Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.241
Filter
Add filters

Year range
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(31): 1015-1019, 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707230

ABSTRACT

On March 24, 2020, the South Dakota Department of Health (SDDOH) was notified of a case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in an employee at a meat processing facility (facility A) and initiated an investigation to isolate the employee and identify and quarantine contacts. On April 2, when 19 cases had been confirmed among facility A employees, enhanced testing for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, was implemented, so that any employee with a COVID-19-compatible sign or symptom (e.g., fever, cough, or shortness of breath) could receive a test from a local health care facility. By April 11, 369 COVID-19 cases had been confirmed among facility A employees; on April 12, facility A began a phased closure* and did not reopen during the period of investigation (March 16-April 25, 2020). At the request of SDDOH, a CDC team arrived on April 15 to assist with the investigation. During March 16-April 25, a total of 929 (25.6%) laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were diagnosed among 3,635 facility A employees. At the outbreak's peak, an average of 67 cases per day occurred. An additional 210 (8.7%) cases were identified among 2,403 contacts of employees with diagnosed COVID-19. Overall, 48 COVID-19 patients were hospitalized, including 39 employees and nine contacts. Two employees died; no contacts died. Attack rates were highest among department-groups where employees tended to work in proximity (i.e., <6 feet [2 meters]) to one another on the production line. Cases among employees and their contacts declined to approximately 10 per day within 7 days of facility closure. SARS-CoV-2 can spread rapidly in meat processing facilities because of the close proximity of workstations and prolonged contact between employees (1,2). Facilities can reduce this risk by implementing a robust mitigation program, including engineering and administrative controls, consistent with published guidelines (1).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Meat-Packing Industry , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , South Dakota/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
J Card Fail ; 26(7): 626-632, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory syndrome with high rates of mortality, and there is a need for easily obtainable markers to provide prognostic information. We sought to determine whether the electrocardiogram (ECG) on hospital presentation provides prognostic information, specifically related to death. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in patients with COVID-19 who had an ECG at or near hospital admission. Clinical characteristics and ECG variables were manually abstracted from the electronic health record and first ECG. Our primary outcome was death. THERE WERE: 756 patients who presented to a large New York City teaching hospital with COVID-19 who underwent an ECG. The mean age was 63.3 ± 16 years, 37% were women, 61% of patients were nonwhite, and 57% had hypertension; 90 (11.9%) died. In a multivariable logistic regression that included age, ECG, and clinical characteristics, the presence of one or more atrial premature contractions (odds ratio [OR] 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-5.36, P = .01), a right bundle branch block or intraventricular block (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.32-5.18, P = .002), ischemic T-wave inversion (OR 3.49, 95% CI 1.56-7.80, P = .002), and nonspecific repolarization (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.27-4.21, P = .006) increased the odds of death. ST elevation was rare (n = 5 [0.7%]). CONCLUSIONS: We found that patients with ECG findings of both left-sided heart disease (atrial premature contractions, intraventricular block, repolarization abnormalities) and right-sided disease (right bundle branch block) have higher odds of death. ST elevation at presentation was rare.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Bundle-Branch Block/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Electrocardiography/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bundle-Branch Block/diagnosis , Bundle-Branch Block/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(9)2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705878

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 has presented new challenges to hospital personnel providing care for infected patients with diabetes who represent more than 20% of critically ill patients in intensive care units. Appropriate glycemic management contributes to a reduction in adverse clinical outcomes in acute illness but also requires intensive patient interactions for bedside glucose monitoring, intravenous and subcutaneous insulin administration, as well as rapid intervention for hypoglycemia events. These tasks are required at a time when minimizing patient interactions is recommended as a way of avoiding prolonged exposure to COVID-19 by health care personnel who often practice in settings with limited supplies of personal protective equipment. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide guidance for clinicians for reconciling recommended standards of care for infected hospitalized patients with diabetes while also addressing the daily realities of an overwhelmed health care system in many areas of the country. The use of modified protocols for insulin administration, bedside glucose monitoring, and medications such as glucocorticoids and hydroxychloroquine that may affect glycemic control are discussed. Continuous glucose monitoring systems have been proposed as an option for reducing time spent with patients, but there are important issues that need to be addressed if these are used in hospitalized patients. On-site and remote glucose management teams have potential to provide guidance in areas where there are shortages of personnel who have expertise in inpatient glycemic management.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic
5.
Blood ; 136(4): 489-500, 2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704282

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have elevated D-dimer levels. Early reports describe high venous thromboembolism (VTE) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) rates, but data are limited. This multicenter retrospective study describes the rate and severity of hemostatic and thrombotic complications of 400 hospital-admitted COVID-19 patients (144 critically ill) primarily receiving standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation. Coagulation and inflammatory parameters were compared between patients with and without coagulation-associated complications. Multivariable logistic models examined the utility of these markers in predicting coagulation-associated complications, critical illness, and death. The radiographically confirmed VTE rate was 4.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.3), and the overall thrombotic complication rate was 9.5% (95% CI, 6.8-12.8). The overall and major bleeding rates were 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9-7.3) and 2.3% (95% CI, 1.0-4.2), respectively. In the critically ill, radiographically confirmed VTE and major bleeding rates were 7.6% (95% CI, 3.9-13.3) and 5.6% (95% CI, 2.4-10.7), respectively. Elevated D-dimer at initial presentation was predictive of coagulation-associated complications during hospitalization (D-dimer >2500 ng/mL, adjusted odds ratio [OR] for thrombosis, 6.79 [95% CI, 2.39-19.30]; adjusted OR for bleeding, 3.56 [95% CI, 1.01-12.66]), critical illness, and death. Additional markers at initial presentation predictive of thrombosis during hospitalization included platelet count >450 × 109/L (adjusted OR, 3.56 [95% CI, 1.27-9.97]), C-reactive protein (CRP) >100 mg/L (adjusted OR, 2.71 [95% CI, 1.26-5.86]), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) >40 mm/h (adjusted OR, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.07-6.51]). ESR, CRP, fibrinogen, ferritin, and procalcitonin were higher in patients with thrombotic complications than in those without. DIC, clinically relevant thrombocytopenia, and reduced fibrinogen were rare and were associated with significant bleeding manifestations. Given the observed bleeding rates, randomized trials are needed to determine any potential benefit of intensified anticoagulant prophylaxis in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Blood Coagulation , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Hemorrhage/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Thrombosis/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/therapy
8.
Radiology ; 296(2): E46-E54, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697192

ABSTRACT

Background Despite its high sensitivity in diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a screening population, the chest CT appearance of COVID-19 pneumonia is thought to be nonspecific. Purpose To assess the performance of radiologists in the United States and China in differentiating COVID-19 from viral pneumonia at chest CT. Materials and Methods In this study, 219 patients with positive COVID-19, as determined with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and abnormal chest CT findings, were retrospectively identified from seven Chinese hospitals in Hunan Province, China, from January 6 to February 20, 2020. Two hundred five patients with positive respiratory pathogen panel results for viral pneumonia and CT findings consistent with or highly suspicious for pneumonia, according to original radiologic interpretation within 7 days of each other, were identified from Rhode Island Hospital in Providence, RI. Three radiologists from China reviewed all chest CT scans (n = 424) blinded to RT-PCR findings to differentiate COVID-19 from viral pneumonia. A sample of 58 age-matched patients was randomly selected and evaluated by four radiologists from the United States in a similar fashion. Different CT features were recorded and compared between the two groups. Results For all chest CT scans (n = 424), the accuracy of the three radiologists from China in differentiating COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia was 83% (350 of 424), 80% (338 of 424), and 60% (255 of 424). In the randomly selected sample (n = 58), the sensitivities of three radiologists from China and four radiologists from the United States were 80%, 67%, 97%, 93%, 83%, 73%, and 70%, respectively. The corresponding specificities of the same readers were 100%, 93%, 7%, 100%, 93%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. Compared with non-COVID-19 pneumonia, COVID-19 pneumonia was more likely to have a peripheral distribution (80% vs 57%, P < .001), ground-glass opacity (91% vs 68%, P < .001), fine reticular opacity (56% vs 22%, P < .001), and vascular thickening (59% vs 22%, P < .001), but it was less likely to have a central and peripheral distribution (14% vs 35%, P < .001), pleural effusion (4% vs 39%, P < .001), or lymphadenopathy (3% vs 10%, P = .002). Conclusion Radiologists in China and in the United States distinguished coronavirus disease 2019 from viral pneumonia at chest CT with moderate to high accuracy. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. A translation of this abstract in Farsi is available in the supplement. ترجمه چکیده این مقاله به فارسی، در ضمیمه موجود است.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Competence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiologists/standards , Adult , Aged , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
9.
Radiology ; 296(2): E41-E45, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697187

ABSTRACT

Some patients with positive chest CT findings may present with negative results of real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, the authors present chest CT findings from five patients with COVID-19 infection who had initial negative RT-PCR results. All five patients had typical imaging findings, including ground-glass opacity (five patients) and/or mixed ground-glass opacity and mixed consolidation (two patients). After isolation for presumed COVID-19 pneumonia, all patients were eventually confirmed to have COVID-19 infection by means of repeated swab tests. A combination of repeated swab tests and CT scanning may be helpful for individuals with a high clinical suspicion of COVID-19 infection but negative findings at RT-PCR screening.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , False Negative Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(31): 1015-1019, 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696738

ABSTRACT

On March 24, 2020, the South Dakota Department of Health (SDDOH) was notified of a case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in an employee at a meat processing facility (facility A) and initiated an investigation to isolate the employee and identify and quarantine contacts. On April 2, when 19 cases had been confirmed among facility A employees, enhanced testing for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, was implemented, so that any employee with a COVID-19-compatible sign or symptom (e.g., fever, cough, or shortness of breath) could receive a test from a local health care facility. By April 11, 369 COVID-19 cases had been confirmed among facility A employees; on April 12, facility A began a phased closure* and did not reopen during the period of investigation (March 16-April 25, 2020). At the request of SDDOH, a CDC team arrived on April 15 to assist with the investigation. During March 16-April 25, a total of 929 (25.6%) laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were diagnosed among 3,635 facility A employees. At the outbreak's peak, an average of 67 cases per day occurred. An additional 210 (8.7%) cases were identified among 2,403 contacts of employees with diagnosed COVID-19. Overall, 48 COVID-19 patients were hospitalized, including 39 employees and nine contacts. Two employees died; no contacts died. Attack rates were highest among department-groups where employees tended to work in proximity (i.e., <6 feet [2 meters]) to one another on the production line. Cases among employees and their contacts declined to approximately 10 per day within 7 days of facility closure. SARS-CoV-2 can spread rapidly in meat processing facilities because of the close proximity of workstations and prolonged contact between employees (1,2). Facilities can reduce this risk by implementing a robust mitigation program, including engineering and administrative controls, consistent with published guidelines (1).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Meat-Packing Industry , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , South Dakota/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(31): 1026-1030, 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694883

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is spread from person to person (1-3). Quarantine of exposed persons (contacts) for 14 days following their exposure reduces transmission (4-7). Contact tracing provides an opportunity to identify contacts, inform them of quarantine recommendations, and monitor their symptoms to promptly identify secondary COVID-19 cases (7,8). On March 12, 2020, Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Maine CDC) identified the first case of COVID-19 in the state. Because of resource constraints, including staffing, Maine CDC could not consistently monitor contacts, and automated technological solutions for monitoring contacts were explored. On May 14, 2020, Maine CDC began enrolling contacts of patients with reported COVID-19 into Sara Alert (MITRE Corporation, 2020),* an automated, web-based, symptom monitoring tool. After initial communication with Maine CDC staff members, enrolled contacts automatically received daily symptom questionnaires via their choice of e-mailed weblink, text message, texted weblink, or telephone call until completion of their quarantine. Epidemiologic investigations were conducted for enrollees who reported symptoms or received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. During May 14-June 26, Maine CDC enrolled 1,622 contacts of 614 COVID-19 patients; 190 (11.7%) eventually developed COVID-19, highlighting the importance of identifying, quarantining, and monitoring contacts of COVID-19 patients to limit spread. In Maine, symptom monitoring was not feasible without the use of an automated symptom monitoring tool. Using a tool that permitted enrollees to specify a method of symptom monitoring was well received, because the majority of persons monitored (96.4%) agreed to report using this system.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epidemiological Monitoring , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Automation , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Maine/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Program Evaluation , Symptom Assessment/methods , Young Adult
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(31): 1023-1025, 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691545

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available about transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), among youths. During June 17-20, an overnight camp in Georgia (camp A) held orientation for 138 trainees and 120 staff members; staff members remained for the first camp session, scheduled during June 21-27, and were joined by 363 campers and three senior staff members on June 21. Camp A adhered to the measures in Georgia's Executive Order* that allowed overnight camps to operate beginning on May 31, including requiring all trainees, staff members, and campers to provide documentation of a negative viral SARS-CoV-2 test ≤12 days before arriving. Camp A adopted most† components of CDC's Suggestions for Youth and Summer Camps§ to minimize the risk for SARS-CoV-2 introduction and transmission. Measures not implemented were cloth masks for campers and opening windows and doors for increased ventilation in buildings. Cloth masks were required for staff members. Camp attendees were cohorted by cabin and engaged in a variety of indoor and outdoor activities, including daily vigorous singing and cheering. On June 23, a teenage staff member left camp A after developing chills the previous evening. The staff member was tested and reported a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2 the following day (June 24). Camp A officials began sending campers home on June 24 and closed the camp on June 27. On June 25, the Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) was notified and initiated an investigation. DPH recommended that all attendees be tested and self-quarantine, and isolate if they had a positive test result.


Subject(s)
Camping , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
16.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(8): 659-664, 2020 Aug 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691351

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the causes of death in patients with severe COVID-19. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 64 patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital from January 12, 2020 to February 28, 2020. There were 36 males and 28 females, aging from 44 to 85 years[median 68 (62, 72)]. Fifty-two patients (81%) had underlying comorbidities. The patients were divided into the death group (n=40) and the survival group (n=24) according to the treatment outcomes. In the death group, 24 were male, and 16 were female, aging from 49 to 85 years [median 69 (62, 72)], with 31 cases (78%) complicated with underlying diseases. In the survival group, there were 12 males and 12 females, aging from 44 to 82 years[median 66 (61,73)], with 21 cases (88%) with comorbidities. Clinical data of the two groups were collected and compared, including general information, laboratory examinations, imaging features and treatments. For normally distributed data, independent group t test was used; otherwise, Mann Whitney test was used to compare the variables. χ(2) test and Fisher exact test was used when analyzing categorical variables. Results: The median of creatine kinase isozyme (CK-MB) in the death group was 19.0 (17.0,23.0) U/L, which was higher than that in the survival group 16.5 (13.5,19.6) U/L. The median level of cTnI in the death group was 0.03 (0.03, 0.07) µg/L, which was significantly higher than that in the survival group (0.02, 0.03) µg/L, with a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P=0.007). The concentration of myoglobin in the death group was 79.5 (28.7, 189.0) µg/L, which was higher than 33.1 (25.7, 54.5) µg/L in the survival group. The level of D-dimer in the death group was 2.0 (0.6, 5.2) mg/L, which was higher than 0.7 (0.4, 2.0) mg/L in the survival group. The LDH level of the death group was 465.0 (337.5,606.5) U/L, which was higher than that of the survibal group, 341.0 (284.0,430.0) U/L, the difference being statistically significant (P=0.006). The concentration of alanine aminotransferase in the death group was 40.0 (30.0, 48.0) U/L, which was higher than 32.5 (24.0, 40.8) U/L in the survival group, and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.047).Abnormal ECG was found in 16 cases (62%) in the death group, which was significantly higher than that in the survival group (29%), the difference being statistically significant (P=0.024) .The main causes of death were severe pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, n=20), acute heart failure(n=9), atrial fibrillation(n=3) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, n=3). Conclusions: ARDS caused by severe pneumonia and acute heart failure and atrial fibrillation caused by acute viral myocarditis were the main causes of death in severe COVID-19 patients. Early prevention of myocardial injury and treatment of acute viral myocarditis complicated with disease progression may provide insights into treatment and reduction of mortality in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236621, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691350

ABSTRACT

This study employed deep-learning convolutional neural networks to stage lung disease severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on portable chest x-ray (CXR) with radiologist score of disease severity as ground truth. This study consisted of 131 portable CXR from 84 COVID-19 patients (51M 55.1±14.9yo; 29F 60.1±14.3yo; 4 missing information). Three expert chest radiologists scored the left and right lung separately based on the degree of opacity (0-3) and geographic extent (0-4). Deep-learning convolutional neural network (CNN) was used to predict lung disease severity scores. Data were split into 80% training and 20% testing datasets. Correlation analysis between AI-predicted versus radiologist scores were analyzed. Comparison was made with traditional and transfer learning. The average opacity score was 2.52 (range: 0-6) with a standard deviation of 0.25 (9.9%) across three readers. The average geographic extent score was 3.42 (range: 0-8) with a standard deviation of 0.57 (16.7%) across three readers. The inter-rater agreement yielded a Fleiss' Kappa of 0.45 for opacity score and 0.71 for extent score. AI-predicted scores strongly correlated with radiologist scores, with the top model yielding a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.90 (range: 0.73-0.90 for traditional learning and 0.83-0.90 for transfer learning) and a mean absolute error of 8.5% (ranges: 17.2-21.0% and 8.5%-15.5, respectively). Transfer learning generally performed better. In conclusion, deep-learning CNN accurately stages disease severity on portable chest x-ray of COVID-19 lung infection. This approach may prove useful to stage lung disease severity, prognosticate, and predict treatment response and survival, thereby informing risk management and resource allocation.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Deep Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Radiologists , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 726-732, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691320

ABSTRACT

AIM: Novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has become pandemic. It brings serious threat to hemodialysis (HD) patients. Therefore, we carried out a study on the clinical characteristics of HD patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 31 HD patients with COVID-19. The clinical features of patients include epidemiology, clinical symptoms, laboratory and imaging test, treatment and prognosis. RESULTS: 61.3% were severe, and 38.7% were mild. 83.9% had a close contact history with COVID-19 patients. The average age was 62.3 years comprising of 58.1% men and 41.9% women. Ninety percent had chronic diseases except ESRD. Clinical symptoms include cough (85%), fever (43%), and shortness of breath (48.4%), etc. Complications included ARDS (25.8%), AHF (22.6%), and septic shock (16.1%), etc. 64.5% of patients had remission, and 35.5% of patients had no remission with 6.5% deaths. Compared with the baseline before infection, HD patients with COVID-19 had lower lymphocytes, albumin and glucose, and higher D-dimer, albumin, phosphorus, lactate dehydrogenase, and CRP. There was no significant correlation between the neutrophils/lymphocytes ratio and the severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the reported general population, the HD patients are susceptible to COVID-19 infection, especially older men and those with other underlying diseases. Moreover, HD patients have more severe infection and inflammation with less symptoms and worse outcome. COVID-19 infection can cause dialysis patients lower immunity, stronger inflammation, malnutrition, and internal environment disorder. Neutrophils/lymphocytes ratio does not reflect the severity of the HD patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(8): 654-658, 2020 Aug 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691318

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, and imaging features of patients with COVID-19 in Henan Province People's Hospital. Methods: The epidemiology, clinical symptoms, laboratory and radiologic data of 49 patients with COVID-19 infection admitted to the department of infectious disease in our hospital from January 23, 2020 to February 22, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. All analyses were performed with SPSS software, version 22.0. Results: A total of 49 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled, of which 28 were ordinary, 16 were severe, and 5 were critical in disease severity. The average ages of the 3 groups were (46±19) , (60±16) and (68±20) years, with statistical differences (P=0.015). Common symptoms at the onset were fever (41 patients), dry cough (35 patients), and fatigue (21 patients). Epidemiological investigations found that 31 (63%) patients had direct or indirect contact with confirmed cases, and 14 cases were family clustered. Laboratory test results showed that the lymphocyte counts progressively decreased [0.85 (0.5-1.6) ×10(9)/L,0.51 (0.4-0.9) ×10(9)/L and 0.43 (0.47-0.61) ×10(9)/L, respectively], while LDH [162 (145.1-203.5) U/L,265 (195.3-288.4) U/L and 387 (312.3-415.5) U/L, respectively] and D-dimer [0.15 (0.09-0.40) mg/L,0.4 (0.2-0.6) mg/L and 0.9 (0.5-1.4) mg/L, respectively] were significantly increased (P<0.05), in all the 3 groups. The levels of IL-6 [(43.2±15.4) µg/L, (78.5±31.2) µg/L and (132.4±47.9) µg/L, respectively] and IL-10 [(3.5±3.2) µg/L, (7.6±6.4) µg/L and (9.4±7.2) µg/L respectively] increased significantly with disease severity. Pulmonary imaging of ordinary patients mainly showed unilateral or bilateral multiple infiltrates, while severe and critically ill patients showed diffuse exudation and consolidation of both lungs, and a few patients showed signs of "white lungs". Conclusions: Patients with COVID-19 has a definite history of contact with diagnosed patients, and has family aggregation. The clinical symptoms were mainly fever and dry cough. Laboratory results showed that lymphocyte count, LDH, D-dimer, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 levels had a significant correlation with the severity of the disease, which could be used as markers for disease progression and prognosis. Pulmonary imaging showed unilateral or bilateral ground glass infiltration. In severe and critically ill patients, diffuse infiltration and consolidation or even "white lung" were present.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
20.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic placed unprecedented pressure on various healthcare systems, including departments that use immunotherapies such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and immunosuppression therapy in organ transplantation units. The true impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on immunocompromised CAR T-cell therapy recipients and kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) has not yet been established. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we compare two patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia in either the humoral or cell-mediated immunodeficient states. The first patient was a man in his early 30s who was diagnosed with refractory multiple myeloma. He received fully humanized, anti-B-cell maturation antigen, CAR T-cell therapy before 4 months and achieved strict complete remission. He was infected with SARS-CoV-2 starting on January 26, 2019 and gradually progressed to severe pneumonia. Throughout the clinical progression of the disease, SARS-CoV-2 could not be cleared due to his humoral immunodeficient state. During this period of his severe COVID-19 pneumonia, elevated cytotoxic T-cells were observed in this patient's peripheral blood while elevated plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and ferritin were observed in his cytokine profiles. This patient eventually progressed into acute respiratory distress syndrome and recieved non-invasive ventilatory support. He failed to generate specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and died of respiratory failure on day 33 (d33). The second patient was a 52-year-old kidney transplant recipient (KTR) who took ciclosporin after renal transplantation for more than 7 years. He confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection on January 20, 2019 and gradually progressed into severe pneumonia on d16 with a slightly elevated B-cell percentage and normal T-lymphocyte subsets. Viral clearance occurred together with the generation of specific anti-immunoglobulin G-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after 2 weeks of treatment. He was symptom-free and discharged from the hospital on d42. CONCLUSION: We report a CAR T-cell therapy recipient diagnosed with COVID-19 for the first time. His virus clearance failure and life-threating cytokine storm during SARS-CoV-2 infection suggested that any decision to proceed CAR T-cell therapy during COVID-19 pandemics will require extensive discussion of potential risks and benefits. Immunosuppressant treatment based on ciclosporin could be relatively safe for KTRs diagnosed with COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-OPN-1800018137.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Cytokines/metabolism , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL