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1.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732137

ABSTRACT

Associations between habitual dietary intake of minerals and glucose metabolism have been extensively studied in relation to metabolic disorders. However, similar research has yet to be conducted in individuals after acute pancreatitis (AP). The main aim was to investigate the associations between habitual intake of 13 minerals and glycaemic status: new-onset prediabetes/diabetes after AP (NODAP), pre-existing prediabetes/type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and normoglycaemia after AP (NAP). Associations between the dietary intake of minerals and markers of glucose metabolism (glycated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose) were also studied. The EPIC-Norfolk food frequency questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional fashion to determine the habitual intake of 13 dietary minerals. ANCOVA as well as multiple linear regression analyses were conducted and five statistical models were built to adjust for covariates. The study included 106 individuals after AP. In the NODAP group, intake of 4 minerals was significantly less when compared with the NAP group: iron (B = -0.076, p = 0.013), nitrogen (B = -0.066, p = 0.003), phosphorous (B = -0.046, p = 0.006), and zinc (B = -0.078, p = 0.001). Glycated haemoglobin was significantly associated with iodine intake (B = 17.763, p = 0.032) and manganese intake (B = -17.147, p = 0.003) in the NODAP group. Fasting plasma glucose was significantly associated with manganese intake (B = -2.436, p = 0.027) in the NODAP group. Habitual intake of minerals differs between individuals with NODAP, T2DM, and NAP. Prospective longitudinal studies and randomised controlled trials are now warranted to further investigate the associations between mineral intake and NODAP.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diet , Minerals/administration & dosage , Pancreatitis/complications , Prediabetic State/etiology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Female , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Insulin/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatitis/metabolism , Prediabetic State/metabolism , Prospective Studies
2.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1001-1016, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263162

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Taking into consideration that the COVID-19 infection strongly affects the immune system via multiple inflammatory responses, pharmaceutical companies are working to develop targeted drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19. A balanced nutritional diet may play an essential role in maintaining general wellbeing by controlling chronic infectious diseases. A balanced diet including vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K, and some micronutrients such as zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus may be beneficial in various infectious diseases. This study aimed to discuss and present recent data regarding the role of vitamins and minerals in the treatment of COVID-19. A deficiency of these vitamins and minerals in the plasma concentration may lead to a reduction in the good performance of the immune system, which is one of the constituents that lead to a poor immune state. This is a narrative review concerning the features of the COVID-19 and data related to the usage of vitamins and minerals as preventive measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Immune System/immunology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Minerals/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
3.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094259

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, claiming over 650,000 American lives annually. Typically not a singular disease, CVD often coexists with dyslipidemia, hypertension, type-2 diabetes (T2D), chronic system-wide inflammation, and obesity. Obesity, an independent risk factor for both CVD and T2D, further worsens the problem, with over 42% of adults and 18.5% of youth in the U.S. categorized as such. Dietary behavior is a most important modifiable risk factor for controlling the onset and progression of obesity and related disease conditions. Plant-based eating patterns that include beans and legumes support health and disease mitigation through nutritional profile and bioactive compounds including phytochemical. This review focuses on the characteristics of beans and ability to improve obesity-related diseases and associated factors including excess body weight, gut microbiome environment, and low-grade inflammation. Additionally, there are growing data that link obesity to compromised immune response and elevated risk for complications from immune-related diseases. Body weight management and nutritional status may improve immune function and possibly prevent disease severity. Inclusion of beans as part of a plant-based dietary strategy imparts cardiovascular, metabolic, and colon protective effects; improves obesity, low-grade inflammation, and may play a role in immune-related disease risk management.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diet, Vegetarian/methods , Fabaceae , Obesity/prevention & control , Amino Acids/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Dysbiosis/etiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/prevention & control , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Fatty Acid Synthases , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Immune System Diseases/prevention & control , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/prevention & control , Male , Minerals/administration & dosage , NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases , Nutritional Status , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/immunology , Overweight/complications , Phaseolus/chemistry , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Risk Factors , Vitamins/administration & dosage
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