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1.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374476

ABSTRACT

The virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The cumulative number of cases reported globally is now nearly 197 million and the number of cumulative deaths is 4.2 million (26 July to 1 August 2021). Currently we are focusing primarily on keeping a safe distance from others, washing our hands, and wearing masks, and the question of the effects of diet and diet-dependent risk factors remains outside the center of attention. Nevertheless, numerous studies indicate that diet can play an important role in the course of COVID-19. In this paper, based on select scientific reports, we discuss the structure and replication cycle of SARS-CoV-2, risk factors, dietary standards for sick patients, and the roles of the microbiome and dietary components supporting the immune system in preventing COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , Feeding Behavior , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Nutritional Support/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Replication/immunology
2.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(9): 821-826, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317943

ABSTRACT

Different dietary nutrients have distinct effects, including enhancing immune response activity and supporting mucous membrane integrity. These effects are critical in fighting against pathogenic agents, which cover coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the coronavirus disease that shuts down globally. Recent researches have shown that micronutrient deficiency is commonly associated with compromised immune responses, respiratory tract infections, or even susceptibility to COVID-19. The relationship between Vit A and infection is its role in mucosal epithelium integrity (skin and mucous membrane), the supplementation could be an option for assisted-treating the SARS-CoV-2 virus and a possible prevention of lung infection. Vit C/ascorbic acid stimulates oxygen radical scavenging activity of the skin and enhances epithelial barrier function. Ascorbic acid alone or with other natural compounds (baicalin and theaflavin) may inhibit the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme II in human small alveolar epithelial cells and limited the entry of SARS-CoV-2. Vitamin D receptors can be expressed by immune cells, and different immune cells (macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells) can convert Vit D into its active form 1,25-(OH)2 D. Oral vitamin D intake can be a readily way to restrict the viral infection through downregulation of ACE2 receptor and to attenuate the disease severity by decreasing the frequency of cytokine storm and pulmonary pro-inflammatory response. Vit E supports T-cell mediated functions, optimization of Th1 response, and suppression of Th2 response. Vitamin E supplementation can lower the production of superoxides and may favors the antioxidants and benefit the progress of COVID-19 treatment. Zinc plays an essential role in both innate and adaptive immune systems and cytokine production, and Zinc-dependent viral enzymes to initiate the infectious process have proved the Zinc levels are directly associated with symptoms relieved of COVID-19. Iron is an essential component of enzymes involved in the activation of immune cells, lower iron levels predispose to severe symptoms of SARS-CoV-2, and monitoring the status can predict the disease severity and mortality. Selenium participates in the adaptive immune response by supporting antibody production and development. Deficiency can reduce antibody concentration, decreased cytotoxicity of NK cells, compromised cellular immunity, and an attenuated response to vaccination. The COVID-19 vaccines including three broad categories, protein-based vaccines, gene-based vaccines (mRNA vaccines and DNA vaccines), combination of gene and protein-based vaccines. Micronutrients are involved in immunity from the virus entering the human to innate immune response and adaptive immune response. Micronutrients are indispensable in immune response of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunomodulation , Micronutrients/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Iron/physiology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Selenium/physiology , Vitamins/physiology , Zinc/physiology
3.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1001-1016, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263162

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Taking into consideration that the COVID-19 infection strongly affects the immune system via multiple inflammatory responses, pharmaceutical companies are working to develop targeted drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19. A balanced nutritional diet may play an essential role in maintaining general wellbeing by controlling chronic infectious diseases. A balanced diet including vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K, and some micronutrients such as zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus may be beneficial in various infectious diseases. This study aimed to discuss and present recent data regarding the role of vitamins and minerals in the treatment of COVID-19. A deficiency of these vitamins and minerals in the plasma concentration may lead to a reduction in the good performance of the immune system, which is one of the constituents that lead to a poor immune state. This is a narrative review concerning the features of the COVID-19 and data related to the usage of vitamins and minerals as preventive measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Immune System/immunology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Minerals/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
4.
Curr Nutr Rep ; 10(3): 200-210, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216278

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) outbreak has manifested into a major public health concern across the globe, affecting particularly the most vulnerable population groups. Currently, there are various clinical trials being conducted to develop effective treatments. It is estimated that it could take one or more years before these drugs pass all safety tests and concrete results with regard to their effectiveness become available. In addition, despite the recent development of vaccines (licensed for use under conditional licenses) and the commencement of COVID-19 vaccination programs in several countries, there is still a need for safe and novel strategies that may reduce the symptomatology and/or prevent the severe complications associated with COVID-19. Natural compounds previously shown to have antiviral potential should be thoroughly considered and investigated for use in prophylactic treatment of COVID-19 due to their availability and safety. RECENT FINDINGS: The current narrative review investigates whether there is evidence in the literature that supplementation with dietary minerals and vitamins may have a role in preventing infection with SARS-CoV-2 or in reducing COVID-19 symptomatology and disease progression. The current evidence from the literature supports that zinc and vitamin C have a potential in reducing the inflammatory response associated with SARS-CoV-2 while folate and vitamin D may have a role in antagonizing the entry of SARs-CoV-2 virus in host calls. Thus, further research should be conducted that could lead to the development of nutritional supplements involving natural and widely available compounds such as zinc, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin D. The latter could be an effective, safe, and inexpensive way to either prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 and/or lessen the burden of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid , Dietary Supplements , Folic Acid , Humans , Pandemics , Vitamin D , Zinc
5.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 24(3): 271-275, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101914

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Undernutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, continues to plague children across the world, particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The situation has worsened alongside the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic because of major systemic disruptions to food supply, healthcare, and employment. Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) is a potential strategy for improving micronutrient intakes through the addition of vitamins and minerals to staple foods and improving the nutritional status of populations at large. RECENT FINDINGS: Current evidence unquestionably supports the use of LSFF to improve micronutrient status. Evidence syntheses have also demonstrated impact on some functional outcomes, including anemia, wasting, underweight, and neural tube defects, that underpin poor health and development. Importantly, many of these effects have also been reflected in effectiveness studies that examine LSFF in real-world situations as opposed to under-controlled environments. However, programmatic challenges must be addressed in LMICs in order for LSFF efforts to reach their full potential. SUMMARY: LSFF is an important strategy that has the potential to improve the health and nutrition of entire populations of vulnerable children. Now more than ever, existing programs should be strengthened and new programs implemented in areas with widespread undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health/trends , Child Nutrition Disorders/therapy , Food, Fortified/supply & distribution , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Child , Child Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Nutritional Status , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Soins ; 65(849): 59-62, 2020 Oct.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997636

ABSTRACT

Our social environment shapes our eating habits, notably our consumption of fruit and vegetables rich in micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements), essential for regulating the immune system. Ensuring a balanced intake of micronutrients could prove to be particularly beneficial for patients with severe forms of COVID-19 suffering from critical immune dysregulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immune System/physiology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Humans
7.
Nutrition ; 81: 110989, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-857038

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic causing one of the biggest challenges for critical care medicine. Mortality from COVID-19 is much greater in elderly men, many of whom succumb to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) triggered by the viral infection. Because there is no specific antiviral treatment against COVID-19, new strategies are urgently needed. Selenium is an essential trace element with antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Poor nutritional status increases the pathogenicity of viruses and low selenium in particular can be a determinant of viral virulence. In the past decade, selenium pharmaconutrition studies have demonstrated some reduction in overall mortality, including how reduced incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and infectious complications such as ARDS in the critically ill. Consequently, we postulate that intravenous selenium therapy, could be part of the therapeutic fight against COVID-19 in intensive care unit patients with ARDS and that outcomes could be affected by age, sex, and body weight. Our working hypothesis addresses the question: Could high-dose selenite pharmaconutrition, as an early pharmacologic intervention, be effective at reducing the incidence and the progression from type 1 respiratory failure (non-ARDS) to severe ARDS, multiorgan failure, and new infectious complications in patients with COVID-19 patients?


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , Selenium/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Female , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Male , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Micronutrients/pharmacokinetics , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Models, Biological , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Selenium/administration & dosage , Selenium/pharmacokinetics
8.
Nutr Hosp ; 34(3): 622-630, 2020 Jul 13.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663764

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current COVID-19 pandemic mainly affects older people, those with obesity or other coexisting chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes and high blood pressure. It has been observed that about 20 % of patients will require hospitalization, and some of them will need the support of invasive mechanical ventilation in intensive care units. Nutritional status appears to be a relevant factor influencing the clinical outcome of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Several international guidelines have provided recommendations to ensure energy and protein intake in people with COVID-19, with safety measures to reduce the risk of infection in healthcare personnel. The purpose of this review is to analyze the main recommendations related to adequate nutritional management for critically ill patients with COVID-19 in order to improve their prognosis and clinical outcomes.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La pandemia actual por COVID-19 afecta principalmente a personas mayores, con obesidad o con otras enfermedades crónicas coexistentes como diabetes de tipo 2 e hipertensión arterial. Se ha observado que alrededor del 20 % de los pacientes requerirán hospitalización y algunos de ellos necesitarán soporte de ventilación mecánica invasiva en unidades de cuidados intensivos. El estado nutricional parece ser un factor relevante que influye en el resultado clínico de los pacientes con COVID-19 críticamente enfermos. Diversas guías internacionales han publicado recomendaciones para asegurar la ingesta energética y proteica de las personas con COVID-19, junto con medidas de seguridad para disminuir el riesgo de infección por parte del personal de salud. El propósito de esta revisión es analizar las principales recomendaciones relacionadas con el adecuado manejo nutricional del paciente hospitalizado críticamente enfermo con COVID-19 con la finalidad de mejorar el pronóstico y los resultados clínicos.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness , Malnutrition/diet therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/etiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Requirements , Nutritional Support , Obesity/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Refeeding Syndrome/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
10.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(4): 367-382, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-115820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Balanced nutrition which can help in maintaining immunity is essential for prevention and management of viral infections. While data regarding nutrition in coronavirus infection (COVID-19) are not available, in this review, we aimed to evaluate evidence from previous clinical trials that studied nutrition-based interventions for viral diseases (with special emphasis on respiratory infections), and summarise our observations. METHODS: A systematic search strategy was employed using keywords to search the literature in 3 key medical databases: PubMed®, Web of Science® and SciVerse Scopus®. Studies were considered eligible if they were controlled trials in humans, measuring immunological parameters, on viral and respiratory infections. Clinical trials on vitamins, minerals, nutraceuticals and probiotics were included. RESULTS: A total of 640 records were identified initially and 22 studies were included from other sources. After excluding duplicates and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria, 43 studies were obtained (vitamins: 13; minerals: 8; nutraceuticals: 18 and probiotics: 4). Among vitamins, A and D showed a potential benefit, especially in deficient populations. Among trace elements, selenium and zinc have also shown favourable immune-modulatory effects in viral respiratory infections. Several nutraceuticals and probiotics may also have some role in enhancing immune functions. Micronutrients may be beneficial in nutritionally depleted elderly population. CONCLUSIONS: We summaries possible benefits of some vitamins, trace elements, nutraceuticals and probiotics in viral infections. Nutrition principles based on these data could be useful in possible prevention and management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity/physiology , Nutrition Therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Probiotics/administration & dosage , PubMed , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Young Adult
12.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108781

ABSTRACT

Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, were responsible for approximately 2.38 million deaths worldwide in 2016. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: (1) supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; (2) supplementation above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and (3) public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immune System/physiology , Nutritional Status , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Humans , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Vitamins/administration & dosage
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