses, and the epithelial barrier integrity is explored during the treatment of viral infections for faster recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742487

ABSTRACT

The published literature makes a very strong case that a wide range of disease morbidity associates with and may in part be due to epithelial barrier leak. An equally large body of published literature substantiates that a diverse group of micronutrients can reduce barrier leak across a wide array of epithelial tissue types, stemming from both cell culture as well as animal and human tissue models. Conversely, micronutrient deficiencies can exacerbate both barrier leak and morbidity. Focusing on zinc, Vitamin A and Vitamin D, this review shows that at concentrations above RDA levels but well below toxicity limits, these micronutrients can induce cell- and tissue-specific molecular-level changes in tight junctional complexes (and by other mechanisms) that reduce barrier leak. An opportunity now exists in critical care-but also medical prophylactic and therapeutic care in general-to consider implementation of select micronutrients at elevated dosages as adjuvant therapeutics in a variety of disease management. This consideration is particularly pointed amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Micronutrients/metabolism , Vitamin A/metabolism , Vitamin D/metabolism , Zinc/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tight Junctions/drug effects , Tight Junctions/metabolism , Vitamin A/pharmacology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamins/metabolism , Vitamins/pharmacology , Zinc/pharmacology
19.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; 92(1): 13-34, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721396

ABSTRACT

Worldwide the pandemic of COVID-19 spreads rapidly and has had an enormous public health impact with substantial morbidity and mortality especially in high-risk groups, such as older people and patients with comorbidities like diabetes, dementia or cancer. In the absence of a vaccine against COVID-19 there is an urgent need to find supportive therapies that can stabilize the immune system and can help to deal with the infection, especially for vulnerable groups such as the elderly. This is especially relevant for our geriatric institutions and nursing homes. A major potential contributing factor for elderly is due to their high incidence of malnutrition: up to 80% among the hospitalized elderly. Malnutrition results when adequate macronutrients and micronutrients are lacking in the diet. Often missing in public health discussions around preventing and treating COVID-19 patients are nutritional strategies to support optimal function of their immune system. This is surprising, given the importance that nutrients play a significant role for immune function. Several micronutrients, such as vitamin D, retinol, vitamin C, selenium and zinc are of special importance supporting both the adaptive and innate immune systems. As suboptimal status or deficiencies in these immune-relevant micronutrients impair immune function and reduces the resistance to infections, micronutrient deficiencies should therefore be corrected as soon as possible, especially in the elderly and other vulnerable groups. According to epidemiological, experimental and observational studies, some case reports and a few intervention studies the supplementation of vitamin D and/or zinc are promising. The multiple anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin D could explain its protective role against immune hyper reaction and cytokine storm in patients with severe COVID-19. A randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study even shows that high dose vitamin D supplementation promotes viral clearance in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals. Besides, the data of a recent prospective study with COVID-19 patients reveal that a significant number of them were zinc deficient. The zinc deficient patients had more complications and the deficiency was associated with a prolonged hospital stay and increased mortality. Thus, immune-relevant micronutrients may help to increase the physiological resilience against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Micronutrients , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Nutritional Status , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nutr Health ; 28(2): 199-206, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714561

ABSTRACT

Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic has put millions of people, especially children at risk of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) by pushing them into poverty and disrupting the global food supply chain. The thymus is severely affected by nutritional deficiencies and is known as a barometer of malnutrition. Aim: The present commentary provides a novel perspective on the role of malnutrition-induced thymic dysfunction, involution and atrophy on the risk and severity of disease in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A review of pertinent indexed literature including studies examining the effects of malnutrition on the thymus and immune dysfunction in COVID-19. Results: Protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies of zinc, iron and vitamin A are known to promote thymic dysfunction and thymocyte loss in children. Malnutrition- and infection-induced thymic atrophy and immune dysfunction may increase the risk of first, progression of COVID-19 disease to more severe forms including development of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); second, slow the recovery from COVID-19 disease; and third, increase the risk of other infections. Furthermore, malnourished children may be at increased risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection due to socioeconomic conditions that promote viral transmission amongst contacts and create barriers to vaccination. Conclusion: National governments and international organizations including WHO, World Food Program, and UNICEF should institute measures to ensure provision of food and micronutrients for children at risk in order to limit the health impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Protein-Energy Malnutrition , Atrophy/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cachexia/complications , Cachexia/etiology , Child , Humans , Inflammation , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Micronutrients , Pandemics , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/complications , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
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