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1.
Cornea ; 41(7): 879-885, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764686

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate corneal cellular and ultrastructural changes and to quantify the neuroinflammatory process in patients after mild severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: Thirty patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection and 41 age-matched controls were examined. All subjects underwent in vivo confocal microscopy of the corneal cell layers and subbasal nerve fibers with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II. Semiautomated analysis of basal epithelial, anterior and posterior stromal keratocyte, and endothelial cell density was performed. Dendritic cell (DC) density and area were also calculated, and subbasal nerve plexus morphology was analyzed. RESULTS: The posterior stromal keratocyte density was significantly lower in patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection ( P = 0.0006). DC density in the central cornea was significantly higher in patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection ( P = 0.0004). There was a significant difference in the DC area between the 2 groups ( P < 0.0001). Significantly altered subbasal nerve fiber morphology was detected in patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with healthy volunteers ( P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Corneal cellular and ultrastructural changes demonstrated in this study suggest neuroinflammatory consequences of COVID-19 in the cornea in the absence of ophthalmoscopic alterations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Count , Cornea/innervation , Corneal Keratocytes , Humans , Microscopy, Confocal , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Analyst ; 145(12): 4173-4180, 2020 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721601

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that microRNAs, which are small noncoding RNAs, hold tremendous promise as next-generation circulating biomarkers for early cancer detection via liquid biopsies. A novel, solid-state nanoplasmonic sensor capable of assaying circulating microRNAs through a combined surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF) approach has been developed. Here, the unique localized surface plasmon resonance properties of chemically-synthesized gold triangular nanoprisms (Au TNPs) are utilized to create large SERS and PEF enhancements. With careful modification to the surface of Au TNPs, this sensing approach is capable of quantifying circulating microRNAs at femtogram/microliter concentrations. Uniquely, the multimodal analytical methods mitigate both false positive and false negative responses and demonstrate the high stability of our sensors within bodily fluids. As a proof of concept, microRNA-10b and microRNA-96 were directly assayed from the plasma of six bladder cancer patients. Results show potential for a highly specific liquid biopsy method that could be used in point-of-care clinical diagnostics to increase early cancer detection or any other diseases including SARS-CoV-2 in which RNAs can be used as biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Circulating MicroRNA/blood , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection , Microscopy, Confocal , Nanostructures/chemistry , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology
3.
J Virol ; 95(24): e0136821, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691427

ABSTRACT

Severe cardiovascular complications can occur in coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Cardiac damage is attributed mostly to the aberrant host response to acute respiratory infection. However, direct infection of cardiac tissue by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) also occurs. We examined here the cardiac tropism of SARS-CoV-2 in spontaneously beating human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). These cardiomyocytes express the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor but not the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) that mediates spike protein cleavage in the lungs. Nevertheless, SARS-CoV-2 infection of hiPSC-CMs was prolific; viral transcripts accounted for about 88% of total mRNA. In the cytoplasm of infected hiPSC-CMs, smooth-walled exocytic vesicles contained numerous 65- to 90-nm particles with canonical ribonucleocapsid structures, and virus-like particles with knob-like spikes covered the cell surface. To better understand how SARS-CoV-2 spreads in hiPSC-CMs, we engineered an expression vector coding for the spike protein with a monomeric emerald-green fluorescent protein fused to its cytoplasmic tail (S-mEm). Proteolytic processing of S-mEm and the parental spike were equivalent. Live cell imaging tracked spread of S-mEm cell-to-cell and documented formation of syncytia. A cell-permeable, peptide-based molecule that blocks the catalytic site of furin and furin-like proteases abolished cell fusion. A spike mutant with the single amino acid change R682S that disrupts the multibasic furin cleavage motif was fusion inactive. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 replicates efficiently in hiPSC-CMs and furin, and/or furin-like-protease activation of its spike protein is required for fusion-based cytopathology. This hiPSC-CM platform enables target-based drug discovery in cardiac COVID-19. IMPORTANCE Cardiac complications frequently observed in COVID-19 patients are tentatively attributed to systemic inflammation and thrombosis, but viral replication has occasionally been confirmed in cardiac tissue autopsy materials. We developed an in vitro model of SARS-CoV-2 spread in myocardium using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. In these highly differentiated cells, viral transcription levels exceeded those previously documented in permissive transformed cell lines. To better understand the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 spread, we expressed a fluorescent version of its spike protein that allowed us to characterize a fusion-based cytopathic effect. A mutant of the spike protein with a single amino acid mutation in the furin/furin-like protease cleavage site lost cytopathic function. Of note, the fusion activities of the spike protein of other coronaviruses correlated with the level of cardiovascular complications observed in infections with the respective viruses. These data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 may cause cardiac damage by fusing cardiomyocytes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Cathepsin B/metabolism , Cell Fusion , Chlorocebus aethiops , Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism , Exocytosis , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Microscopy, Confocal , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 868, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684025

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is a major global public health concern with incompletely understood pathogenesis. The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein comprises a highly conserved free fatty acid binding pocket (FABP) with unknown function and evolutionary selection advantage1,2. Deciphering FABP impact on COVID-19 progression is challenged by the heterogenous nature and large molecular variability of live virus. Here we create synthetic minimal virions (MiniVs) of wild-type and mutant SARS-CoV-2 with precise molecular composition and programmable complexity by bottom-up assembly. MiniV-based systematic assessment of S free fatty acid (FFA) binding reveals that FABP functions as an allosteric regulatory site enabling adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 immunogenicity to inflammation states via binding of pro-inflammatory FFAs. This is achieved by regulation of the S open-to-close equilibrium and the exposure of both, the receptor binding domain (RBD) and the SARS-CoV-2 RGD motif that is responsible for integrin co-receptor engagement. We find that the FDA-approved drugs vitamin K and dexamethasone modulate S-based cell binding in an FABP-like manner. In inflammatory FFA environments, neutralizing immunoglobulins from human convalescent COVID-19 donors lose neutralization activity. Empowered by our MiniV technology, we suggest a conserved mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 dynamically couples its immunogenicity to the host immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Fatty Acids/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virion/immunology , A549 Cells , Allosteric Site/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Cryoelectron Microscopy/methods , Electron Microscope Tomography/methods , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/immunology , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virion/metabolism , Virion/ultrastructure
5.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(12): 8110-8128, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597218

ABSTRACT

The design of advanced nanobiomaterials to improve analytical accuracy and therapeutic efficacy has become an important prerequisite for the development of innovative nanomedicines. Recently, phospholipid nanobiomaterials including 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) have attracted great attention with remarkable characteristics such as resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and cell adhesion for various biomedical applications. Despite many recent reports, there is a lack of comprehensive review on the phospholipid nanobiomaterials from synthesis to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the synthesis and characterization of phospholipid nanobiomaterials focusing on MPC polymers and highlight their attractive potentials for applications in micro/nanofabricated fluidic devices, biosensors, lab-on-a-chip, drug delivery systems (DDSs), COVID-19 potential usages for early diagnosis and even treatment, and artificial extracellular matrix scaffolds for cellular engineering.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Nanostructures/chemistry , Phospholipids/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Microscopy, Confocal , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Ocul Surf ; 23: 40-48, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573810

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the association between Sars-CoV-2 infection and small fiber neuropathy in the cornea identified by in vivo corneal confocal microscopy. METHODS: Twenty-three patients who had overcome COVID-19 were recruited to this observational retrospective study. Forty-six uninfected volunteers were also recruited and studied as a control group. All subjects were examined under in vivo confocal microscopy to obtain images of corneal subbasal nerve fibers in order to study the presence of neuroma-like structures, axonal beadings and dendritic cells. The Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire and Schirmer tear test were used as indicators of Dry Eye Disease (DED) and ocular surface pathology. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients (91.31%) presented alterations of the corneal subbasal plexus and corneal tissue consistent with small fiber neuropathy. Images from healthy subjects did not indicate significant nerve fiber or corneal tissue damage. Eight patients reported increased sensations of ocular dryness after COVID-19 infection and had positive DED indicators. Beaded axons were found in 82.60% of cases, mainly in patients reporting ocular irritation symptoms. Neuroma-like images were found in 65.22% patients, more frequently in those with OSDI scores >13. Dendritic cells were found in 69.56% of patients and were more frequent in younger asymptomatic patients. The presence of morphological alterations in patients up to 10 months after recovering from Sars-CoV-2 infection points to the chronic nature of the neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: Sars-CoV-2 infection may be inducing small fiber neuropathy in the ocular surface, sharing symptomatology and morphological landmarks with DED and diabetic neuropathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dry Eye Syndromes , Small Fiber Neuropathy , Cornea , Humans , Microscopy, Confocal , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Molecules ; 26(22)2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524086

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly contagious human infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the war with the virus is still underway. Since no specific drugs have been made available yet and there is an imbalance between supply and demand for vaccines, early diagnosis and isolation are essential to control the outbreak. Current nucleic acid testing methods require high sample quality and laboratory conditions, which cannot meet flexible applications. Here, we report a laser-induced graphene field-effect transistor (LIG-FET) for detecting SARS-CoV-2. The FET was manufactured by different reduction degree LIG, with an oyster reef-like porous graphene channel to enrich the binding point between the virus protein and sensing area. After immobilizing specific antibodies in the channel, the FET can detect the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in 15 min at a concentration of 1 pg/mL in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and 1 ng/mL in human serum. In addition, the sensor shows great specificity to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Our sensors can realize fast production for COVID-19 rapid testing, as each LIG-FET can be fabricated by a laser platform in seconds. It is the first time that LIG has realized a virus sensing FET without any sample pretreatment or labeling, which paves the way for low-cost and rapid detection of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Graphite/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Transistors, Electronic/virology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Lasers , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
9.
Cell ; 184(24): 5950-5969.e22, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499701

ABSTRACT

The biogenesis of mammalian autophagosomes remains to be fully defined. Here, we used cellular and in vitro membrane fusion analyses to show that autophagosomes are formed from a hitherto unappreciated hybrid membrane compartment. The autophagic precursors emerge through fusion of FIP200 vesicles, derived from the cis-Golgi, with endosomally derived ATG16L1 membranes to generate a hybrid pre-autophagosomal structure, HyPAS. A previously unrecognized apparatus defined here controls HyPAS biogenesis and mammalian autophagosomal precursor membranes. HyPAS can be modulated by pharmacological agents whereas its formation is inhibited upon severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or by expression of SARS-CoV-2 nsp6. These findings reveal the origin of mammalian autophagosomal membranes, which emerge via convergence of secretory and endosomal pathways, and show that this process is targeted by microbial factors such as coronaviral membrane-modulating proteins.


Subject(s)
Autophagosomes/virology , COVID-19/virology , Autophagy , COVID-19/metabolism , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Cell Line, Tumor , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endosomes/physiology , Endosomes/virology , Golgi Apparatus/physiology , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Membrane Fusion , Microscopy, Confocal , Phagosomes/metabolism , Phagosomes/virology , Qa-SNARE Proteins/biosynthesis , Receptors, sigma/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/biosynthesis , Synaptotagmins/biosynthesis
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20877, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479811

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus vectors offer a platform technology for vaccine development. The value of the platform has been proven during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although good stability at 2-8 °C is an advantage of the platform, non-cold-chain distribution would have substantial advantages, in particular in low-income countries. We have previously reported a novel, potentially less expensive thermostabilisation approach using a combination of simple sugars and glass micro-fibrous matrix, achieving excellent recovery of adenovirus-vectored vaccines after storage at temperatures as high as 45 °C. This matrix is, however, prone to fragmentation and so not suitable for clinical translation. Here, we report an investigation of alternative fibrous matrices which might be suitable for clinical use. A number of commercially-available matrices permitted good protein recovery, quality of sugar glass and moisture content of the dried product but did not achieve the thermostabilisation performance of the original glass fibre matrix. We therefore further investigated physical and chemical characteristics of the glass fibre matrix and its components, finding that the polyvinyl alcohol present in the glass fibre matrix assists vaccine stability. This finding enabled us to identify a potentially biocompatible matrix with encouraging performance. We discuss remaining challenges for transfer of the technology into clinical use, including reliability of process performance.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenovirus Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Potency , Adenoviruses, Simian , Biocompatible Materials , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Glass , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Light , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polyvinyl Alcohol , Rabies Vaccines , Scattering, Radiation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Sugars/chemistry , Temperature , Thermogravimetry , Trehalose/chemistry
11.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(23): e2101166, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473797

ABSTRACT

Lipid-based nanoparticles have been applied extensively in drug delivery and vaccine strategies and are finding diverse applications in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-from vaccine-component encapsulation to modeling the virus, itself. High-throughput, highly flexible methods for characterization are of great benefit to the development of liposomes featuring surface proteins. DNA-directed patterning is one such method that offers versatility in immobilizing and segregating lipid-based nanoparticles for subsequent analysis. Here, oligonucleotides are selectively conjugated onto a glass substrate and then hybridized to complementary oligonucleotides tagged to liposomes, patterning them with great control and precision. The power of DNA-directed patterning is demonstrated by characterizing a novel recapitulative lipid-based nanoparticle model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-S-liposomes-that presents the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein on its surface. Patterning a mixture of S-liposomes and liposomes that display the tetraspanin CD63 to discrete regions of a substrate shows that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) specifically binds to S-liposomes. Subsequent introduction of S-liposomes to ACE2-expressing cells tests the biological function of S-liposomes and shows agreement with DNA-directed patterning-based assays. Finally, multiplexed patterning of S-liposomes verifies the performance of commercially available neutralizing antibodies against the two S variants. Overall, DNA-directed patterning enables a wide variety of custom assays for the characterization of any lipid-based nanoparticle.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Liposomes/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Oligonucleotides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Liposomes/metabolism , Microscopy, Confocal , Oligonucleotides/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Tetraspanins/chemistry , Tetraspanins/metabolism
12.
J Virol ; 95(24): e0136821, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455676

ABSTRACT

Severe cardiovascular complications can occur in coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Cardiac damage is attributed mostly to the aberrant host response to acute respiratory infection. However, direct infection of cardiac tissue by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) also occurs. We examined here the cardiac tropism of SARS-CoV-2 in spontaneously beating human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). These cardiomyocytes express the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor but not the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) that mediates spike protein cleavage in the lungs. Nevertheless, SARS-CoV-2 infection of hiPSC-CMs was prolific; viral transcripts accounted for about 88% of total mRNA. In the cytoplasm of infected hiPSC-CMs, smooth-walled exocytic vesicles contained numerous 65- to 90-nm particles with canonical ribonucleocapsid structures, and virus-like particles with knob-like spikes covered the cell surface. To better understand how SARS-CoV-2 spreads in hiPSC-CMs, we engineered an expression vector coding for the spike protein with a monomeric emerald-green fluorescent protein fused to its cytoplasmic tail (S-mEm). Proteolytic processing of S-mEm and the parental spike were equivalent. Live cell imaging tracked spread of S-mEm cell-to-cell and documented formation of syncytia. A cell-permeable, peptide-based molecule that blocks the catalytic site of furin and furin-like proteases abolished cell fusion. A spike mutant with the single amino acid change R682S that disrupts the multibasic furin cleavage motif was fusion inactive. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 replicates efficiently in hiPSC-CMs and furin, and/or furin-like-protease activation of its spike protein is required for fusion-based cytopathology. This hiPSC-CM platform enables target-based drug discovery in cardiac COVID-19. IMPORTANCE Cardiac complications frequently observed in COVID-19 patients are tentatively attributed to systemic inflammation and thrombosis, but viral replication has occasionally been confirmed in cardiac tissue autopsy materials. We developed an in vitro model of SARS-CoV-2 spread in myocardium using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. In these highly differentiated cells, viral transcription levels exceeded those previously documented in permissive transformed cell lines. To better understand the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 spread, we expressed a fluorescent version of its spike protein that allowed us to characterize a fusion-based cytopathic effect. A mutant of the spike protein with a single amino acid mutation in the furin/furin-like protease cleavage site lost cytopathic function. Of note, the fusion activities of the spike protein of other coronaviruses correlated with the level of cardiovascular complications observed in infections with the respective viruses. These data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 may cause cardiac damage by fusing cardiomyocytes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Cathepsin B/metabolism , Cell Fusion , Chlorocebus aethiops , Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism , Exocytosis , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Microscopy, Confocal , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
13.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438528

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is related to enhanced production of NETs, and autoimmune/autoinflammatory phenomena. We evaluated the proportion of low-density granulocytes (LDG) by flow cytometry, and their capacity to produce NETs was compared with that of conventional neutrophils. NETs and their protein cargo were quantified by confocal microscopy and ELISA. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and the degradation capacity of NETs were addressed in serum. MILLIPLEX assay was used to assess the cytokine levels in macrophages' supernatant and serum. We found a higher proportion of LDG in severe and critical COVID-19 which correlated with severity and inflammatory markers. Severe/critical COVID-19 patients had higher plasmatic NE, LL-37 and HMGB1-DNA complexes, whilst ISG-15-DNA complexes were lower in severe patients. Sera from severe/critical COVID-19 patients had lower degradation capacity of NETs, which was reverted after adding hrDNase. Anti-NET antibodies were found in COVID-19, which correlated with ANA and ANCA positivity. NET stimuli enhanced the secretion of cytokines in macrophages. This study unveils the role of COVID-19 NETs as inducers of pro-inflammatory and autoimmune responses. The deficient degradation capacity of NETs may contribute to the accumulation of these structures and anti-NET antibodies are related to the presence of autoantibodies.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Inflammation , Neutrophils/immunology , Antibodies, Antinuclear , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/blood , Autoantibodies/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytokines/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry , Granulocytes/metabolism , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Microscopy, Confocal , Monocytes/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitins/pharmacology
14.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 137(4): 58-64, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365879

ABSTRACT

This analysis of ocular manifestations of the COVID-19 that can occur both in the acute and the post-COVID period focuses on pathological changes associated with hypercoagulation: thrombosis of the central retinal vein, occlusion of the central retinal artery, and decreased peripapillary perfusion. Potential changes in corneal nerve fibers (CNF) associated with coronavirus infection remain poorly understood. Meanwhile, previous studies have shown the possibility of using CNF as biomarkers of polyneuropathy (PNP). PURPOSE: To study clinical and diagnostic features of post-COVID PNP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined 9 female patients aged 32 to 51 years who had suffered an infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 of varying severity. The patients were divided into two groups: the first consisted of 6 patients with clinical manifestations of PNP in the form of neuropathic pain, the second - 3 patients without clinical manifestations. Patients of group 1 underwent comprehensive examination including neurological examination, confocal microscopy of the cornea (in vivo CM), electroneuromyography (ENMG) of the nerves of the upper and lower extremities, quantitative sensory testing in the zone of painful sensations, while patients of group 2 only underwent in vivo CM. RESULTS: All patients of the first group, within 5-40 days after the onset of infection caused by SARS-CoV-2, exhibited symptoms of damage to various parts of the nervous system (peripheral nerves, thoracic spinal roots, trigeminal nerve). The main - and in most cases the only - symptom of the disease was neuropathic pain syndrome. In Guillain-Barré syndrome, for the first time using in vivo CM, the following changes were revealed: enlargement of in Langerhans cells, shortening of CNF and their processes, presence of neuromas. CONCLUSION: The standard neurological examination of patients with post-COVID neuropathy should be supplemented with special diagnostic methods for assessment of structural and functional state of the peripheral nerves. The in vivo CM method is capable of non-invasive assessment of changes in thin CNF and, with accumulation of empirical data, can be included in the algorithm for diagnosing post-COVID PNP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Female , Humans , Microscopy, Confocal , Nerve Fibers , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1087, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333934

ABSTRACT

The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors has demonstrated significant improvements in survival for subsets of cancer patients. However, they carry significant and sometimes life-threatening toxicities. Prompt prediction and monitoring of immune toxicities have the potential to maximise the benefits of immune checkpoint therapy. Herein, we develop a digital nanopillar SERS platform that achieves real-time single cytokine counting and enables dynamic tracking of immune toxicities in cancer patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment - broader applications are anticipated in other disease indications. By analysing four prospective cytokine biomarkers that initiate inflammatory responses, the digital nanopillar SERS assay achieves both highly specific and highly sensitive cytokine detection down to attomolar level. Significantly, we report the capability of the assay to longitudinally monitor 10 melanoma patients during immune inhibitor blockade treatment. Here, we show that elevated cytokine concentrations predict for higher risk of developing severe immune toxicities in our pilot cohort of patients.


Subject(s)
Immunotherapy/methods , Melanoma/therapy , Monitoring, Immunologic/methods , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , Chemokine CX3CL1/immunology , Chemokine CX3CL1/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/immunology , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/immunology , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/immunology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ipilimumab/adverse effects , Ipilimumab/immunology , Ipilimumab/therapeutic use , Melanoma/immunology , Melanoma/metabolism , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results
16.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(4): 456-459, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315993

ABSTRACT

Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a method that produces microscopic imaging of a lung tissue during bronchoscopy. We report a case ot a patient with negative nasopharyngeal swabs and suspected lung cancer who underwent pCLE. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed by PCR analyses of lavage fluid and transbrohial biopsy. The pCLE image shows density of alveolar thickened fibres, disorganization of elastin network, and multiple large drops of intraalveolar secretions. As far as we know, this is the first pCLE image discribed in patient with COVID-19 at that moment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biopsy/methods , Bronchoscopy/methods , Humans
17.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(8): 846-858, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309445

ABSTRACT

The integral membrane protein ATG9A plays a key role in autophagy. It displays a broad intracellular distribution and is present in numerous compartments, including the plasma membrane (PM). The reasons for the distribution of ATG9A to the PM and its role at the PM are not understood. Here, we show that ATG9A organizes, in concert with IQGAP1, components of the ESCRT system and uncover cooperation between ATG9A, IQGAP1 and ESCRTs in protection from PM damage. ESCRTs and ATG9A phenocopied each other in protection against PM injury. ATG9A knockouts sensitized the PM to permeabilization by a broad spectrum of microbial and endogenous agents, including gasdermin, MLKL and the MLKL-like action of coronavirus ORF3a. Thus, ATG9A engages IQGAP1 and the ESCRT system to maintain PM integrity.


Subject(s)
Autophagy-Related Proteins/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism , Autophagosomes/metabolism , Autophagy-Related Proteins/genetics , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Immunoblotting , Immunoprecipitation , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Microscopy, Confocal , Protein Transport/physiology , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics
18.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 68: 126818, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300926

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged late in 2019 is the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). There is an urgent need to develop curative and preventive therapeutics to limit the current pandemic and to prevent the re-emergence of Covid-19. This study aimed to assess the in vitro activity of copper gluconate against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Vero E6 cells were cultured with or without copper gluconate 18-24 hours before infection. Cells were infected with a recombinant GFP expressing SARS-CoV-2. Cells were infected with a recombinant GFP expressing SARS-CoV-2. Infected cells were incubated in fresh medium containing varying concentration of copper gluconate (supplemented with bovine serum albumin or not) for an additional 48 -h period. The infection level was measured by the confocal microscopy-based high content screening method. The cell viability in presence of copper gluconate was assessed by XTT and propidium iodide assays. RESULTS: The viability of Vero E6 cells exposed to copper gluconate up to 200 µM was found to be similar to that of unexposed cells, but it dropped below 70 % with 400 µM of this agent after 72 h of continuous exposure. The infection rate was 23.8 %, 18.9 %, 20.6 %, 6.9 %, 5.3 % and 5.2 % in cells treated prior infection with 0, 2, 10, 25, 50 and 100 µM of copper gluconate respectively. As compared to untreated cells, the number of infected cells was reduced by 71 %, 77 %, and 78 % with 25, 50, and 100 µM of copper gluconate respectively (p < 0.05). In cells treated only post-infection, the rate of infection dropped by 73 % with 100 µM of copper gluconate (p < 0.05). However, the antiviral activity of copper gluconate was abolished by the addition of bovine serum albumin. CONCLUSION: Copper gluconate was found to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero E6 cells but this effect was abolished by albumin, which suggests that copper will not retain its activity in serum. Furthers studies are needed to investigate whether copper gluconate could be of benefit in mucosal administration such as mouthwash, nasal spray or aerosols.


Subject(s)
Gluconates/pharmacology , Microscopy, Confocal , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Vero Cells
19.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(3): 22, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255751

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the face mask (FM)-related ocular surface changes using clinical tests, in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and impression cytology (IC), and to investigate the Dry Eye-related Quality of life Score (DEQS). Methods: Sixty-six patients with dry eye disease (DED) and 62 healthy subjects (group 2) using FM were enrolled. Groups were divided into: groups 1A and 2A: < 3 hours of FM wear; groups 1B and 2B: 3 to 6 hours; and groups 1C and 2C: > 6 hours. Patients underwent DEQS questionnaire, break-up time (BUT), Schirmer test I (STI), fluorescein and lissamine staining (FS and LS), IVCM to determine corneal dendritic cell density (DCD) and goblet cell density (GCD), and IC to measure HLA-DR, at baseline and after 3 months. Results: FM use duration before enrollment was 27 ± 2.3 and 30 ± 4.1 (days ± SD) for groups 1 and 2 (P > 0.05). After 3 months, DEQS worsened in groups 1B and 1C, STI in groups 1A to 1C, FS and LS in group 1C (P < 0.05); in controls, BUT and FS worsened only in group 2C (P < 0.05). DCD significantly increased in groups 1A to 1C and HLA-DR in groups 1B and 1C (P < 0.05), whereas GCD did not significantly change. DCD and HLA-DR increased only in group 2C (P < 0.05). DEQS significantly correlated with DCD (P = 0.05, r = 0.698; P < 0.001, r = 0.832) and HLA-DR (P = 0.043, r = -0.687; P < 0.001, r = 0.861) at baseline and 3 months. Conclusions: Use of FM increases ocular surface inflammation and negatively impacts the quality of life in patients with DED. Translational Relevance: The study of the prolonged use of FM effects may be relevant to managing DED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Masks , Microscopy, Confocal , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 105(7): 893-896, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207486

ABSTRACT

AIM: We report two cases of endothelial corneal allograft rejection following immunisation with SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine BNT162b2 and describe the implications for management of transplant recipients postvaccination for COVID-19. METHODS: A 66-year-old woman with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) and a unilateral Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) transplant received COVID-19 mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 14 days post-transplant. Seven days later, she presented with symptoms and signs of endothelial graft rejection. An 83-year-old woman with bilateral DMEK transplants for FECD 3 and 6 years earlier developed simultaneous acute endothelial rejection in both eyes, 3 weeks post second dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine BNT162b2. Rejection in both cases was treated successfully with topical corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: We believe this is the first report of temporal association between corneal transplant rejection following immunisation against COVID-19 and the first report of DMEK rejection following any immunisation. We hypothesise that the allogeneic response may have been initiated by the host antibody response following vaccination. Clinicians and patients should be aware of the potential of corneal graft rejection associated with vaccine administration and may wish to consider vaccination in advance of planned non-urgent keratoplasties. Patients should be counselled on the symptoms and signs that require urgent review to allow early treatment of any confirmed rejection episode.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty , Endothelium, Corneal/pathology , Graft Rejection/etiology , Immunization/adverse effects , Administration, Ophthalmic , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Allografts , Anterior Eye Segment/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/genetics , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endothelium, Corneal/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy/surgery , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/diagnostic imaging , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Humans , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Microscopy, Confocal , Ophthalmic Solutions , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity/physiology
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