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1.
Cell ; 186(4): 850-863.e16, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239711

ABSTRACT

It is unknown whether pangolins, the most trafficked mammals, play a role in the zoonotic transmission of bat coronaviruses. We report the circulation of a novel MERS-like coronavirus in Malayan pangolins, named Manis javanica HKU4-related coronavirus (MjHKU4r-CoV). Among 86 animals, four tested positive by pan-CoV PCR, and seven tested seropositive (11 and 12.8%). Four nearly identical (99.9%) genome sequences were obtained, and one virus was isolated (MjHKU4r-CoV-1). This virus utilizes human dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (hDPP4) as a receptor and host proteases for cell infection, which is enhanced by a furin cleavage site that is absent in all known bat HKU4r-CoVs. The MjHKU4r-CoV-1 spike shows higher binding affinity for hDPP4, and MjHKU4r-CoV-1 has a wider host range than bat HKU4-CoV. MjHKU4r-CoV-1 is infectious and pathogenic in human airways and intestinal organs and in hDPP4-transgenic mice. Our study highlights the importance of pangolins as reservoir hosts of coronaviruses poised for human disease emergence.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Pangolins , Animals , Humans , Mice , Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Endopeptidases/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Coronavirus/physiology
2.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 87(12): 1662-1678, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233322

ABSTRACT

New coronavirus infection causing COVID-19, which was first reported in late 2019 in China, initiated severe social and economic crisis that affected the whole world. High frequency of the errors in replication of RNA viruses, zoonotic nature of transmission, and high transmissibility allowed betacoronaviruses to cause the third pandemic in the world since the beginning of 2003: SARS-CoV in 2003, MERS-CoV in 2012, and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019. The latest pandemic united scientific community and served as a powerful impetus in the study of biology of coronaviruses: new routes of virus penetration into the human cells were identified, features of the replication cycle were studied, and new functions of coronavirus proteins were elucidated. It should be recognized that the pandemic was accompanied by the need to obtain and publish results within a short time, which led to the emergence of an array of conflicting data and low reproducibility of research results. We systematized and analyzed scientific literature, filtered the results according to reliability of the methods of analysis used, and prepared a review describing molecular mechanisms of functioning of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. This review considers organization of the genome of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, mechanisms of its gene expression and entry of the virus into the cell, provides information on key mutations that characterize different variants of the virus, and their contribution to pathogenesis of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Reproducibility of Results , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Biology
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1081370, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232472

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) continuously evolve, crossing species barriers and spreading across host ranges. Over the last two decades, several CoVs (HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-OC43, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2) have emerged in animals and mammals, causing significant economic and human life losses. Due to CoV cross-species transmission and the evolution of novel viruses, it is critical to identify their natural reservoiurs and the circumstances under which their transmission occurs. In this review, we use genetic and ecological data to disentangle the evolution of various CoVs in wildlife, humans, and domestic mammals. We thoroughly investigate several host species and outline the epidemiology of CoVs toward specific hosts. We also discuss the cross-species transmission of CoVs at the interface of wildlife, animals, and humans. Clarifying the epidemiology and diversity of species reservoirs will significantly impact our ability to respond to the future emergence of CoVs in humans and domestic animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Host Specificity , Animals, Wild , Mammals
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232081

ABSTRACT

Betacoronaviruses have already troubled humanity more than once. In 2002-2003 and 2012, the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, respectively, caused outbreaks of respiratory syndromes with a fatal outcome. The spread of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has become a pandemic. These three coronaviruses belong to the genus Betacoronavirus and have a zoonotic origin. The emergence of new coronavirus infections in the future cannot be ruled out, and vaccination is the main way to prevent the spread of the infection. Previous experience in the development of vaccines against SARS and MERS has helped to develop a number of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in a fairly short time. Among them, there are quite a few recombinant protein vaccines, which seem to be very promising in terms of safety, minimization of side effects, storage and transportation conditions. The problem of developing a universal betacoronavirus vaccine is also still relevant. Here, we summarize the information on the designing of vaccines based on recombinant proteins against highly pathogenic human betacoronaviruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 124, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses have the potential to cross species barriers. To learn the molecular intersections among the most common coronaviruses of domestic and close-contact animals, we analyzed representative coronavirus genera infecting mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, cat, cattle, white-tailed deer, swine, ferret, mink, alpaca, Rhinolophus bat, dolphin, whale, chicken, duck and turkey hosts; reference or complete genome sequences were available for most of these coronavirus genera. Protein sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees were built for the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. The host receptors and enzymes aminopeptidase N (APN), angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), sialic acid synthase (SAS), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), cathepsin L (and its analogs) and furin were also compared. RESULTS: Overall, the S, E, M, and N proteins segregated according to their viral genera (α, ß, or γ), but the S proteins of alphacoronaviruses lacked conservation of phylogeny. Interestingly, the unique polybasic furin cleavage motif found in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) but not in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) exists in several ß-coronaviruses and a few α- or γ-coronaviruses. Receptors and enzymes retained host species-dependent relationships with one another. Among the hosts, critical ACE2 residues essential for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding were most conserved in white-tailed deer and cattle. CONCLUSION: The polybasic furin cleavage motif found in several ß- and other coronaviruses of animals points to the existence of an intermediate host for SARS-CoV-2, and it also offers a counternarrative to the theory of a laboratory-engineered virus. Generally, the S proteins of coronaviruses show crossovers of phylogenies indicative of recombination events. Additionally, the consistency in the segregation of viral proteins of the MERS-like coronavirus (NC_034440.1) from pipistrelle bat supports its classification as a ß-coronavirus. Finally, similarities in host enzymes and receptors did not always explain natural cross-infections. More studies are therefore needed to identify factors that determine the cross-species infectivity of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle Diseases , Deer , Dog Diseases , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Rodent Diseases , Swine Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cattle , Dogs , Ferrets , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Rabbits , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Swine
6.
ISME J ; 17(4): 549-560, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2211940

ABSTRACT

Exploring wild reservoirs of pathogenic viruses is critical for their long-term control and for predicting future pandemic scenarios. Here, a comparative in vitro infection analysis was first performed on 83 cell cultures derived from 55 mammalian species using pseudotyped viruses bearing S proteins from SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV. Cell cultures from Thomas's horseshoe bats, king horseshoe bats, green monkeys, and ferrets were found to be highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV pseudotyped viruses. Moreover, five variants (del69-70, D80Y, S98F, T572I, and Q675H), that beside spike receptor-binding domain can significantly alter the host tropism of SARS-CoV-2. An examination of phylogenetic signals of transduction rates revealed that closely related taxa generally have similar susceptibility to MERS-CoV but not to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped viruses. Additionally, we discovered that the expression of 95 genes, e.g., PZDK1 and APOBEC3, were commonly associated with the transduction rates of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped viruses. This study provides basic documentation of the susceptibility, variants, and molecules that underlie the cross-species transmission of these coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Phylogeny , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/genetics , Ferrets
7.
mBio ; 14(1): e0313622, 2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193470

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) of genera α, ß, γ, and δ encode proteins that have a PDZ-binding motif (PBM) consisting of the last four residues of the envelope (E) protein (PBM core). PBMs may bind over 400 cellular proteins containing PDZ domains (an acronym formed by the combination of the first letter of the names of the three first proteins where this domain was identified), making them relevant for the control of cell function. Three highly pathogenic human CoVs have been identified to date: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2. The PBMs of the three CoVs were virulence factors. SARS-CoV mutants in which the E protein PBM core was replaced by the E protein PBM core from virulent or attenuated CoVs were constructed. These mutants showed a gradient of virulence, depending on whether the alternative PBM core introduced was derived from a virulent or an attenuated CoV. Gene expression patterns in the lungs of mice infected with SARS-CoVs encoding each of the different PBMs were analyzed by RNA sequencing of infected lung tissues. E protein PBM of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 dysregulated gene expression related to ion transport and cell homeostasis. Decreased expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mRNA, essential for alveolar edema resolution, was shown. Reduced CFTR mRNA levels were associated with edema accumulation in the alveoli of mice infected with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Compounds that increased CFTR expression and activity, significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 growth in cultured cells and protected against mouse infection, suggesting that E protein virulence is mediated by a decreased CFTR expression. IMPORTANCE Three highly pathogenic human CoVs have been identified: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. The E protein PBMs of these three CoVs were virulence factors. Gene expression patterns associated with the different PBM motifs in the lungs of infected mice were analyzed by deep sequencing. E protein PBM motif of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 dysregulated the expression of genes related to ion transport and cell homeostasis. A decrease in the mRNA expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is essential for edema resolution, was observed. The reduction of CFTR mRNA levels was associated with edema accumulation in the lungs of mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Compounds that increased the expression and activity of CFTR drastically reduced the production of SARS-CoV-2 and protected against its infection in a mice model. These results allowed the identification of cellular targets for the selection of antivirals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Animals , Mice , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Virulence Factors/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Lung/metabolism , RNA, Messenger
8.
mBio ; 13(5): e0241522, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088413

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has killed over 6 million individuals worldwide and continues to spread in countries where vaccines are not yet widely available or its citizens are hesitant to become vaccinated. Therefore, it is critical to unravel the molecular mechanisms that allow SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses to infect and overtake the host machinery of human cells. Coronavirus replication triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a key host cell pathway widely believed to be essential for viral replication. We examined the master UPR sensor IRE1α kinase/RNase and its downstream transcription factor effector XBP1s, which is processed through an IRE1α-mediated mRNA splicing event, in human lung-derived cells infected with betacoronaviruses. We found that human respiratory coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and murine coronavirus (MHV) all induce ER stress and strongly trigger the kinase and RNase activities of IRE1α as well as XBP1 splicing. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 only partially activates IRE1α through autophosphorylation, but its RNase activity fails to splice XBP1. Moreover, while IRE1α was dispensable for replication in human cells for all coronaviruses tested, it was required for maximal expression of genes associated with several key cellular functions, including the interferon signaling pathway, during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 actively inhibits the RNase of autophosphorylated IRE1α, perhaps as a strategy to eliminate detection by the host immune system. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 is the third lethal respiratory coronavirus, after MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, to emerge this century, causing millions of deaths worldwide. Other common coronaviruses such as HCoV-OC43 cause less severe respiratory disease. Thus, it is imperative to understand the similarities and differences among these viruses in how each interacts with host cells. We focused here on the inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) pathway, part of the host unfolded protein response to virus-induced stress. We found that while MERS-CoV and HCoV-OC43 fully activate the IRE1α kinase and RNase activities, SARS-CoV-2 only partially activates IRE1α, promoting its kinase activity but not RNase activity. Based on IRE1α-dependent gene expression changes during infection, we propose that SARS-CoV-2 prevents IRE1α RNase activation as a strategy to limit detection by the host immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Mice , Humans , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Inositol , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Ribonucleases/genetics , Transcription Factors , RNA, Messenger , Lung/metabolism , Interferons , X-Box Binding Protein 1/genetics
9.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 5(5): 401-409, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084982

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the most consequential pandemic of this century, threatening human health and public safety. SARS-CoV-2 has been continuously evolving through mutation of its genome and variants of concern have emerged. The World Health Organization R&D Blueprint plan convened a range of expert groups to develop animal models for COVID-19, a core requirement for the prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The animal model construction techniques developed during the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV pandemics were rapidly deployed and applied in the establishment of COVID-19 animal models. To date, a large number of animal models for COVID-19, including mice, hamsters, minks and nonhuman primates, have been established. Infectious diseases produce unique manifestations according to the characteristics of the pathogen and modes of infection. Here we classified animal model resources around the infection route of SARS-CoV-2, and summarized the characteristics of the animal models constructed via transnasal, localized, and simulated transmission routes of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Models, Animal
10.
mBio ; 13(5): e0241522, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038243

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has killed over 6 million individuals worldwide and continues to spread in countries where vaccines are not yet widely available or its citizens are hesitant to become vaccinated. Therefore, it is critical to unravel the molecular mechanisms that allow SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses to infect and overtake the host machinery of human cells. Coronavirus replication triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a key host cell pathway widely believed to be essential for viral replication. We examined the master UPR sensor IRE1α kinase/RNase and its downstream transcription factor effector XBP1s, which is processed through an IRE1α-mediated mRNA splicing event, in human lung-derived cells infected with betacoronaviruses. We found that human respiratory coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and murine coronavirus (MHV) all induce ER stress and strongly trigger the kinase and RNase activities of IRE1α as well as XBP1 splicing. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 only partially activates IRE1α through autophosphorylation, but its RNase activity fails to splice XBP1. Moreover, while IRE1α was dispensable for replication in human cells for all coronaviruses tested, it was required for maximal expression of genes associated with several key cellular functions, including the interferon signaling pathway, during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 actively inhibits the RNase of autophosphorylated IRE1α, perhaps as a strategy to eliminate detection by the host immune system. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 is the third lethal respiratory coronavirus, after MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, to emerge this century, causing millions of deaths worldwide. Other common coronaviruses such as HCoV-OC43 cause less severe respiratory disease. Thus, it is imperative to understand the similarities and differences among these viruses in how each interacts with host cells. We focused here on the inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) pathway, part of the host unfolded protein response to virus-induced stress. We found that while MERS-CoV and HCoV-OC43 fully activate the IRE1α kinase and RNase activities, SARS-CoV-2 only partially activates IRE1α, promoting its kinase activity but not RNase activity. Based on IRE1α-dependent gene expression changes during infection, we propose that SARS-CoV-2 prevents IRE1α RNase activation as a strategy to limit detection by the host immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Mice , Humans , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Inositol , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Ribonucleases/genetics , Transcription Factors , RNA, Messenger , Lung/metabolism , Interferons , X-Box Binding Protein 1/genetics
11.
FEBS Lett ; 596(19): 2538-2554, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007085

ABSTRACT

The Toll-like receptor (TLR)7- and TLR9-dependent signalling cascade is responsible for production of a large amount of alpha interferon by plasmacytoid dendritic cells upon viral infection. Here, we show that Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) accessory protein ORF4b has the most potential among the MERS-CoV accessory proteins to inhibit the TLR7/9-signaling-dependent alpha interferon production. ORF4b protein, which has a bipartite nuclear localization signal, was found to bind to IKKα, a kinase responsible for phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)7. This interaction caused relocation of a large proportion of IKKα from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Studies using ORF4b and IKKα mutants demonstrated that ORF4b protein inhibited IKKα-mediated IRF7 phosphorylation by sequestering IKKα in the nucleus and by impeding the phosphorylation process of cytoplasmic IKKα.


Subject(s)
I-kappa B Kinase , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , I-kappa B Kinase/genetics , I-kappa B Kinase/metabolism , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Nuclear Localization Signals/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 9/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 9/metabolism
12.
Nat Genet ; 54(8): 1090-1102, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960393

ABSTRACT

CRISPR knockout (KO) screens have identified host factors regulating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of these screens, which showed a high level of cell-type specificity of the identified hits, highlighting the necessity of additional models to uncover the full landscape of host factors. Thus, we performed genome-wide KO and activation screens in Calu-3 lung cells and KO screens in Caco-2 colorectal cells, followed by secondary screens in four human cell lines. This revealed host-dependency factors, including AP1G1 adaptin and ATP8B1 flippase, as well as inhibitors, including mucins. Interestingly, some of the identified genes also modulate Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) (HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E) replication. Moreover, most genes had an impact on viral entry, with AP1G1 likely regulating TMPRSS2 activity at the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate the value of multiple cell models and perturbational modalities for understanding SARS-CoV-2 replication and provide a list of potential targets for therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , COVID-19/genetics , Caco-2 Cells , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seasons
13.
Curr Mol Med ; 22(10): 894-907, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902786

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease that is caused by a novel coronavirus. The human coronavirus (HCoV) is recognized as one of the most rapidly evolving viruses owing to its high genomic nucleotide substitution rates and recombination. Among the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle- East respiratory syndrome (MERS), COVID-19 has spread more rapidly and increased the level of globalization and adaptation of the virus in every environmental condition due to their high rate of molecular diversity. The whole article highlights the general characteristics of coronavirus, their molecular diversity, and molecular protein targeting against COVID-19 with their newer approaches. Through this review, an attempt has been made to critically evaluate the recent advances and future aspects that are helpful to the treatment of COVID-19 based on the present understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infections, which may offer new insights and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Chem Inf Model ; 62(12): 2901-2908, 2022 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890094

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of COVID-19 disease, has rapidly imposed an urgent need to identify effective drug candidates. In this context, the high resolution and non-redundant beta-Coronavirus protein cavities database is pivotal to help virtual screening protocols. Furthermore, the cross-relationship among cavities can lead to highlighting multitarget therapy chances. Here, we first collect all protein cavities on SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV X-ray structures, and then, we compute a similarity map by using molecular interaction fields (MIFs). All the results come together in CROMATIC (CROss-relationship MAp of CaviTIes from Coronaviruses). CROMATIC encloses both a comprehensive and a non-redundant version of the cavities collection and a similarity map revealing, on the one hand, cavities that are conserved among the three Coronaviruses and, on the other hand, unexpected similarities among cavities that can represent a key starting point for multitarget therapy strategies. Similarity analysis was also performed for the available structures of SARS-CoV-2 spike variants, linking sequence mutations to three-dimensional interaction alterations. The CROMATIC repository is freely available to the scientific community at https://github.com/moldiscovery/sars-cromatic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(10): 4599-4610, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872244

ABSTRACT

Historically, passive immunotherapy is an approved approach for protecting and treating humans against various diseases when other alternative therapeutic options are unavailable. Human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) can be made from convalescent human donor serum, although it is considered limited due to pandemics and the urgent requirement. Additionally, polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) could be generated from animals, but they may cause severe immunoreactivity and, once "humanized," may have lower neutralization efficiency. Transchromosomic bovines (TcBs) have been developed to address these concerns by creating robust neutralizing hpAbs, which are useful in preventing and/or curing human infections in response to hyperimmunization with vaccines holding adjuvants and/or immune stimulators over an extensive period. Unlike other animal-derived pAbs, potent hpAbs could be promptly produced from TcB in large amounts to assist against an outbreak scenario. Some of these highly efficacious TcB-derived antibodies have already neutralized and blocked diseases in clinical studies. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has numerous variants classified into variants of concern (VOCs), variants of interest (VOIs), and variants under monitoring. Although these variants possess different mutations, such as N501Y, E484K, K417N, K417T, L452R, T478K, and P681R, SAB-185 has shown broad neutralizing activity against VOCs, such as Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron variants, and VOIs, such as Epsilon, Iota, Kappa, and Lambda variants. This article highlights recent developments in the field of bovine-derived biotherapeutics, which are seen as a practical platform for developing safe and effective antivirals with broad activity, particularly considering emerging viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2, Ebola, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Zika, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and influenza A virus. Antibodies in the bovine serum or colostrum, which have been proved to be more protective than their human counterparts, are also reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV-1 , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Influenza A virus , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(21): e2123208119, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860508

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged into humans in 2012, causing highly lethal respiratory disease. The severity of disease may be, in part, because MERS-CoV is adept at antagonizing early innate immune pathways­interferon (IFN) production and signaling, protein kinase R (PKR), and oligoadenylate synthetase/ribonuclease L (OAS/RNase L)­activated in response to viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) generated during genome replication. This is in contrast to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which we recently reported to activate PKR and RNase L and, to some extent, IFN signaling. We previously found that MERS-CoV accessory proteins NS4a (dsRNA binding protein) and NS4b (phosphodiesterase) could weakly suppress these pathways, but ablation of each had minimal effect on virus replication. Here we investigated the antagonist effects of the conserved coronavirus endoribonuclease (EndoU), in combination with NS4a or NS4b. Inactivation of EndoU catalytic activity alone in a recombinant MERS-CoV caused little if any effect on activation of the innate immune pathways during infection. However, infection with recombinant viruses containing combined mutations with inactivation of EndoU and deletion of NS4a or inactivation of the NS4b phosphodiesterase promoted robust activation of dsRNA-induced innate immune pathways. This resulted in at least tenfold attenuation of replication in human lung­derived A549 and primary nasal cells. Furthermore, replication of these recombinant viruses could be rescued to the level of wild-type MERS-CoV by knockout of host immune mediators MAVS, PKR, or RNase L. Thus, EndoU and accessory proteins NS4a and NS4b together suppress dsRNA-induced innate immunity during MERS-CoV infection in order to optimize viral replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Nasal Mucosa , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uridylate-Specific Endoribonucleases
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 656433, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268249

ABSTRACT

Background: The pathogenesis of COVID-19 emerges as complex, with multiple factors leading to injury of different organs. Some of the studies on aspects of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and innate immunity have produced seemingly contradictory claims. In this situation, a comprehensive comparative analysis of a large number of related datasets from several studies could bring more clarity, which is imperative for therapy development. Methods: We therefore performed a comprehensive comparative study, analyzing RNA-Seq data of infections with SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, including data from different types of cells as well as COVID-19 patients. Using these data, we investigated viral entry routes and innate immune responses. Results and Conclusion: First, our analyses support the existence of cell entry mechanisms for SARS and SARS-CoV-2 other than the ACE2 route with evidence of inefficient infection of cells without expression of ACE2; expression of TMPRSS2/TPMRSS4 is unnecessary for efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection with evidence of efficient infection of A549 cells transduced with a vector expressing human ACE2. Second, we find that innate immune responses in terms of interferons and interferon simulated genes are strong in relevant cells, for example Calu3 cells, but vary markedly with cell type, virus dose, and virus type.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , RNA, Viral , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Internalization
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4108, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091453

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, rising pneumonia cases caused by a novel ß-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in Wuhan, China, which has rapidly spread worldwide, causing thousands of deaths. The WHO declared the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak as a public health emergency of international concern, since then several scientists are dedicated to its study. It has been observed that many human viruses have codon usage biases that match highly expressed proteins in the tissues they infect and depend on the host cell machinery for the replication and co-evolution. In this work, we analysed 91 molecular features and codon usage patterns for 339 viral genes and 463 human genes that consisted of 677,873 codon positions. Hereby, we selected the highly expressed genes from human lung tissue to perform computational studies that permit to compare their molecular features with those of SARS, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS genes. The integrated analysis of all the features revealed that certain viral genes and overexpressed human genes have similar codon usage patterns. The main pattern was the A/T bias that together with other features could propitiate the viral infection, enhanced by a host dependant specialization of the translation machinery of only some of the overexpressed genes. The envelope protein E, the membrane glycoprotein M and ORF7 could be further benefited. This could be the key for a facilitated translation and viral replication conducting to different comorbidities depending on the genetic variability of population due to the host translation machinery. This is the first codon usage approach that reveals which human genes could be potentially deregulated due to the codon usage similarities between the host and the viral genes when the virus is already inside the human cells of the lung tissues. Our work leaded to the identification of additional highly expressed human genes which are not the usual suspects but might play a role in the viral infection and settle the basis for further research in the field of human genetics associated with new viral infections. To identify the genes that could be deregulated under a viral infection is important to predict the collateral effects and determine which individuals would be more susceptible based on their genetic features and comorbidities associated.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Codon/genetics , Codon Usage , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Genes, Viral , Genome, Viral , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11(2): 155-159, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090439

ABSTRACT

Countries in the Middle-East (ME) are tackling two corona virus outbreaks simultaneously, Middle-Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the current Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Both viruses infect the same host (humans) and the same cell (type-II alveolar cells) causing lower respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia. Molecularly, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 enter alveolar cells via spike proteins recognizing dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and angiotensin converting enzyme-II, respectively. Intracellularly, both viruses hide in organelles to generate negative RNA strands and initiate replication using very similar mechanisms. At the transcription level, both viruses utilise identical Transcription Regulatory Sequences (TRSs), which are known recombination cross-over points during replication, to transcribe genes. Using whole genome alignments of both viruses, we identify clusters of high sequence homology at ORF1a and ORF1b. Given the high recombination rates detected in SARS-CoV-2, we speculate that in co-infections recombination is feasible via TRS and/or clusters of homologies. Accordingly, here we recommend mitigation measure and testing for both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in ME countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Camelus/virology , Humans , Middle East/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Viral Zoonoses/virology
20.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(5): 2203-2217, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074462

ABSTRACT

Novel strain of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) causes mild to severe respiratory illness. The early symptoms may be fever, dry cough, sour throat, and difficulty in breathing which may lead to death in severe cases. Compared to previous outbreaks like SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), SARS-CoV2 disease (COVID-19) outbreak has been much distressing due to its high rate of infection but low infection fatality rate (IFR) with 1.4% around the world. World Health Organization (WHO) has declared (COVID-19) a pandemic on March 11, 2020. In the month of January 2020, the whole genome of SARS-CoV2 was sequenced which made work easy for researchers to develop diagnostic kits and to carry out drug repurposing to effectively alleviate the pandemic situation in the world. Now, it is important to understand why this virus has high rate of infectivity or is there any factor involved at the genome level which actually facilitates this virus infection globally? In this study, we have extensively analyzed the whole genomes of different coronaviruses infecting humans and animals in different geographical locations around the world. The main aim of the study is to identify the similarity and the mutational adaptation of the coronaviruses from different host and geographical locations to the SARS-CoV2 and provide a better strategy to understand the mutational rate for specific target-based drug designing. This study is focused to every annotation in a comparative manner which includes SNPs, repeat analysis with the different categorization of the short-sequence repeats and long-sequence repeats, different UTR's, transcriptional factors, and the predicted matured peptides with the specific length and positions on the genomes. The extensive analysis on SNPs revealed that Wuhan SARS-CoV2 and Indian SARS-CoV2 are having only eight SNPs. Collectively, phylogenetic analysis, repeat analysis, and the polymorphism revealed the genomic conserveness within the SARS-CoV2 and few other coronaviruses with very less mutational chances and the huge distance and mutations from the few other species.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans
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