Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 875
Filter
1.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 133: 104443, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241503

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a wake-up call on the zoonotic viral spillover events and the need to be prepared for future outbreaks. Zoonotic RNA viruses like the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are potential pathogens that could trigger the next pandemic. Dromedary camels are the only known animal source of MERS-CoV zoonotic infections, but little is known about the molecular antiviral response in this species. IFN-ß and other type-I interferons provide the first line of defense against invading pathogens in the host immune response. We identified the IFNB gene of the dromedary camel and all extant members of the family Camelidae. Camelid IFN-ß is unique with an even number of cysteines in the mature protein compared to other eutherian mammals with an odd number of cysteines. The viral mimetic poly(I:C) strongly induced IFN-ß expression in camel kidney cells. Induction of IFN-ß expression upon infection with camelpox virus was late and subdued when compared to poly(I:C) treatment. Prokaryotically expressed recombinant dromedary IFN-ß induced expression of IFN-responsive genes in camel kidney cells. Further, recombinant IFN-ß conferred antiviral resistance to camel kidney cells against the cytopathic effects of the camelpox virus, an endemic zoonotic pathogen. IFN-ß from this unique group of mammals will offer insights into antiviral immune mechanisms and aid in the development of specific antivirals against pathogens that have the potential to be the next zoonotic pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Camelus , Eutheria , Humans , Interferon-beta/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Pandemics , Zoonoses
2.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236616

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and influenza A virus, require the host proteases to mediate viral entry into cells. Rather than targeting the continuously mutating viral proteins, targeting the conserved host-based entry mechanism could offer advantages. Nafamostat and camostat were discovered as covalent inhibitors of TMPRSS2 protease involved in viral entry. To circumvent their limitations, a reversible inhibitor might be required. Considering nafamostat structure and using pentamidine as a starting point, a small set of structurally diverse rigid analogues were designed and evaluated in silico to guide selection of compounds to be prepared for biological evaluation. Based on the results of in silico study, six compounds were prepared and evaluated in vitro. At the enzyme level, compounds 10-12 triggered potential TMPRSS2 inhibition with low micromolar IC50 concentrations, but they were less effective in cellular assays. Meanwhile, compound 14 did not trigger potential TMPRSS2 inhibition at the enzyme level, but it showed potential cellular activity regarding inhibition of membrane fusion with a low micromolar IC50 value of 10.87 µM, suggesting its action could be mediated by another molecular target. Furthermore, in vitro evaluation showed that compound 14 inhibited pseudovirus entry as well as thrombin and factor Xa. Together, this study presents compound 14 as a hit compound that might serve as a starting point for developing potential viral entry inhibitors with possible application against coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Benzamidines/pharmacology , Virus Internalization , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9319, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236148

ABSTRACT

Establishing the host range for novel viruses remains a challenge. Here, we address the challenge of identifying non-human animal coronaviruses that may infect humans by creating an artificial neural network model that learns from spike protein sequences of alpha and beta coronaviruses and their binding annotation to their host receptor. The proposed method produces a human-Binding Potential (h-BiP) score that distinguishes, with high accuracy, the binding potential among coronaviruses. Three viruses, previously unknown to bind human receptors, were identified: Bat coronavirus BtCoV/133/2005 and Pipistrellus abramus bat coronavirus HKU5-related (both MERS related viruses), and Rhinolophus affinis coronavirus isolate LYRa3 (a SARS related virus). We further analyze the binding properties of BtCoV/133/2005 and LYRa3 using molecular dynamics. To test whether this model can be used for surveillance of novel coronaviruses, we re-trained the model on a set that excludes SARS-CoV-2 and all viral sequences released after the SARS-CoV-2 was published. The results predict the binding of SARS-CoV-2 with a human receptor, indicating that machine learning methods are an excellent tool for the prediction of host expansion events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Coronaviridae , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Phylogeny
4.
Genome Biol Evol ; 15(6)2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235300

ABSTRACT

Comparing the evolution of distantly related viruses can provide insights into common adaptive processes related to shared ecological niches. Phylogenetic approaches, coupled with other molecular evolution tools, can help identify mutations informative on adaptation, although the structural contextualization of these to functional sites of proteins may help gain insight into their biological properties. Two zoonotic betacoronaviruses capable of sustained human-to-human transmission have caused pandemics in recent times (SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2), although a third virus (MERS-CoV) is responsible for sporadic outbreaks linked to animal infections. Moreover, two other betacoronaviruses have circulated endemically in humans for decades (HKU1 and OC43). To search for evidence of adaptive convergence between established and emerging betacoronaviruses capable of sustained human-to-human transmission (HKU1, OC43, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2), we developed a methodological pipeline to classify shared nonsynonymous mutations as putatively denoting homoplasy (repeated mutations that do not share direct common ancestry) or stepwise evolution (sequential mutations leading towards a novel genotype). In parallel, we look for evidence of positive selection and draw upon protein structure data to identify potential biological implications. We find 30 candidate mutations, from which 4 (codon sites 18121 [nsp14/residue 28], 21623 [spike/21], 21635 [spike/25], and 23948 [spike/796]; SARS-CoV-2 genome numbering) further display evolution under positive selection and proximity to functional protein regions. Our findings shed light on potential mechanisms underlying betacoronavirus adaptation to the human host and pinpoint common mutational pathways that may occur during establishment of human endemicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Phylogeny , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Mutation
5.
Anal Chem ; 95(23): 8752-8757, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245389

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has overwhelmed the global economy and human well-being. On account of the sharp increase in test demand, there is a need for an accurate and alternative diagnosis method for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this study, with the aim to specifically identify the trace SARS-CoV-2 S1 glycoprotein, we developed a high-sensitivity and high-selectivity diagnostic method based on the targeted parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay of eight selected peptides. This study emphasizes the outstanding detection sensitivity of 0.01 pg of the SARS-CoV-2 S1 glycoprotein even in the interference of other structural proteins, which to our knowledge is the current minimum limit of detection for the SARS-CoV-2 S1 glycoprotein. This technology could further identify 0.01 pg of the SARS-CoV-2 S1 glycoprotein in a spike pseudovirus, revealing its practical effectiveness. All our preliminary results throw light on the capability of the mass spectrometry-based targeted PRM assay to identify SARS-CoV-2 as a practicable orthogonal diagnostic tool. Furthermore, this technology could be extended to other pathogens (e.g., MERS-CoV S1 protein or SARS-CoV S1 protein) by quickly adjusting the targeted peptides of MS data acquisition. In summary, this strategy is universal and flexible and could be quickly adjusted to detect and discriminate different mutants and pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Glycoproteins , Mass Spectrometry
6.
PLoS Biol ; 21(6): e3002097, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243340

ABSTRACT

Identifying host genes essential for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has the potential to reveal novel drug targets and further our understanding of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). We previously performed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen to identify proviral host factors for highly pathogenic human coronaviruses. Few host factors were required by diverse coronaviruses across multiple cell types, but DYRK1A was one such exception. Although its role in coronavirus infection was previously undescribed, DYRK1A encodes Dual Specificity Tyrosine Phosphorylation Regulated Kinase 1A and is known to regulate cell proliferation and neuronal development. Here, we demonstrate that DYRK1A regulates ACE2 and DPP4 transcription independent of its catalytic kinase function to support SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) entry. We show that DYRK1A promotes DNA accessibility at the ACE2 promoter and a putative distal enhancer, facilitating transcription and gene expression. Finally, we validate that the proviral activity of DYRK1A is conserved across species using cells of nonhuman primate and human origin. In summary, we report that DYRK1A is a novel regulator of ACE2 and DPP4 expression that may dictate susceptibility to multiple highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Internalization , Animals , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/genetics
7.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(5)2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242365

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has resulted in a pandemic that aggravated the world's healthcare systems, economies, and education, and caused millions of global deaths. Until now, there has been no specific, reliable, and effective treatment to combat the virus and its variants. The current standard tedious PCR-based tests have limitations in terms of sensitivity, specificity, turnaround time, and false negative results. Thus, an alternative, rapid, accurate, and sensitive diagnostic tool that can detect viral particles, without the need for amplification or viral replication, is central to infectious disease surveillance. Here, we report MICaFVi (Magnetic Immuno-Capture Flow Virometry), a novel precise nano-biosensor diagnostic assay for coronavirus detection which combines the MNP-based immuno-capture of viruses for enrichment followed by flow-virometry analysis, enabling the sensitive detection of viral particles and pseudoviruses. As proof of concept, virus-mimicking spike-protein-coated silica particles (VM-SPs) were captured using anti-spike-antibody-conjugated MNPs (AS-MNPs) followed by detection using flow cytometry. Our results showed that MICaFVi can successfully detect viral MERS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2-mimicking particles as well as MERS-CoV pseudoviral particles (MERSpp) with high specificity and sensitivity, where a limit of detection (LOD) of 3.9 µg/mL (20 pmol/mL) was achieved. The proposed method has great potential for designing practical, specific, and point-of-care testing for rapid and sensitive diagnoses of coronavirus and other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Magnetic Phenomena
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234520

ABSTRACT

All coronaviruses are characterized by spike glycoproteins whose S1 subunits contain the receptor binding domain (RBD). The RBD anchors the virus to the host cellular membrane to regulate the virus transmissibility and infectious process. Although the protein/receptor interaction mainly depends on the spike's conformation, particularly on its S1 unit, their secondary structures are poorly known. In this paper, the S1 conformation was investigated for MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 at serological pH by measuring their Amide I infrared absorption bands. The SARS-CoV-2 S1 secondary structure revealed a strong difference compared to those of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, with a significant presence of extended ß-sheets. Furthermore, the conformation of the SARS-CoV-2 S1 showed a significant change by moving from serological pH to mild acidic and alkaline pH conditions. Both results suggest the capability of infrared spectroscopy to follow the secondary structure adaptation of the SARS-CoV-2 S1 to different environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spectrum Analysis
9.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1201136, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240735

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic infectious virus that has caused significant outbreaks in the Middle East and beyond. Due to a highly mortality rate, easy transmission, and rapid spread of the MERS-CoV, it remains as a significant public health treat. There is currently no licensed vaccine available to protect against MERS-CoV. Methods: In this study, we investigated whether the proteolytic cleavage sites and fusion peptide domain of the MERS-CoV spike (S) protein could be a vaccine target to elicit the MERS-CoV S protein-specific antibody responses and confer immune protection against MERS-CoV infection. Our results demonstrate that immunization of the proteolytic cleavage sites and the fusion peptide domain using virus-like particle (VLP) induced the MERS-CoV S protein-specific IgG antibodies with capacity to neutralize pseudotyped MERS-CoV infection in vitro. Moreover, proteolytic cleavage sites and the fusion peptide VLP immunization showed a synergistic effect on the immune protection against MERS-CoV infection elicited by immunization with VLP expressing the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein. Additionally, immune evasion of MERS-CoV RBD variants from anti-RBD sera was significantly controlled by anti-proteolytic cleavage sites and the fusion peptide sera. Conclusion and discussion: Our study demonstrates the potential of VLP immunization targeting the proteolytic cleavage sites and the fusion peptide and RBD domains of the MERS-CoV S protein for the development of effective treatments and vaccines against MERS-CoV and related variants.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Immunization , Peptides , Peptide Hydrolases
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(6): 1236-1239, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324925

ABSTRACT

We developed an ELISPOT assay for evaluating Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)‒specific T-cell responses in dromedary camels. After single modified vaccinia virus Ankara-MERS-S vaccination, seropositive camels showed increased levels of MERS-CoV‒specific T cells and antibodies, indicating suitability of camel vaccinations in disease-endemic areas as a promising approach to control infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Camelus , T-Lymphocytes , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccinia virus , Vaccination
11.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 251: 114187, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321848

ABSTRACT

Majority of the viral outbreaks are super-spreading events established within 2-10 h, dependent on a critical time interval for successful transmission between humans, which is governed by the decay rates of viruses. To evaluate the decay rates of respiratory viruses over a short span, we calculated their decay rate values for various surfaces and aerosols. We applied Bayesian regression and ridge regression and determined the best estimation for respiratory viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), influenza viruses, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); the decay rate values in aerosols for these viruses were 4.83 ± 5.70, 0.40 ± 0.24, 0.11 ± 0.04, 2.43 ± 5.94, and 1.00 ± 0.50 h-1, respectively. The highest decay rate values for each virus type differed according to the surface type. According to the model performance criteria, the Bayesian regression model was better for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses, whereas ridge regression was better for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. A simulation using a better estimation will help us find effective non-pharmaceutical interventions to control virus transmissions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Bayes Theorem , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets
12.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7906, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325502

ABSTRACT

The Envelope protein (E) is a structural protein encoded by the genome of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV Coronaviruses. It is poorly present in the virus but highly expressed in the host cell, with prominent role in virus assembly and virulence. The E protein possesses a PDZ-binding motif (PBM) at its C terminus that allows it to interact with host PDZ domain containing proteins. ZO1 is a key protein in assembling the cytoplasmic plaque of epithelial and endothelial Tight Junctions (TJs) as well as in determining cell differentiation, proliferation and polarity. The PDZ2 domain of ZO1 is known to interact with the Coronaviruses Envelope proteins, however the molecular details of such interaction have not been established. In this paper we directly measured, through Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer and Stopped-Flow methodology, the binding kinetics of the PDZ2 domain of ZO1 with peptides mimicking the C-terminal portion of the Envelope protein from SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV in different ionic strength conditions. Interestingly, the peptide mimicking the E protein from MERS-CoV display much higher microscopic association rate constant with PDZ2 compared to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 suggesting a stronger contribution of electrostatic forces in the early events of binding. A comparison of thermodynamic and kinetic data obtained at increasing ionic strengths put in evidence different contribution of electrostatics in the recognition and complex formation events for the three peptides. Our data are discussed under the light of available structural data of PDZ2 domain of ZO1 and of previous works about these protein systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Static Electricity , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/genetics , Peptides/chemistry , Protein Binding
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(4): 596-603, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a zoonotic betacoronavirus. The development of effective vaccines and control measures requires a thorough understanding of the immune response to this viral infection. METHODS: We investigated cellular immune responses up to 5 years after infection in a cohort of 59 MERS survivors by performing enzyme-linked immunospot assay and intracellular cytokine staining after stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with synthetic viral peptides. RESULTS: Memory T-cell responses were detected in 82%, 75%, 69%, 64%, and 64% of MERS survivors from 1-5 years post-infection, respectively. Although the frequency of virus-specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-secreting T cells tended to be higher in moderately/severely ill patients than in mildly ill patients during the early period of follow-up, there was no significant difference among the different clinical severity groups across all time points. While both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were involved in memory T-cell responses, CD4+ T cells persisted slightly longer than CD8+ T cells. Both memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells recognized the E/M/N proteins better than the S protein and maintained their polyfunctionality throughout the period examined. Memory T-cell responses correlated positively with antibody responses during the initial 3-4 years but not with maximum viral loads at any time point. CONCLUSIONS: These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of virus-specific memory T-cell immunity after MERS-coronavirus infection, which is relevant to the development of effective T cell-based vaccines.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Memory T Cells , Survivors
14.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 51(1): 255-267, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318862

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract infections are a common cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The current paper aims to treat this respiratory disorder. Therefore, we elucidated the phytochemical profile of Euphorbia milii flowers and isolated chlorogenic acid (CGA) for the first time. The electrospraying technique was utilized to prepare CGA nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/PLGA polymeric matrix. Complete in vitro characterizations were performed to determine particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, loading efficiency (LE), scanning electron microscopy and in vitro release study. The optimum formula (F2) with a particle size (454.36 ± 36.74 nm), a surface charge (-4.56 ± 0.84 mV), % of LE (80.23 ± 5.74), an initial burst (29.46 ± 4.79) and % cumulative release (97.42 ± 4.72) were chosen for further activities. In the murine lung infection model, PVA/PLGA NPs loaded with CGA (F2) demonstrated in vivo antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a plaque assay, the in vitro antiviral activity was investigated. The F2 exhibited antiviral activity against coronavirus (HCoV-229E) and (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), NRCEHKU270). The IC50 of F2 against HCoV-229E and MERS-CoV was 170 ± 1.1 and 223 ± 0.88 µg/mL, respectively. The values of IC50 of F2 were significantly lower (p < .05) than that of free CGA. Therefore, the encapsulation of CGA into electrospray PVA/PLGA NPs would be a promising tool as an antimicrobial agent.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nanoparticles , Mice , Animals , Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry , Antiviral Agents , Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer/chemistry , Chlorogenic Acid/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Lung , Nanoparticles/chemistry
15.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0510122, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314145

ABSTRACT

The onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in hundreds of in vitro diagnostic devices (IVDs) coming to market, facilitated by regulatory authorities allowing "emergency use" without a comprehensive evaluation of performance. The World Health Organization (WHO) released target product profiles (TPPs) specifying acceptable performance characteristics for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) assay devices. We evaluated 26 rapid diagnostic tests and 9 enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for anti-SARS-CoV-2, suitable for use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), against these TPPs and other performance characteristics. The sensitivity and specificity ranged from 60.1 to 100% and 56.0 to 100%, respectively. Five of 35 test kits reported no false reactivity for 55 samples with potentially cross-reacting substances. Six test kits reported no false reactivity for 35 samples containing interfering substances, and only one test reported no false reactivity with samples positive for other coronaviruses (not SARS-CoV-2). This study demonstrates that a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of test kits against defined specifications is essential for the selection of test kits, especially in a pandemic setting. IMPORTANCE The markets have been flooded with hundreds of SARS-CoV-2 serology tests, and although there are many published reports on their performance, comparative reports are far fewer and tend to be limited to only a few tests. In this report, we comparatively assessed 35 rapid diagnostic tests or microtiter plate enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) using a large set of samples from individuals with a history of mild to moderate COVID-19, commensurate with the target population for serosurveillance, which included serum samples from individuals previously infected, at undetermined time periods, with other seasonal human coronaviruses, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-1. The significant heterogeneity in their performances, with only a few tests meeting WHO target product profile performance requirements, highlights the importance of independent comparative assessments to inform the use and procurement of these tests for both diagnostics and epidemiological investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing , Antibodies, Viral
16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 11(5): e759-e769, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several vaccine candidates are in development against MERS-CoV, which remains a major public health concern. In anticipation of available MERS-CoV vaccines, we examine strategies for their optimal deployment among health-care workers. METHODS: Using data from the 2013-14 Saudi Arabia epidemic, we use a counterfactual analysis on inferred transmission trees (who-infected-whom analysis) to assess the potential impact of vaccination campaigns targeting health-care workers, as quantified by the proportion of cases or deaths averted. We investigate the conditions under which proactive campaigns (ie vaccinating in anticipation of the next outbreak) would outperform reactive campaigns (ie vaccinating in response to an unfolding outbreak), considering vaccine efficacy, duration of vaccine protection, effectiveness of animal reservoir control measures, wait (time between vaccination and next outbreak, for proactive campaigns), reaction time (for reactive campaigns), and spatial level (hospital, regional, or national, for reactive campaigns). We also examine the relative efficiency (cases averted per thousand doses) of different strategies. FINDINGS: The spatial scale of reactive campaigns is crucial. Proactive campaigns outperform campaigns that vaccinate health-care workers in response to outbreaks at their hospital, unless vaccine efficacy has waned significantly. However, reactive campaigns at the regional or national levels consistently outperform proactive campaigns, regardless of vaccine efficacy. When considering the number of cases averted per vaccine dose administered, the rank order is reversed: hospital-level reactive campaigns are most efficient, followed by regional-level reactive campaigns, with national-level and proactive campaigns being least efficient. If the number of cases required to trigger reactive vaccination increases, the performance of hospital-level campaigns is greatly reduced; the impact of regional-level campaigns is variable, but that of national-level campaigns is preserved unless triggers have high thresholds. INTERPRETATION: Substantial reduction of MERS-CoV morbidity and mortality is possible when vaccinating only health-care workers, underlining the need for countries at risk of outbreaks to stockpile vaccines when available. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, UK National Institute for Health Research, UK Research and Innovation, UK Academy of Medical Sciences, The Novo Nordisk Foundation, The Schmidt Foundation, and Investissement d'Avenir France.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control
17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): 2208678, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297250

ABSTRACT

Prospective cohort study to investigate the potential exposure to the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) following Hajj pilgrims is still very limited. Here, we report the antibody seroconversion study results obtained from successive three years cohort studies (2016-2018) involving the Malaysian Hajj pilgrims returning from the Middle East. A cohort study of Hajj pilgrims from Malaysia enrolled 2,863 participants from 2016-2018, all of whom consented to provide paired blood samples for both pre- and post-Hajj travel to the Middle East. ELISAs and micro-neutralization assays were performed to detect the presence of MERS-CoV IgG antibodies. Sociodemographic data, symptoms experienced during Hajj, and history of exposure to camels or camel products were recorded using structured pre- and post-Hajj questionnaires. A 4-fold increase in anti-MERS-CoV IgG between paired pre-Hajj and post-Hajj serum samples in twelve participants was observed. None of the twelve ELISA-positive sera had detectable levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies. All reportedly had mild symptoms of respiratory symptoms at a certain point during the pilgrimage, implying mild or asymptomatic infections. No association between post-Hajj serum positivity and a history of exposure to camels or camel products was obtained. Findings from the study suggest that serologic conversion to MERS-CoV occurred in at least 0.6% of the Hajj pilgrims returning from the Middle East. Since all the seroconvertants had mild to no symptoms during the sampling period, it highlights the likelihood of occurrence of only low infectivity spillover infections among the Hajj pilgrims.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Camelus , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Seroconversion , Middle East/epidemiology , Travel , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(10): 3329-3339, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295184

ABSTRACT

Pandemics like SARS-Cov-2 very frequently have their origin in different animals and in particular herds of camels could be a source of zoonotic diseases. This study took advantage on a highly sensitive and adaptable method for the fast and reliable detection of viral antibodies in camels using low-cost equipment. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) have high variability in their functionalization with different peptides and proteins. We confirm that 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES)-coated MNP could be functionalized with viral proteins. The protein loading could be confirmed by simple loading controls using FACS-analysis (p < 0.05). Complementary combination of antigen and antibody yields in a significant signal increase could be proven by both FACS and COMPASS. However, COMPASS needs only a few seconds for the measurement. In COMPASS, the phase φn on selected critical point of the fifth higher harmonic (n = 5th). Here, positive sera display highly significant signal increase over the control or negative sera. Furthermore, a clear distinction could be made in antibody detection as an immune response to closely related viruses (SARS-CoV2 and MERS). Using modified MNPs along with COMPASS offers a fast and reliable method that is less cost intensive than current technologies and offers the possibility to be quickly adapted in case of new occurring viral infections. KEY POINTS: • COMPASS (critical offset magnetic particle spectroscopy) allows the fast detection of antibodies. • Magnetic nanoparticles can be adapted by exchange of the linked bait molecule. • Antibodies could be detected in camel sera without washing steps within seconds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Camelus , RNA, Viral , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectrum Analysis , Magnetic Phenomena
19.
Eur J Med Chem ; 254: 115376, 2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293855

ABSTRACT

The high morbidity and mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the etiological agent of COVID-19, has had a major impact on global public health. Significant progress has been made in the development of an array of vaccines and biologics, however, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants and breakthrough infections are an ongoing major concern. Furthermore, there is an existing paucity of small-molecule host and virus-directed therapeutics and prophylactics that can be used to counter the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and any emerging and re-emerging coronaviruses. We describe herein our efforts to address this urgent need by focusing on the structure-guided design of potent broad-spectrum inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3C-like protease (3CLpro or Main protease), an enzyme essential for viral replication. The inhibitors exploit the directional effects associated with the presence of a gem-dimethyl group that allow the inhibitors to optimally interact with the S4 subsite of the enzyme. Several compounds were found to potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV 3CL proteases in biochemical and cell-based assays. Specifically, the EC50 values of aldehyde 1c and its corresponding bisulfite adduct 1d against SARS-CoV-2 were found to be 12 and 10 nM, respectively, and their CC50 values were >50 µM. Furthermore, deuteration of these compounds yielded compounds 2c/2d with EC50 values 11 and 12 nM, respectively. Replacement of the aldehyde warhead with a nitrile (CN) or an α-ketoamide warhead or its corresponding bisulfite adduct yielded compounds 1g, 1eand1f with EC50 values 60, 50 and 70 nM, respectively. High-resolution cocrystal structures have identified the structural determinants associated with the binding of the inhibitors to the active site of the enzyme and, furthermore, have illuminated the mechanism of action of the inhibitors. Overall, the high Safety Index (SI) (SI=CC50/EC50) displayed by these compounds suggests that they are well-suited to conducting further preclinical studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism
20.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293766

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented pandemic of COVID-19, caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and its highly transmissible variants, led to massive human suffering, death, and economic devastation worldwide. Recently, antibody-evasive SARS-CoV-2 subvariants, BQ and XBB, have been reported. Therefore, the continued development of novel drugs with pan-coronavirus inhibition is critical to treat and prevent infection of COVID-19 and any new pandemics that may emerge. We report the discovery of several highly potent small-molecule inhibitors. One of which, NBCoV63, showed low nM potency against SARS-CoV-2 (IC50: 55 nM), SARS-CoV-1 (IC50: 59 nM), and MERS-CoV (IC50: 75 nM) in pseudovirus-based assays with excellent selectivity indices (SI > 900), suggesting its pan-coronavirus inhibition. NBCoV63 showed equally effective antiviral potency against SARS-CoV-2 mutant (D614G) and several variants of concerns (VOCs) such as B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.1.529/BA.1 and BA.4/BA.5 (Omicron), and K417T/E484K/N501Y (Gamma). NBCoV63 also showed similar efficacy profiles to Remdesivir against authentic SARS-CoV-2 (Hong Kong strain) and two of its variants (Delta and Omicron), SARS-CoV-1, and MERS-CoV by plaque reduction in Calu-3 cells. Additionally, we show that NBCoV63 inhibits virus-mediated cell-to-cell fusion in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data of NBCoV63 demonstrated drug-like properties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL