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2.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875807

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are no evidence-based treatment options for long COVID-19, and it is known that SARS-CoV-2 can persist in part of the infected patients, especially those with immunosuppression. Since there is a robust secretion of SARS-CoV-2-specific highly-neutralizing IgA antibodies in breast milk, and because this immunoglobulin plays an essential role against respiratory virus infection in mucosa cells, being, in addition, more potent in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 than IgG, here we report the clinical course of an NFκB-deficient patient chronically infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant, who, after a non-full effective treatment with plasma infusion, received breast milk from a vaccinated mother by oral route as treatment for COVID-19. After such treatment, the symptoms improved, and the patient was systematically tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we hypothesize that IgA and IgG secreted antibodies present in breast milk could be useful to treat persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunodeficient patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Eating , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Milk, Human , NF-kappa B , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862859

ABSTRACT

Breastfeeding is key for infant development and growth. Breast milk contains different bioactive compounds including antibodies. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of breast milk SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after maternal infection and vaccination. However, the potential impact on the infant has not been explored yet. As a first step, we aimed at assessing the potential persistence of SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG antibodies from infected and vaccinated women in the gastrointestinal tract of the infants by means of an in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion approach. Breast milk samples from 10 lactating women receiving mRNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 (n = 5 with BNT162b2 mRNA and n = 5 with mRNA-1273) and also, COVID-19 infected (n = 5) were included. A control group with women with no exposure to the virus (n = 10 pre-pandemic) were also studied. The presence of IgA and IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels was determined by ELISA after the gastric and intestinal stages. The impact of digested antibodies on infant gut microbiota was tested by simulating colonic fermentation with two different fecal inoculums: infants from vaccinated and non-vaccinated mothers. Specific gut microbial groups were tested by targeted qPCR. In vitro infant gastrointestinal digestion significantly decreased the levels of both anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG. However, both remained resistant in all the study groups except in that evaluating breast milk samples from infected women, in which IgG was degraded below the cut-off values in the intestinal phase. No effect of the antibodies on microbiota were identified after digestion. In conclusion, antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2 are reduced after in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal tract but remain present, so a positive biological effect could be expected from this infant immunization pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Milk, Human , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Digestion , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Lactation , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser ; 96: 57-71, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840675

ABSTRACT

Donor milk (DM) is of increasing interest as primary nutritional source for preterm infants. Safe access requires special infrastructure, trained staff, sophisticated algorithms, and standard operating procedures as well as quality control measures. DM has limitations like low protein content and unpredictable composition of the other macronutrients, despite fortification frequently not meeting recommendations - both of them compromising growth. The first paragraph is devoted to COVID-19 and how it impacts processes of DM banking. The following paragraphs review aspects of "pasteurization," "safety audits/donor screening," and "DM nutrient variability." In summary, (i) Holder pasteurization still is the most suitable procedure for milk banks, but high-pressure pasteurization or ultraviolet C irradiation conserve the unique properties of DM better and deserve more research to make it suitable for clinical routine. (ii) In regard to safety/screening, guidelines are valuable for safe DM bank operation, but they differ between legislations. There is a surprisingly high rate of non-disclosed donor smoking (0.3%, p > 0.05) and of adulteration of delivered DM (up to 2%, p < 0.05) not detected by standard donor screening procedures. Frequencies differ between remunerated and non-remunerated programs. (iii) Neonatal caregivers should be aware of unpredictable composition of DM. They should be trained on how these can be overcome to avoid negative impact on growth and long-term outcomes like (a) measuring and disclosing nutrient contents of delivered DM batches to customers, (b) implementing certain types of donor pooling to reduce the risk of macronutrient depleted DM, (c) additional supplementation using 0.3-0.5 g protein/100 mL seems to be reasonable, (d) adjusted fortification may help to improve growth, but is not efficient in all preterm infants, (e) target fortification seems to improve growth (and probably also neurodevelopmental index) compared to standard fortification, (f) more research and clinical studies are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Milk Banks , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Milk, Human/chemistry , Pasteurization/methods
5.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 42, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breast milk is a vehicle to transfer protective antibodies from the lactating mother to the neonate. After SARS-CoV-2 infection, virus-specific IgA and IgG have been identified in breast milk, however, there are limited data on the impact of different COVID-19 vaccine types in lactating women. This study is aimed to evaluate the time course of induction of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG in breast milk after vaccination. METHODS: In this prospective observational study in Spain, 86 lactating women from priority groups receiving the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 were included. Breast milk samples were collected longitudinally at seven or eight-time points (depending on vaccine type). A group with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (n=19) and a group of women from pre-pandemic time (n=20) were included for comparison. RESULTS: Eighty-six vaccinated lactating women [mean age, 34.6 ± 3.7 years] of whom 96% were Caucasian and 92% were healthcare workers. A total number of 582 milk samples were included, and vaccine distribution was BioNTech/Pfizer (BNT162b2, n=34), Moderna (mRNA-1273, n=20), and AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, n=32). For each vaccine, 7 and 8 longitudinal time points were collected from baseline up to 30 days after the second dose for mRNA vaccines and adenovirus-vectored vaccines, respectively. A strong reactivity was observed for IgG and IgA after vaccination mainly after the 2nd dose. The presence and persistence of specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in breast milk were dependent on the vaccine type, with higher IgG and IgA levels in mRNA-based vaccines when compared to AstraZeneca, and on previous virus exposure. High intra- and inter-variability were observed, being relevant for IgA antibodies. In milk from vaccinated women, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was significantly higher while IgA levels were lower than in milk from COVID-19-infected women. Women with previous COVID-19 increased their IgG antibodies levels after the first dose to a similar level observed in vaccinated women after the second dose. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG in breast milk with higher levels after the 2nd dose. Levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG are dependent on the vaccine type. Further studies are warranted to demonstrate the protective antibody effect against COVID-19 in infants from vaccinated and infected mothers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04751734 (date of registration is on February 12, 2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lactation , Longitudinal Studies , Milk, Human , Vaccination
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 801797, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793017

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited data are available regarding the balance of risks and benefits from human milk and/or breastfeeding during and following maternal infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Objective: To investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in milk and on the breast after maternal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis; and characterize concentrations of milk immunoglobulin (Ig) A specific to the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein receptor binding domain (RBD) during the 2 months after onset of symptoms or positive diagnostic test. Methods: Using a longitudinal study design, we collected milk and breast skin swabs one to seven times from 64 lactating women with COVID-19 over a 2-month period, beginning as early as the week of diagnosis. Milk and breast swabs were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and milk was tested for anti-RBD IgA. Results: SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any milk sample or on 71% of breast swabs. Twenty-seven out of 29 (93%) breast swabs collected after breast washing tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 on the breast was associated with maternal coughing and other household COVID-19. Most (75%; 95% CI, 70-79%; n=316) milk samples contained anti-RBD IgA, and concentrations increased (P=.02) during the first two weeks following onset of COVID-19 symptoms or positive test. Milk-borne anti-RBD IgA persisted for at least two months in 77% of women. Conclusion: Milk produced by women with COVID-19 does not contain SARS-CoV-2 and is likely a lasting source of passive immunity via anti-RBD IgA. These results support recommendations encouraging lactating women to continue breastfeeding during and after COVID-19 illness.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Lactation , Longitudinal Studies , Milk, Human/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics
7.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 11(4): 126, 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human milk (HM) permits transfer of immunity against infections to infants via bioactive factors. The role of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in HM is poorly understood [1, 2]. This study evaluated SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the HM of vaccinated healthcare workers (HCW). METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective study of 122 HCWs was performed from February to April 2021 at the Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) against nucleocapsid protein and IgG, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against spike 1 protein receptor-binding domain against SARS-CoV-2 (anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD-S1) were analyzed. Unvaccinated breastfeeding mothers without COVID-19 were the control group.The 98 vaccinated participants underwent serum and HM evaluation 14 days after receiving 2 doses of either BNT162b2 mRNA (94%) or mRNA-1273 (6%) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. The mean SARS-CoV-2 RBD-S1 IgG serum concentration was 3379.64 binding antibody units (BAUs)/mL with neutralizing antibody titers >560.9 BAUs/mL. Serum SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the 24 unvaccinated participants were negative. The HM from vaccinated participants had anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD-S1 IgG with a mean of 12.19 BAUs/mL compared to 0.02 BAUs/mL (P < .001) in HM from unvaccinated participants. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgA was noted in 89% of HM from vaccinated women; no anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgM was detected.A positive correlation was reported between anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD-S1 IgG in serum and HM (r = 0.36; P < .001). This association was stronger if breastfeeding had been <24 months (r = 0.67; P < .001) vs ≥24 months (r = 0.32; P = 0.19). In subgroup analysis, breastfeeding for >24 months and high serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD-S1 IgG levels predicted high HM IgG levels. This was an independent association in both linear and multiple regression models. Compared with breastfeeding <24 months, lactation >24 months was associated with increased HM anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD-S1 levels. COMMENTS: This study in breastfeeding HCWs showed that the HM antibody levels were higher in women who had been breastfeeding for >24 months prior to receiving 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccine compared to participants who had been breastfeeding <24 months. Limitations include lack of in vitro plaque reduction neutralization tests which is the gold standard for evaluating SARS-CoV-2 antibody deactivation effectiveness. The study was conducted at a single site and did not assess infant serology or clinical outcome.According to the authors, breastfeeding by vaccinated women during a pandemic when young children are ineligible for vaccination may be encouraged. These results support findings from other studies of vaccines, such as influenza, in which the HM of vaccinated women may confer protection to their infants [3]. The benefits of maternal immunization, including the duration of protection afforded by HM from maternal recipients of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, are research areas deserving of additional exploration. Additionally, further understanding of the association of the duration of receipt of HM from vaccinated women on infant immune responses would be beneficial in understanding the potential for passive protection through nutrition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Infant , Milk, Human , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(2): 181-191, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774425

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA-based vaccines present in breast milk and transfer of the immune responses to breastfeeding infants. METHODS: We enrolled 30 lactating women who received mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines from January through April 2021 in this cohort study. Women provided serial milk samples, including milk expressed before vaccination, across 2-3 weeks after the first dose, and across 3 weeks after the second dose. Women provided their blood, spotted on cards (dried blood spots), 19 days after the first dose and 21 days after the second dose. Stool samples from the breastfed infants were collected 21 days after mothers' second vaccination. Prepandemic samples of milk, dried blood spots, and infant stool were used as controls. Milk, dried blood spots, and infant stool were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG. Milk samples were tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies against the spike and four variants of concern: D614G, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Gamma (P.1). Levels of 10 cytokines were measured in milk samples. RESULTS: Milk from COVID-19-immunized women neutralized the spike and four variants of concern, primarily driven by anti-RBD IgG. The immune response in milk also included significant elevation of interferon-γ. The immune response to maternal vaccination was reflected in breastfed infants: anti-RBD IgG and anti-RBD IgA were detected in 33% and 30% of infant stool samples, respectively. Levels of anti-RBD antibodies in infant stool correlated with maternal vaccine side effects. Median antibody levels against RBD were below the positive cutoffs in prepandemic milk and infant stool samples. CONCLUSION: Humoral and cellular immune responses to mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination are present in most women's breast milk. The milk anti-RBD antibodies can neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike and variants of concern. Anti-RBD antibodies are transferred to breastfed infants, with the potential to confer passive immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokines/analysis , Milk, Human/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Vaccination
9.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(4): 492-502, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766305

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers in the lactation period can breastfeed their infants; and whether suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers can breastfeed their infants by taking some precautions. The study also aimed to present the measures that can be taken in line with the evidence. The studies conducted after November 2019 and including infants of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers were reviewed between 2019 and 2020. A literature review was conducted in five electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Scopus) to reach original quantitative studies in English. The present authors retrieved 46 of the 1,229 studies included after screening. Three studies were cross-sectional studies, 30 were case studies, and 13 were cohorts. In most of the sources examined, it was concluded that most of the breastfed infants had negative findings for SARS-Cov-2 infection in PCR. In line with the limited data available, it was concluded that most of the breastfed infants had negative findings for SARS-Cov-2 infection in PCR; and breastfeeding mothers should initiate breastfeeding by taking protective measures. Key Words: Breastfeeding, COVID-19, Suspected COVID-19 infected mothers, Confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Infant , Milk, Human , Mothers , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Breastfeed Med ; 17(6): 475-483, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758597

ABSTRACT

Background: CDC guidelines have recommended coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccination for all people 5 years and older, including people who are breastfeeding. Breast milk has shown to be a valuable source of protection for immune-immature neonates. It has been shown that breast milk from mothers who have received vaccinations can transfer antibodies. Aim/Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis investigate the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human breast milk after vaccination. Methods: Studies that evaluated immunoglobulins in breast milk of women receiving a SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were included. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science were searched for articles published between December 1, 2019 and September 30, 2021. Data from relevant articles were extracted manually or by WebPlotDigitizer version 4.1 to obtain the numeric values of antibody levels on peak days and the peak day then condensed into Excel. Additional raw data and information were supplied by corresponding authors. Results: One hundred ninety-two articles were obtained from the search. After excluding duplicates, screening titles and abstracts, 18 cohort studies were identified. For the rate of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in breast milk after the first vaccine dose but before the second vaccine dose, we found 64% (95% CI 51-78%) were positive for IgA and 30% (95% CI 13.1-46%) were positive for IgG. For the rate for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in breast milk after the second vaccine dose, we found 70% (95% CI 55-86%) were positive for IgA and 91% (95% CI 80-103%) were positive for IgG. Conclusions: Our analysis of the data published worldwide showed high rates of positivity for antibodies in breast milk following COVID-19 immunizations. Further research is necessary to find if the rate of positivity of IgA and IgG against SARS-CoV-2 in breast milk persists months after the full immunization, and their impact on the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Milk, Human , Vaccination
11.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 22, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, billions of people were asked by their state and local governments not to go to work and not leave the house unless they had to. The goal of this qualitative study was to collect the lived experiences of a small group of parents and lactation professionals in the United States about what it was like to feed babies human milk under these conditions of quarantine. METHODS: This project is a social constructionist analysis of lactation narratives of 24 parents feeding their children human milk and 13 lactation professionals. They were interviewed remotely in 2020-21 via videoconferencing about their experiences and perspectives on the pandemic's effect on lactation. Additionally, photographs of 16 of the parents are provided to visualize their practices and how they chose to represent them. RESULTS: Four interrelated themes were identified in participants' narratives about how they experienced and made sense of human milk feeding during the pandemic: the loneliness of lactation during the pandemic, the construction of human milk as a resource to cope with the crisis, the (in)visibility of lactation amidst heightened multitasking, and the sense of connection created by human milk feeding at a time of unprecedented solitude. CONCLUSIONS: While the pandemic may have had both positive and negative effects on lactation, it exposed continuing inequities in infant feeding, generating new forms of (in)visibility for lactating labor. Going forward, one lesson for policy and lawmakers may be that to adequately support lactation, they should take cues from the families who had positive experiences during the crisis. This would call for systemically overhauling of US laws and policies by guaranteeing: universal basic income, paid parental leave for at least six months, paid lactation leaves and breaks, affordable housing, universal health care, subsidized childcare programs, and equal access to high-quality, non-discriminatory, and culturally appropriate medical care-including lactation counseling-, among other initiatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Lactation , Milk, Human , Quarantine , United States
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 225, 2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745478

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Exclusive breastmilk feeding during the delivery hospitalization, a Joint Commission indicator of perinatal care quality, is associated with longer-term breastfeeding success. Marked racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding exclusivity and duration existed prior to COVID-19. The pandemic, accompanied by uncertainty regarding intrapartum and postpartum safety practices, may have influenced disparities in infant feeding practices. Our objective was to examine whether the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City was associated with a change in racial and ethnic disparities in exclusive breastmilk feeding during the delivery stay. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of electronic medical records from 14,964 births in two New York City hospitals. We conducted a difference-in-differences (DID) analysis to compare Black-white, Latina-white, and Asian-white disparities in exclusive breastmilk feeding in a pandemic cohort (April 1-July 31, 2020, n=3122 deliveries) to disparities in a pre-pandemic cohort (January 1, 2019-February 28, 2020, n=11,842). We defined exclusive breastmilk feeding as receipt of only breastmilk during delivery hospitalization, regardless of route of administration. We ascertained severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection status from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests from nasopharyngeal swab at admission. For each DID model (e.g. Black-white disparity), we used covariate-adjusted log binomial regression models to estimate racial and ethnic risk differences, pandemic versus pre-pandemic cohort risk differences, and an interaction term representing the DID estimator. RESULTS: Exclusive breastmilk feeding increased from pre-pandemic to pandemic among white (40.8% to 46.6%, p<0.001) and Asian (27.9% to 35.8%, p=0.004) women, but not Black (22.6% to 25.3%, p=0.275) or Latina (20.1% to 21.4%, p=0.515) women overall. There was an increase in the Latina-white exclusive breastmilk feeding disparity associated with the pandemic (DID estimator=6.3 fewer cases per 100 births (95% CI=-10.8, -1.9)). We found decreased breastmilk feeding specifically among SARS-CoV-2 positive Latina women (20.1% pre-pandemic vs. 9.1% pandemic p=0.013), and no change in Black-white or Asian-white disparities. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a pandemic-related increase in the Latina-white disparity in exclusive breastmilk feeding, urging hospital policies and programs to increase equity in breastmilk feeding and perinatal care quality during and beyond this health emergency.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/ethnology , COVID-19/ethnology , Hospitalization , Adult , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Milk, Human , New York City , Perinatal Care , Quality Indicators, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Turk J Pediatr ; 64(1): 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of COVID-19 infection on newborn babies is not yet clear. Babies born to pregnant women with suspected or proven COVID-19 or babies who had contact with infected people are considered to be at risk. In this review, intrauterine problems that may be caused by COVID-19 infection, delivery room approach, postnatal follow-up, precautions and controversies regarding breastfeeding and vaccination are discussed. METHODS: The articles published between March 2020 and June 2021 were searched in Pubmed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases using the keywords COVID-19 and newborn, perinatal period, vertical transmission, pregnancy, breast milk and vaccines. The updated information and recommendations are presented. CONCLUSIONS: Our knowledge of the perinatal and neonatal effects of COVID-19 infection changes rapidly. Therefore, close follow-up of the mother-infant dyads is important. Larger epidemiological and clinical cohort studies are needed to better understand the possible implications and long-term outcomes of COVID-19 infection and also maternal vaccination in newborn infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Milk, Human , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
16.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101203, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740310

ABSTRACT

Antibodies in milk obtained from those previously SARS-CoV-2-infected or vaccinated against COVID-19 may provide passive immunity to the breastfed infant. Few assays have been established to measure antibodies in human milk, despite the public health importance of this topic. In the present protocol, we describe an optimized indirect ELISA assay aimed to measure SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies in human milk, which can be used as a rapid screen on undiluted samples or to designate samples as relatively low, moderate, or high titer. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Fox et al. (2020).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Immunoassay/methods , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736920

ABSTRACT

Human milk is the best food for infants. Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of viral and bacterial infections. Breast milk contains the perfect amount of nutrients needed to promote infant growth, except for vitamin D. Vitamin D is crucial for calcium metabolism and bone health, and it also has extra-skeletal actions, involving innate and adaptive immunity. As exclusive breastfeeding is a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency, infants should be supplemented with vitamin D at least during the first year. The promotion of breastfeeding and vitamin D supplementation represents an important objective of public health.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Vitamin D Deficiency , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Infant , Milk, Human , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control
18.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0249723, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736492

ABSTRACT

Approximately 10% of infants infected with SARS-CoV-2 will experience COVID-19 illness requiring advanced care. A potential mechanism to protect this population is passive immunization via the milk of a previously infected person. We and others have reported on the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in human milk. We now report the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgA in the milk of 74 COVID-19-recovered participants, and find that 89% of samples are positive for Spike-specific IgA. In a subset of these samples, 95% exhibited robust IgA activity as determined by endpoint binding titer, with 50% considered high-titer. These IgA-positive samples were also positive for Spike-specific secretory antibody. Levels of IgA antibodies and secretory antibodies were shown to be strongly positively correlated. The secretory IgA response was dominant among the milk samples tested compared to the IgG response, which was present in 75% of samples and found to be of high-titer in only 13% of cases. Our IgA durability analysis using 28 paired samples, obtained 4-6 weeks and 4-10 months after infection, found that all samples exhibited persistently significant Spike-specific IgA, with 43% of donors exhibiting increasing IgA titers over time. Finally, COVID-19 and pre-pandemic control milk samples were tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies; 6 of 8 COVID-19 samples exhibited neutralization of Spike-pseudotyped VSV (IC50 range, 2.39-89.4ug/mL) compared to 1 of 8 controls. IgA binding and neutralization capacities were found to be strongly positively correlated. These data are highly relevant to public health, not only in terms of the protective capacity of these antibodies for breastfed infants, but also for the potential use of such antibodies as a COVID-19 therapeutic, given that secretory IgA is highly in all mucosal compartments.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Milk, Human/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
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