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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023754

ABSTRACT

Carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) is a serum biomarker which has certain value and significance in the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and postoperative monitoring of cancer. In this study, a lateral flow immunoassay based on europium (III) polystyrene time-resolved fluorescence microspheres (TRFM-based LFIA), integrated with a portable fluorescence reader, has been successfully establish for rapid and quantitative analysis of CA199 in human serum. Briefly, time-resolved fluorescence microspheres (TRFMs) were conjugated with antibody I (Ab1) against CA199 as detection probes, and antibody II (Ab2) was coated as capture element, and a "TRFMs-Ab1-CA199-Ab2" sandwich format would form when CA199 was detected by the TRFM-based LFIA. Under the optimal parameters, the detection limit of the TRFM-based LFIA for visible quantitation with the help of an ultraviolet light was 4.125 U/mL, which was four times lower than that of LFIA based on gold nanoparticles. Additionally, the fluorescence ratio is well linearly correlated with the CA199 concentration (0.00-66.0 U/mL) and logarithmic concentration (66.0-264.0 U/mL) for quantitative detection. Serum samples from 10 healthy people and 10 liver cancer patients were tested to confirm the performances of the point-of-care application of the TRFM-based LFIA, 20.0 U/mL of CA199 in human serum was defined as the threshold for distinguishing healthy people from liver cancer patients with an accuracy of about 60%. The establishment of TRFM-based LFIA will provide a sensitive, convenient, and efficient technical support for rapid screening of CA199 in cancer diagnosis and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Liver Neoplasms , Metal Nanoparticles , Biomarkers, Tumor , Gold , Humans , Immunoassay , Limit of Detection , Microspheres
2.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(17): 5757-5769, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014103

ABSTRACT

To establish a rapid and specific antigen detection method for porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against the PCV2 epidemic strains and a red latex microsphere immunochromatographic strip was established. A total of eight anti-PCV2b and four anti-PCV2d mAbs were produced, and seven mAbs were confirmed to react with PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d strains using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The results of micro-neutralization tests showed that the mAbs 2C8, 9H4, 10G7, 7B9, and 7C7 had good neutralizing activity, whereas the neutralizing activity of the mAbs 4B3, 4C9, 6H9, and 7E2 was lower than 50%. Three mAbs, 4B3, 7C7, and 9H4, and PCV2 pAb were selected for the establishment of a red latex microsphere immunochromatographic strip, and the combination of mAb 7C7 labeled with red latex microspheres and mAb 9H4 exhibited the greatest detection ability. The immunochromatographic strip had minimum detection limits of 102.5 TCID50/0.1 ml, 100.7 TCID50/0.1 ml, and 101.5 TCID50/0.1 ml for PCV2a/CL, PCV2b/MDJ, and PCV2d/LNHC, respectively. Furthermore, no cross-reactivity was found for African swine fever virus, classical swine fever virus, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, porcine parvovirus, porcine pseudorabies virus, porcine circovirus type 1, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, porcine rotavirus, or porcine deltacoronavirus using the immunochromatographic strip. Using PCR as a reference standard, the detection sensitivity, specificity, and overall coincidence rate of the immunochromatographic strip were 81.13%, 100%, and 90.00%. Additionally, the detection ability of the immunochromatographic strip was correlated with that of virus titration. The immunochromatographic strip was used to detect 183 clinical disease samples, and the average positive detection rate was 22.95%. In summary, this method has good sensitivity and specificity and is simple, convenient, and quick to operate. It has high application value for on-site diagnosis of PCV2 and virus quantification. KEY POINTS: • A red latex microsphere immunochromatographic strip for PCV2 detection was developed. • The method was not only simple to operate, but also takes less time. • The method had good sensitivity and specificity.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus , Circoviridae Infections , Circovirus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Latex , Microspheres , Swine
3.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 225: 107094, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic progressive disease with an extremely high mortality rate and is a complication of COVID-19. Inhalable microspheres have been increasingly used in the treatment of lung diseases such as PF in recent years. Compared to the direct inhalation of drugs, a larger particle size is required to ensure the sustained release of microspheres. However, the clinical symptoms of PF may lead to the easier deposition of microspheres in the upper respiratory tract. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the effects of PF on the deposition of microspheres in the respiratory tract. METHODS: In this study, airway models with different degrees of PF in humans and mice were established, and the transport and deposition of microspheres in the airway were simulated using computational fluid dynamics. RESULTS: The simulation results showed that PF increases microsphere deposition in the upper respiratory tract and decreases bronchial deposition in both humans and mice. Porous microspheres with low density can ensure deposition in the lower respiratory tract and larger particle size. In healthy and PF humans, porous microspheres of 10 µm with densities of 700 and 400 kg/m³ were deposited most in the bronchi. Unlike in humans, microspheres larger than 4 µm are completely deposited in the upper respiratory tract of mice owing to their high inhalation velocity. For healthy and PF mice, microspheres of 6 µm with densities of and 100 kg/m³ are recommended. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that with the exacerbation of PF, it is more difficult for microsphere particles to deposit in the subsequent airway. In addition, there were significant differences in the deposition patterns among the different species. Therefore, it is necessary to process specific microspheres from different individuals. Our study can guide the processing of microspheres and achieve differentiated drug delivery in different subjects to maximize therapeutic effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Animals , Computer Simulation , Delayed-Action Preparations , Humans , Lung , Mice , Microspheres , Models, Biological , Particle Size , Porosity , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Trachea
4.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963723

ABSTRACT

Integrated biosensor platforms have become subjects of high interest for consolidated assay preparation and analysis to reduce sample-to-answer response times. By compactly combining as many biosensor processes and functions as possible into a single lab-on-chip device, all-in-one point-of-care devices can aid in the accessibility and speed of deployment due to their compact size and portability. Biomarker assay preparation and sensing are functionalities that are often carried out on separate devices, thus increasing opportunity of contamination, loss of sample volume, and other forms of error. Here, we demonstrate a complete lab-on-chip system combining sample preparation, on-chip optofluidic dye laser, and optical detection. We first show the integration of an on-chip distributed feedback dye laser for alignment-free optical excitation of particles moving through a fluidic channel. This capability is demonstrated by using Rhodamine 6G as the gain medium to excite single fluorescent microspheres at 575 nm. Next, we present an optofluidic PDMS platform combining a microvalve network (automaton) for sample preparation of nanoliter volumes, on-chip distributed feedback dye laser for target excitation, and optical detection. We conduct concurrent capture and fluorescence tagging of Zika virus nucleic acid on magnetic beads in 30 min. Target-carrying beads are then optically excited using the on-chip laser as they flow through an analysis channel, followed by highly specific fluorescence detection. This demonstration of a complete all-in-one biosensor is a tangible step in the development of a rapid, point-of-care device that can assist in limiting the severity of future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Lasers , Microspheres
5.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911186

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of new coronary pneumonia caused by the COVID-19 virus continues to ravage the world. Large-scale population testing is the key to controlling infection and related mortality worldwide. Lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA) is fast, inexpensive, simple to operate, and easy to carry, very suitable for detection sites. This study developed a COVID-19 N protein detect strip based on p-toluenesulfonyl modified rare earth fluorescent microspheres. The p-toluenesulfonyl-activated nanomaterials provide reactive sulfonyl esters to covalently attach antibodies or other ligands containing primary amino or sulfhydryl groups to the nanomaterial surface. Antibodies are immobilized on these nanomaterials through the Fc region, which ensures optimal orientation of the antibody, thereby increasing the capture rate of the target analyte. The use of buffers with high ionic strength can promote hydrophobic binding; in addition, higher pH could promote the reactivity of the tosyl group. The detection limit of the prepared COVID-19 N protein strips can reach 0.01 ng/mL, so it has great application potential in large-scale population screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Limit of Detection , Microspheres
6.
J Urol ; 207(1): 152-160, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769451

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Urologists will benefit from an imaging modality which can assess intra and extraluminal characteristics of urethral strictures. We conducted a prospective pilot study evaluating the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and shear wave elastography for the evaluation of bulbar urethral stricture disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with a single, bulbar urethral stricture were prospectively recruited. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and shear wave elastography were performed at the time of surgical repair and at 4 months' followup using an Aplio i800 scanner (Canon Medical Systems, Tustin, California) with an i8CX1 transducer. Sulfur hexafluoride lipid-type A microsphere ultrasound contrast (Lumason®, Bracco Imaging, Princeton, New Jersey) was injected retrograde through the urethra. Stiffness of the corpus spongiosum was measured at and adjacent to the stricture site. Stricture lengths based on retrograde urethrogram, grayscale ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound were correlated with measured intraoperative stricture length. RESULTS: Thirty men were enrolled. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (R2=0.709) showed the best correlation with intraoperative measured stricture length compared to retrograde urethrogram (R2=0.016) or grayscale ultrasound (R2=0.471). Stiffness of the spongiosum was greater at the site of the stricture (32.6±5.4 vs 27.3±5.8 kPa, p=0.044) and in narrower caliber strictures (p=0.044) but did not differ by stricture length (p=0.182). At followup (4.3±1.1 months) contrast-enhanced ultrasound detected stricture recurrence with 80% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 93% accuracy compared to cystoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates the ability of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and shear wave elastography to become safe, accurate, and potentially efficacious modalities for assessing bulbar urethral strictures and spongiofibrosis.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Urethral Stricture/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Microspheres , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography/methods
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3905, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740474

ABSTRACT

Temperature sensing is a promising method of enhancing the detection sensitivity of lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for point-of-care testing. A temperature increase of more than 100 °C can be readily achieved by photoexcitation of reporters like gold nanoparticles (GNPs) or colored latex beads (CLBs) on LFIA strips with a laser power below 100 mW. Despite its promise, processes involved in the photothermal detection have not yet been well-characterized. Here, we provide a fundamental understanding of this thermometric assay using non-fluorescent CLBs as the reporters deposited on nitrocellulose membrane. From a measurement for the dependence of temperature rises on the number density of membrane-bound CLBs, we found a 1.3-fold (and 3.2-fold) enhancement of the light absorption by red (and black) latex beads at 520 nm. The enhancement was attributed to the multiple scattering of light in this highly porous medium, a mechanism that could make a significant impact on the sensitivity improvement of LFIA. The limit of detection was measured to be 1 × 105 particles/mm2. In line with previous studies using GNPs as the reporters, the CLB-based thermometric assay provides a 10× higher sensitivity than color visualization. We demonstrated a practical use of this thermometric immunoassay with rapid antigen tests for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Microspheres , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Thermometry/methods
8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 203: 114032, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729564

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) contain several single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) at key sites in the receptor-binding region (RBD) that enhance infectivity and transmission, as well as cause immune escape, resulting in an aggravation of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Emerging VOCs have sparked the need for a diagnostic method capable of simultaneously monitoring these SNVs. To date, no highly sensitive, efficient clinical tool exists to monitor SNVs simultaneously. Here, an encodable multiplex microsphere-phase amplification (MMPA) sensing platform that combines primer-coded microsphere technology with dual fluorescence decoding strategy to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA and simultaneously identify 10 key SNVs in the RBD. MMPA limits the amplification refractory mutation system PCR (ARMS-PCR) reaction for specific target sequence to the surface of a microsphere with specific fluorescence coding. This effectively solves the problem of non-specific amplification among primers and probes in multiplex PCR. For signal detection, specific fluorescence codes inside microspheres are used to determine the corresponding relationship between the microspheres and the SNV sites, while the report probes hybridized with PCR products are used to detect the microsphere amplification intensity. The MMPA platform offers a lower SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection limit of 28 copies/reaction, the ability to detect a respiratory pathogen panel without cross-reactivity, and a SNV analysis accuracy level comparable to that of sequencing. Moreover, this super-multiple parallel SNVs detection method enables a timely updating of the panel of detected SNVs that accompanies changing VOCs, and presents a clinical availability that traditional sequencing methods do not.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Microspheres , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mutation , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(2)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674496

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody (NAb) is a family of antibodies with special functions, which afford a degree of protection against infection and/or reduce the risk of clinically severe infection. Receptor binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, a portion of the S1 subunit, can stimulate the immune system to produce NAb after infection and vaccination. The detection of NAb against SARS-CoV-2 is a simple and direct approach for evaluating a vaccine's effectiveness. In this study, a direct, rapid, and point-of-care bicolor lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed for NAb against SARS-CoV-2 detection without sample pretreatment, and which was based on the principle of NAb-mediated blockage of the interaction between RBD and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. In the bicolor LFIA, red and blue latex microspheres (LMs) were used to locate the test and control lines, leading to avoidance of erroneous interpretations of one-colored line results. Under the optimal conditions, NAb against SARS-CoV-2 detection carried out using the bicolor LFIA could be completed within 9 min, and the visible limit of detection was about 48 ng/mL. Thirteen serum samples were analyzed, and the results showed that the NAb levels in three positive serum samples were equal to, or higher than, 736 ng/mL. The LM-based bicolor LFIA allows one-step, rapid, convenient, inexpensive, and user-friendly determination of NAb against SARS-CoV-2 in serum.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chromatography, Affinity , Humans , Latex , Microspheres , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625612

ABSTRACT

Repurposing of the anthelminthic drug niclosamide was proposed as an effective treatment for inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Niclosamide may also be effective for the treatment of viral respiratory infections, such as SARS-CoV-2, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza. While systemic application of niclosamide may lead to unwanted side effects, local administration via aerosol may circumvent these problems, particularly when the drug is encapsulated into small polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrospheres. In the present study, we examined whether PEG-encapsulated niclosamide inhibits the production of mucus and affects the pro-inflammatory mediator CLCA1 in mouse airways in vivo, while effects on mucociliary clearance were assessed in excised mouse tracheas. The potential of encapsulated niclosamide to inhibit TMEM16A whole-cell Cl- currents and intracellular Ca2+ signalling was assessed in airway epithelial cells in vitro. We achieved encapsulation of niclosamide in PEG-microspheres and PEG-nanospheres (Niclo-spheres). When applied to asthmatic mice via intratracheal instillation, Niclo-spheres strongly attenuated overproduction of mucus, inhibited secretion of the major proinflammatory mediator CLCA1, and improved mucociliary clearance in tracheas ex vivo. These effects were comparable for niclosamide encapsulated in PEG-nanospheres and PEG-microspheres. Niclo-spheres inhibited the Ca2+ activated Cl- channel TMEM16A and attenuated mucus production in CFBE and Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells. Both inhibitory effects were explained by a pronounced inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ signals. The data indicate that poorly dissolvable compounds such as niclosamide can be encapsulated in PEG-microspheres/nanospheres and deposited locally on the airway epithelium as encapsulated drugs, which may be advantageous over systemic application.


Subject(s)
Niclosamide/administration & dosage , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Respiratory System/drug effects , Animals , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/metabolism , Asthma/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Compounding , Humans , Hydrogels/chemistry , Instillation, Drug , Mice , Microspheres , Mucus/drug effects , Mucus/metabolism , Nanospheres/administration & dosage , Nanospheres/chemistry , Niclosamide/chemistry , Niclosamide/pharmacokinetics , Pneumonia/pathology , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Trachea
11.
Anal Chem ; 94(3): 1531-1536, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621192

ABSTRACT

Fluorescence barcoding with multicolor fluorophores is limited by spectral crowding. Herein, we propose a fluorescence encoding method in a single-color channel with photoswitches. The photochromic naphthopyran was used to mediate the fluorescence of polystyrene microspheres through resonance energy transfer. The initial fluorescence intensity (F0) and the fluorescence after UV light activation (F/F0) were combined to generate hundreds of 2-dimensional barcodes. The coding capacity was further expanded with the different chemical kinetics of the photoswitches. The photoswitch-based fluorescence barcodes were applied to simultaneously and selectively detect the DNA sequences of COVID-19 (with related mutations) as a proof-of-concept for real applications. The compatibility with the state-of-the-art fluorescence microscopes and simple encoding and decoding make the method very attractive for multiplexed and high-throughput analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fluorescent Dyes , Humans , Microspheres , SARS-CoV-2 , Staining and Labeling
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0246916, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546847

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has reintroduced questions regarding the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure amongst passengers on an aircraft. Quantifying risk with computational fluid dynamics models or contact tracing methods alone is challenging, as experimental results for inflight biological aerosols is lacking. Using fluorescent aerosol tracers and real time optical sensors, coupled with DNA-tagged tracers for aerosol deposition, we executed ground and inflight testing on Boeing 767 and 777 airframes. Analysis here represents tracer particles released from a simulated infected passenger, in multiple rows and seats, to determine the exposure risk via penetration into breathing zones in that row and numerous rows ahead and behind the index case. We present here conclusions from 118 releases of fluorescent tracer particles, with 40+ Instantaneous Biological Analyzer and Collector sensors placed in passenger breathing zones for real-time measurement of simulated virus particle penetration. Results from both airframes showed a minimum reduction of 99.54% of 1 µm aerosols from the index source to the breathing zone of a typical passenger seated directly next to the source. An average 99.97 to 99.98% reduction was measured for the breathing zones tested in the 767 and 777, respectively. Contamination of surfaces from aerosol sources was minimal, and DNA-tagged 3 µm tracer aerosol collection techniques agreed with fluorescent methodologies.


Subject(s)
Aircraft , Computer Simulation , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , /chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , DNA/chemistry , DNA/metabolism , Humans , Masks , Microspheres , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(11): 4066-4074, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1543003

ABSTRACT

Different fragments of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein were expressed and purified, and a fluorescence immunochromatography method for detection of SARS-CoV-2 total antibody was established. The effect of different protein fragments on the performance of the method was evaluated. The N protein sequence was analyzed by bioinformatics technology, expressed in prokaryotic cell and purified by metal ion affinity chromatography column. Different N protein fragments were prepared for comparison. EDC reaction was used to label fluorescence microsphere on the synthesized antigen to construct sandwich fluorescence chromatography antibody detection assay, and the performance was systemically evaluated. Among the 4 prepared N protein fragments, the full-length N protein (N419) was selected as the optimized coating antigen, N412 with 0.5 mol/L NaCl was used as the optimal combination; deleting 91-120 amino acids from the N-terminal of N412 reduced non-specific signal by 87.5%. the linear range of detection was 0.312-80 U/L, the limit of detection was 0.165 U/L, and the accuracy was more than 95%. A fluorescence immunochromatographic detection method for analysis of SARS-CoV-2 total antibody was established by pairing N protein fragments. The detection result achieved 98% concordance with the commercially available Guangzhou Wanfu test strip, which is expected to be used as a supplementary approach for detection of SARS-CoV-2. The assay could also provide experimental reference for improving the performance of COVID-19 antibody detection reagents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Chromatography, Affinity , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Microspheres , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(12): e24091, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious and concealed virus that causes pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and even death. Although the epidemic has been controlled since the development of vaccines and quarantine measures, many people are still infected, particularly in third-world countries. Several methods have been developed for detection of SARS-CoV-2, but owing to its price and efficiency, the immune strip could be a better method for the third-world countries. METHODS: In this study, two antibodies were linked to latex microspheres, using 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide, as the bridge to decrease the cost further and improve the detection performance. The specificity of the lateral flow immunoassay strip (LFIA) was tested by several common viruses and respiratory bacterial infections. Besides, the reproducibility and stability of the LFIAs were tested on the same batch of test strips. Under optimal conditions, the sensitivity of LFIA was determined by testing different dilutions of the positive specimens. RESULTS: The proposed LFIAs were highly specific, and the limit of detection was as low as 25 ng/mL for SARS-CoV-2 antigens. The clinical applicability was evaluated with 659 samples (230 positive and 429 negative samples) by using both LFIA and rRT-PCR. Youden's index (J) was used to assess the performance of these diagnostic tests. The sensitivity and specificity were 98.22% and 97.93%, respectively, and J is 0.9615. The sensitivity and specificity were 98.22% and 97.93%, respectively, and J is 0.9615. In addition, the consistency of our proposed LFIA was analyzed using Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ = 0.9620). CONCLUSION: We found disease stage, age, gender, and clinical manifestations have only a slight influence on the diagnosis. Therefore, the lateral flow immunoassay SARS-CoV-2 antigen test strip is suitable for point-of-care detection and provides a great application for SARS-CoV-2 epidemic control in the third-world countries.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Immunoassay/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , Carbodiimides/chemistry , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Latex/chemistry , Methylamines/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microspheres , Point-of-Care Systems , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Succinimides/chemistry
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0248444, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394535

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 is rapidly expanding across the world. A positive result of antibody tests suggests that the individual has potentially been exposed to SARS-CoV-2, thus allowing to identify asymptomatic infections and determine the seroprevalence in a given population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of a newly developed high throughput immunoassay for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibody detection on the Luminex MAGPIX platform. Clinical agreement studies were performed in 42 COVID-19 patient serum samples and 162 negative donor serum/plasma samples. Positive percent agreement (PPA) was 42.86% (95% CI: 9.90% to 81.59%), 71.43% (95% CI: 29.04% to 96.33%), and 28.57% (95% CI: 13.22% to 48.67%) for samples collected on 0-7 days, 8-14 days, and 2-8 weeks from symptom onset, respectively. Negative Percent Agreement (NPA) was 97.53% (95% CI: 93.80% to 99.32%). There was no cross-reactivity with the SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody. Hemoglobin (200 mg/dL), bilirubin (2 mg/dL), triglyceride (250 mg/dL) and EDTA (10 mM) showed no significant interfering effect on this assay. In conclusion, an anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibody assay with high sensitivity and specificity has been developed. With the high throughput, this assay will speed up the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM testing.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Microspheres , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
17.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(1): e0013421, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329041

ABSTRACT

Early in the pandemic when diagnostic testing was not widely available, serosurveys played an important role in estimating the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in different populations. Dried blood spots (DBS), which can be collected in nonclinical settings, provide a minimally invasive alternative to serum for serosurveys. We developed a Luminex-based SARS-CoV-2 microsphere immunoassay (MIA) for DBS that detects IgG antibodies to nucleocapsid (N) and spike subunit 1 (S1) antigens. The assay uses a 384-well plate format and automated liquid handlers for high-throughput capacity. Specificity was assessed using a large collection of prepandemic DBS and well-characterized sera. Sensitivity was analyzed using serology data from New York State SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey testing and matched diagnostic test results. For DBS, the specificity was 99.5% for the individual N and S1 antigens. Median fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for DBS and paired sera showed a strong positive correlation for N (R2 = 0.91) and S1 (R2 = 0.93). Sensitivity, assessed from 1,134 DBS with prior laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, ranged from 83% at 0 to 20 days to 95% at 61 to 90 days after a positive test. When stratified using coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptom data, sensitivity ranged from 90 to 96% for symptomatic and 77 to 91% for asymptomatic individuals. For 8,367 health care workers reporting detailed symptom data, MFI values were significantly higher for all symptom categories. Our results indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 IgG DBS MIA is sensitive, specific, and well-suited for large population-based serosurveys. The ability to readily modify and multiplex antigens is important for ongoing assessment of SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses to emerging variants and vaccines. IMPORTANCE Testing for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 has been used to estimate the prevalence of COVID-19 in different populations. Seroprevalence studies, or serosurveys, were especially useful during the early phase of the pandemic when diagnostic testing was not widely available, and the resulting seroprevalence estimates played an important role in public health decision making. To achieve meaningful results, antibody tests used for serosurveys should be accurate and accessible to diverse populations. We developed a test that detects antibodies to two different SARS-CoV-2 proteins in dried blood spots (DBS). DBS require only a simple fingerstick and can be collected in nonclinical settings. We conducted a robust validation study and have demonstrated that our test is both sensitive and specific. Furthermore, we demonstrated that our test is suitable for large-scale serosurveys by testing over 56,000 DBS collected in a variety of community-based venues in New York State during the spring of 2020.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Microspheres , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Male , New York , Pandemics , Patient Care Team , Public Health , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Specimen Handling
18.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(6)2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255519

ABSTRACT

Serological testing of large representative populations for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 is needed to estimate seroprevalence, transmission dynamics, and the duration of antibody responses from natural infection and vaccination. In this study, a high-throughput SARS-CoV-2 multiplex microsphere immunoassay (MMIA) was developed for the receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (N) that was more sensitive than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (98% versus 87%). The MMIA was then applied and validated in 264 first responders in Colorado using serum and dried blood spot (DBS) eluates, compared to ELISA, and evaluated for neutralizing antibodies. Four percent (11/264) of first responders were seropositive in July to August 2020. Serum and DBS were highly correlated for anti-RBD and anti-N antibodies (R = 0.83, P < 0.0001 and R = 0.87, P < 0.0001, respectively) by MMIA. The MMIA accurately predicted SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies using DBS (R = 0.76, P = 0.037). On repeat antibody testing 3 months later, anti-RBD IgG decreased less rapidly than anti-N IgG measured by MMIA, with a median change in geometric median fluorescence intensity of 62% versus 79% (P < 0.01) for anti-RBD and anti-N IgG, respectively. This novel MMIA using DBS could be scalable for rapid and affordable SARS-CoV-2 serosurveillance in the United States and globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Responders , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Colorado , Humans , Immunoassay , Microspheres , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
19.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(18): 4645-4654, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245612

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid detection technology based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody detection based on immunochromatography still have many problems such as false negatives for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, it is of great importance to develop new techniques to improve the diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19. We herein developed an ultrasensitive, rapid, and duplex digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dELISA) for simultaneous detection of spike (S-RBD) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 based on a single molecule array. This assay effectively combines magnetic bead encoding technology and the ultrasensitive detection capability of a single molecule array. The detection strategies of S-RBD protein and N-protein exhibited wide response ranges of 0.34-1065 pg/mL and 0.183-338 pg/mL with detection limits of 20.6 fg/mL and 69.8 fg/mL, respectively. It is a highly specific method for the simultaneous detection of S-RBD protein and N-protein and has minimal interference from other blood proteins. Moreover, the spike assay showed a satisfactory and reproducible recovery rate for the detection of S-RBD protein and N-protein in serum samples. Overall, this work provides a highly sensitive method for the simultaneous detection of S-RBD protein and N-protein, which shows ultrasensitivity and high signal-to-noise ratio and contributes to improve the diagnosis accuracy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Single Molecule Imaging/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Magnetics , Microspheres , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008699, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932350

ABSTRACT

Surveillance of highly pathogenic viruses circulating in both human and animal populations is crucial to unveil endemic infections and potential zoonotic reservoirs. Monitoring the burden of disease by serological assay could be used as an early warning system for imminent outbreaks as an increased seroprevalance often precedes larger outbreaks. However, the multitude of highly pathogenic viruses necessitates the need to identify specific antibodies against several targets from both humans as well as from potential reservoir animals such as bats. In order to address this, we have developed a broadly reactive multiplex microsphere immunoassay (MMIA) for the detection of antibodies against several highly pathogenic viruses from both humans and animals. To this aim, nucleoproteins (NP) of Ebola virus (EBOV), Marburg virus (MARV) and nucleocapsid proteins (NP) of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus were employed in a 5-plex assay for IgG detection. After optimisation, specific binding to each respective NP was shown by testing sera from humans and non-human primates with known infection status. The usefulness of our assay for serosurveillance was shown by determining the immune response against the NP antigens in a panel of 129 human serum samples collected in Guinea between 2011 and 2012 in comparison to a panel of 88 sera from the German blood bank. We found good agreement between our MMIA and commercial or in-house reference methods by ELISA or IIFT with statistically significant higher binding to both EBOV NP and MARV NP coupled microspheres in the Guinea panel. Finally, the MMIA was successfully adapted to detect antibodies from bats that had been inoculated with EBOV- and MARV- virus-like particles, highlighting the versatility of this technique and potentially enabling the monitoring of wildlife as well as human populations with this assay. We were thus able to develop and validate a sensitive and broadly reactive high-throughput serological assay which could be used as a screening tool to detect antibodies against several highly pathogenic viruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunoassay/methods , Microspheres , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Chiroptera , Humans , Primates , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/virology
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