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Korean J Radiol ; 21(6): 746-755, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-262130

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of pulmonary fibrosis development by combining follow-up thin-section CT findings and clinical features in patients discharged after treatment for COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study involved 32 confirmed COVID-19 patients who were divided into two groups according to the evidence of fibrosis on their latest follow-up CT imaging. Clinical data and CT imaging features of all the patients in different stages were collected and analyzed for comparison. RESULTS: The latest follow-up CT imaging showed fibrosis in 14 patients (male, 12; female, 2) and no fibrosis in 18 patients (male, 10; female, 8). Compared with the non-fibrosis group, the fibrosis group was older (median age: 54.0 years vs. 37.0 years, p = 0.008), and the median levels of C-reactive protein (53.4 mg/L vs. 10.0 mg/L, p = 0.002) and interleukin-6 (79.7 pg/L vs. 11.2 pg/L, p = 0.04) were also higher. The fibrosis group had a longer-term of hospitalization (19.5 days vs. 10.0 days, p = 0.001), pulsed steroid therapy (11.0 days vs. 5.0 days, p < 0.001), and antiviral therapy (12.0 days vs. 6.5 days, p = 0.012). More patients on the worst-state CT scan had an irregular interface (59.4% vs. 34.4%, p = 0.045) and a parenchymal band (71.9% vs. 28.1%, p < 0.001). On initial CT imaging, the irregular interface (57.1%) and parenchymal band (50.0%) were more common in the fibrosis group. On the worst-state CT imaging, interstitial thickening (78.6%), air bronchogram (57.1%), irregular interface (85.7%), coarse reticular pattern (28.6%), parenchymal band (92.9%), and pleural effusion (42.9%) were more common in the fibrosis group. CONCLUSION: Fibrosis was more likely to develop in patients with severe clinical conditions, especially in patients with high inflammatory indicators. Interstitial thickening, irregular interface, coarse reticular pattern, and parenchymal band manifested in the process of the disease may be predictors of pulmonary fibrosis. Irregular interface and parenchymal band could predict the formation of pulmonary fibrosis early.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Microtomy/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pleural Effusion/pathology , Pleural Effusion/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
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