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1.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(3): e1009892, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731577

ABSTRACT

Emerging clinical evidence suggests that thrombosis in the microvasculature of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) plays an essential role in dictating the disease progression. Because of the infectious nature of SARS-CoV-2, patients' fresh blood samples are limited to access for in vitro experimental investigations. Herein, we employ a novel multiscale and multiphysics computational framework to perform predictive modeling of the pathological thrombus formation in the microvasculature using data from patients with COVID-19. This framework seamlessly integrates the key components in the process of blood clotting, including hemodynamics, transport of coagulation factors and coagulation kinetics, blood cell mechanics and adhesive dynamics, and thus allows us to quantify the contributions of many prothrombotic factors reported in the literature, such as stasis, the derangement in blood coagulation factor levels and activities, inflammatory responses of endothelial cells and leukocytes to the microthrombus formation in COVID-19. Our simulation results show that among the coagulation factors considered, antithrombin and factor V play more prominent roles in promoting thrombosis. Our simulations also suggest that recruitment of WBCs to the endothelial cells exacerbates thrombogenesis and contributes to the blockage of the blood flow. Additionally, we show that the recent identification of flowing blood cell clusters could be a result of detachment of WBCs from thrombogenic sites, which may serve as a nidus for new clot formation. These findings point to potential targets that should be further evaluated, and prioritized in the anti-thrombotic treatment of patients with COVID-19. Altogether, our computational framework provides a powerful tool for quantitative understanding of the mechanism of pathological thrombus formation and offers insights into new therapeutic approaches for treating COVID-19 associated thrombosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Microvessels/physiopathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Thrombosis/virology , Anticoagulants , Blood Coagulation , Computational Biology , Humans , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 381, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease; however, there is also evidence that it causes endothelial damage in the microvasculature of several organs. The aim of the present study is to characterize in vivo the microvascular reactivity in peripheral skeletal muscle of severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study carried out in Spain, Mexico and Brazil. Healthy subjects and severe COVID-19 patients admitted to the intermediate respiratory (IRCU) and intensive care units (ICU) due to hypoxemia were studied. Local tissue/blood oxygen saturation (StO2) and local hemoglobin concentration (THC) were non-invasively measured on the forearm by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). A vascular occlusion test (VOT), a three-minute induced ischemia, was performed in order to obtain dynamic StO2 parameters: deoxygenation rate (DeO2), reoxygenation rate (ReO2), and hyperemic response (HAUC). In COVID-19 patients, the severity of ARDS was evaluated by the ratio between peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (SF ratio). RESULTS: Healthy controls (32) and COVID-19 patients (73) were studied. Baseline StO2 and THC did not differ between the two groups. Dynamic VOT-derived parameters were significantly impaired in COVID-19 patients showing lower metabolic rate (DeO2) and diminished endothelial reactivity. At enrollment, most COVID-19 patients were receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) (53%) or high-flow nasal cannula support (32%). Patients on MV were also receiving sedative agents (100%) and vasopressors (29%). Baseline StO2 and DeO2 negatively correlated with SF ratio, while ReO2 showed a positive correlation with SF ratio. There were significant differences in baseline StO2 and ReO2 among the different ARDS groups according to SF ratio, but not among different respiratory support therapies. CONCLUSION: Patients with severe COVID-19 show systemic microcirculatory alterations suggestive of endothelial dysfunction, and these alterations are associated with the severity of ARDS. Further evaluation is needed to determine whether these observations have prognostic implications. These results represent interim findings of the ongoing HEMOCOVID-19 trial. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04689477 . Retrospectively registered 30 December 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units/trends , Microvessels/physiopathology , Respiratory Care Units/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Microcirculation/physiology , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology
3.
Hamostaseologie ; 41(5): 387-396, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483190

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and vascular injury, which characterize morbidity in COVID-19 disease, are frequently observed in the skin. Several pathomechanisms, such as inflammation caused by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-mediated uptake into endothelial cells or SARS-CoV-2-initiated host immune responses, contribute to microthrombus formation and the appearance of vascular skin lesions. Besides pathophysiologic mechanisms observed in the skin, this review describes the clinical appearance of cutaneous vascular lesions and their association with COVID-19 disease, including acro-ischemia, reticular lesions, and cutaneous small vessel vasculitis. Clinicians need to be aware that skin manifestations may be the only symptom in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and that inflammatory and thrombotic SARS-CoV-2-driven processes observed in multiple organs and tissues appear identically in the skin as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/blood supply , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Complement Activation , Cytokines/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Microvessels/immunology , Microvessels/pathology , Microvessels/physiopathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Skin/immunology , Vasculitis/etiology , Vasculitis/pathology , Vasculitis/physiopathology , Virus Internalization
4.
Shock ; 57(1): 1-6, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathomechanisms of hypoxemia and treatment strategies for type H and type L acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been elucidated. MAIN TEXT: SARS-CoV-2 mainly targets the lungs and blood, leading to ARDS, and systemic thrombosis or bleeding. Angiotensin II-induced coagulopathy, SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperfibrin(ogen)olysis, and pulmonary and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation due to immunothrombosis contribute to COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Type H ARDS is associated with hypoxemia due to diffuse alveolar damage-induced high right-to-left shunts. Immunothrombosis occurs at the site of infection due to innate immune inflammatory and coagulofibrinolytic responses to SARS-CoV-2, resulting in microvascular occlusion with hypoperfusion of the lungs. Lung immunothrombosis in type L ARDS results from neutrophil extracellular traps containing platelets and fibrin in the lung microvasculature, leading to hypoxemia due to impaired blood flow and a high ventilation/perfusion (VA/Q) ratio. COVID-19-associated ARDS is more vascular centric than the other types of ARDS. D-dimer levels have been monitored for the progression of microvascular thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. Early anticoagulation therapy in critical patients with high D-dimer levels may improve prognosis, including the prevention and/or alleviation of ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: Right-to-left shunts and high VA/Q ratios caused by lung microvascular thrombosis contribute to hypoxemia in type H and L ARDS, respectively. D-dimer monitoring-based anticoagulation therapy may prevent the progression to and/or worsening of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hemostasis/physiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Fibrin/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinolysis , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Microvessels/physiopathology , Phenotype , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy
5.
Shock ; 56(6): 964-968, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endothelial and microvascular dysfunction may be a key pathogenic feature of severe COVID-19. The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent skin microvascular reactivity in patients with critical COVID-19. METHODS: Twelve patients with COVID-19 treated with non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation were included in the study. We investigated skin microvascular reactivity on 2 separate days during hospitalization (study day 1 and 2) and at least 3 months after disease onset (study day 3). Twelve controls with no confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection during 2020 were also examined. Skin perfusion was investigated through Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging before and after iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to determine the endothelial-dependent and the endothelial-independent vasodilation, respectively. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients with critical COVID-19 had higher basal skin perfusion and reduced responses to endothelial-dependent (ACh, P = 0.002) and endothelial-independent (SNP, P = 0.01) vasodilator drugs on study day 1. In addition, the ACh/SNP ratio was significantly reduced in patients (0.50 ±â€Š0.36 vs. 0.91 ±â€Š0.49 in controls, P = 0.02). Three months after disease onset, surviving patients tended to have reduced ACh-mediated vasodilation compared to controls (P = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: This small-sized pilot study demonstrates that critical COVID-19 infection is associated with microvascular impairment and, in particular, a markedly reduced endothelial function. Our results also suggest that microvascular function may not be fully recovered 3 months after disease onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Microcirculation/physiology , Regional Blood Flow/physiology , Vasodilation/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Microvessels/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246636, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on microcirculatory pattern of COVID-19 critically ill patients are scarce. The objective was to compare sublingual microcirculation parameters of critically ill patients according to the severity of the disease. METHODS: The study is a single-center prospective study with critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted in ICU. Sublingual microcirculation was assessed by IDF microscopy within 48 hours of ICU admission. Microcirculatory flow index (MFI), proportion of perfused vessel (PPV), total vessel density (TVD), De Backer score (DBS), perfused vessel density (PVD) and heterogeneity index (HI) were assessed. Patients were divided in 2 groups (severe and critical) according to the World health organization definition. FINDINGS: From 19th of March to 7th of April 2020, 43 patients were included. Fourteen patients (33%) were in the severe group and twenty-nine patients (67%) in the critical group. Patients in the critical group were all mechanically ventilated. The critical group had significantly higher values of MFI, DBS and PVD in comparison to severe group (respectively, PaCO2: 49 [44-45] vs 36 [33-37] mmHg; p<0,0001, MFI: 2.8 ± 0.2 vs 2.5 ± 0.3; p = 0.001, DBS: 12.7 ± 2.6 vs 10.8 ± 2.0 vessels mm-2; p = 0.033, PVD: 12.5 ± 3.0 vs 10.1 ± 2.4 mm.mm-2; p = 0.020). PPV, HI and TVD were similar between groups Correlation was found between microcirculatory parameters and PaCO2 levels. CONCLUSION: Critical COVID-19 patients under mechanical ventilation seem to have higher red blood cell velocity than severe non-ventilated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Microcirculation/physiology , Microvessels/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Partial Pressure , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
7.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 50: 151645, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064802

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiology that underlies severe COVID-19 by assessing the histopathology and the in situ detection of infectious SARS-CoV-2 and viral capsid proteins along with the cellular target(s) and host response from twelve autopsies. There were three key findings: 1) high copy infectious virus was limited mostly to the alveolar macrophages and endothelial cells of the septal capillaries; 2) viral spike protein without viral RNA localized to ACE2+ endothelial cells in microvessels that were most abundant in the subcutaneous fat and brain; 3) although both infectious virus and docked viral spike protein was associated with complement activation, only the endocytosed pseudovirions induced a marked up-regulation of the key COVID-19 associated proteins IL6, TNF alpha, IL1 beta, p38, IL8, and caspase 3. Importantly, this microvasculitis was associated with characteristic findings on hematoxylin and eosin examination that included endothelial degeneration and resultant basement membrane zone disruption and reduplication. It is concluded that serious COVID-19 infection has two distinct mechanisms: 1) a microangiopathy of pulmonary capillaries associated with a high infectious viral load where endothelial cell death releases pseudovirions into the circulation, and 2) the pseudovirions dock on ACE2+ endothelial cells most prevalent in the skin/subcutaneous fat and brain that activates the complement pathway/coagulation cascade resulting in a systemic procoagulant state as well as the expression of cytokines that produce the cytokine storm. The data predicts a favorable response to therapies based on either removal of circulating viral proteins and/or blunting of the endothelial-induced response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/physiopathology , Vascular Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Endothelial Cells/enzymology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Male , Microvessels/physiopathology , Microvessels/virology , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/virology , Vascular Diseases/virology , Virion
9.
Fluids Barriers CNS ; 17(1): 55, 2020 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755214

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses are highly pathogenic viruses that pose a serious threat to human health. Examples include the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak of 2003 (SARS-CoV-1), the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) outbreak of 2012, and the current SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. Herein, we review the neurological manifestations of coronaviruses and discuss the potential pathogenic role of blood-brain barrier dysfunction. We present the hypothesis that pre-existing vascular damage (due to aging, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension or other conditions) facilitates infiltration of the virus into the central nervous system (CNS), increasing neuro-inflammation and the likelihood of neurological symptoms. We also discuss the role of a neuroinflammatory cytokine profile in both blood-brain barrier dysfunction and macrovascular disease (e.g. ischemic stroke and thromboembolism). Future studies are needed to better understand the involvement of the microvasculature in coronavirus neuropathology, and to test the diagnostic potential of minimally-invasive screening tools (e.g. serum biomarkers, fluorescein retinal angiography and dynamic-contrast MRI).


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Microvessels/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Encephalitis/immunology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Microvessels/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/immunology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/immunology , Stroke/physiopathology , Thromboembolism/immunology , Thromboembolism/physiopathology
10.
Heart Lung Circ ; 29(11): 1596-1602, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739826

ABSTRACT

The recently described severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people, with thousands of fatalities. It has prompted global efforts in research, with focus on the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), and a rapid surge of publications. COVID-19 has been associated with a myriad of clinical manifestations, including the lungs, heart, kidneys, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, skin, and blood coagulation abnormalities. The endothelium plays a key role in organ dysfunction associated with severe infection, and current data suggest that it is also involved in SARS-CoV-2-induced sepsis. This critical review aimed to address a possible unifying mechanism underlying the diverse complications of COVID-19: microvascular dysfunction, with emphasis on the renin-angiotensin system. In addition, research perspectives are suggested in order to expand understanding of the pathophysiology of the infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Microvessels , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Microvessels/metabolism , Microvessels/physiopathology , Microvessels/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(14): 2048-2050, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627315

ABSTRACT

In COVID-19, lung manifestations present as a slowly evolving pneumonia with insidious early onset interstitial pulmonary edema that undergoes acute exacerbation in the late stages and microvascular thrombosis. Currently, these manifestations are considered to be only consequences of pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. We are proposing a new hypothesis that neurogenic insult may also play a major role in the pathogenesis of these manifestations. SARS-CoV-2 mediated inflammation of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) may play a role in the acute exacerbation of pulmonary edema and microvascular clotting in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Hypotension/physiopathology , Lung/blood supply , Microvessels/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pulmonary Edema/physiopathology , Solitary Nucleus/physiopathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Capillary Permeability/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Facial Nerve , Glossopharyngeal Nerve , Humans , Inflammation , Lung/immunology , Microvessels/immunology , Pandemics , Parasympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pulmonary Edema/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Solitary Nucleus/immunology , Vagus Nerve , Vasoconstriction
12.
Endocrinology ; 161(10)2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626158

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk for poor disease outcomes and mortality from COVID-19. The pathophysiologic mechanisms for these observations have not been fully elucidated. A critical interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) facilitates viral entry into the host cell. ACE2 is expressed in pancreatic islets, vascular endothelium, and adipose tissue, and the SARS-CoV-2 -ACE2 interaction in these tissues, along with other factors, governs the spectrum and the severity of clinical manifestations among COVID-19 patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the pro-inflammatory milieu observed in patients with metabolic syndrome may contribute toward COVID-19-mediated host immune dysregulation, including suboptimal immune responses, hyperinflammation, microvascular dysfunction, and thrombosis. This review describes the spectrum of clinical features, the likely pathophysiologic mechanisms, and potential implications for the management of metabolic syndrome in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endocrine System/metabolism , Endocrine System/physiopathology , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/physiopathology , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Microvessels/physiopathology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 109999, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598567

ABSTRACT

The majority of fatalities thus far in the COVID-19 pandemic have been attributed to pneumonia. As expected, the fatality rate reported in China is higher in people with chronic pulmonary disease (6.3%) and those who have cancer (5.6%). According to the American College of Cardiology Clinical Bulletin "COVID-19 Clinical Guidance for the CV Care Team", there is a significantly higher fatality rate in people who are elderly (8.0% 70-79 years; 14.8% ≥80 years), diabetic (7.3%), hypertensive (6.0%), or have known cardiovascular disease (CVD) (10.5%). We propose a biological reason for the higher mortality risk in these populations that is apparent. We further present a set of pathophysiological reasons for the heightened danger that could lead to therapies for enhanced management and prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics , Adult , Aging/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/immunology , Hypochlorous Acid/metabolism , Lung/blood supply , Lung/immunology , Microcirculation , Microvessels/physiopathology , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Peroxidase/metabolism , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
14.
Transl Res ; 225: 105-130, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343377

ABSTRACT

A significant amount of clinical and research interest in thrombosis is focused on large vessels (eg, stroke, myocardial infarction, deep venous thrombosis, etc.); however, thrombosis is often present in the microcirculation in a variety of significant human diseases, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation, thrombotic microangiopathy, sickle cell disease, and others. Further, microvascular thrombosis has recently been demonstrated in patients with COVID-19, and has been proposed to mediate the pathogenesis of organ injury in this disease. In many of these conditions, microvascular thrombosis is accompanied by inflammation, an association referred to as thromboinflammation. In this review, we discuss endogenous regulatory mechanisms that prevent thrombosis in the microcirculation, experimental approaches to induce microvascular thrombi, and clinical conditions associated with microvascular thrombosis. A greater understanding of the links between inflammation and thrombosis in the microcirculation is anticipated to provide optimal therapeutic targets for patients with diseases accompanied by microvascular thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , Animals , COVID-19 , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Humans , Microcirculation , Microvessels/pathology , Microvessels/physiopathology , Models, Cardiovascular , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology
15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 507: 167-173, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125379

ABSTRACT

Early clinical evidence suggests that severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), are frequently characterized by hyperinflammation, imbalance of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and a particular form of vasculopathy, thrombotic microangiopathy, and intravascular coagulopathy. In this paper, we present an immunothrombosis model of COVID-19. We discuss the underlying pathogenesis and the interaction between multiple systems, resulting in propagation of immunothrombosis, which through investigation in the coming weeks, may lead to both an improved understanding of COVID-19 pathophysiology and identification of innovative and efficient therapeutic targets to reverse the otherwise unfavorable clinical outcome of many of these patients.


Subject(s)
Aldosterone/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Microvessels/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , Thrombophilia/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/virology , Microvessels/physiopathology , Microvessels/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Thrombophilia/virology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Thrombosis/virology
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