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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742470

ABSTRACT

Grocery workers were essential to the workforce and exempt from lockdown requirements as per Minnesota Executive Order 20-20. The risk of COVID-19 transmission in grocery settings is not well documented. This study aimed to determine which factors influenced seropositivity among grocery workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Minnesota grocery workers aged 18 and older using a convenience sample. Participants were recruited using a flyer disseminated electronically via e-mail, social media, and newspaper advertising. Participants were directed to an electronic survey and were asked to self-collect capillary blood for IgG antibody testing. Data were analyzed using logistic regression and adjusted for urbanicity, which confounded the relationship between number of job responsibilities in a store and seropositivity. Of 861 Minnesota grocery workers surveyed, 706 (82%) were tested as part of this study, of which 56 (7.9%) tested positive for IgG antibodies. Participants aged 65-74 years had the highest percent positivity. Having multiple job responsibilities in a store was significantly associated with seropositivity in our adjusted model (OR: 1.14 95% CI: 1.01-1.27). Workplace factors influenced seropositivity among Minnesota grocery workers. Future research will examine other potential factors (e.g., in-store preventive measures and access to PPE) that may contribute to increased seropositivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Minnesota/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Supermarkets
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e220873, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718202

ABSTRACT

Importance: Early in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the M Health Fairview Hospital System established dedicated hospitals for establishing cohorts and caring for patients with COVID-19, yet the association between treatment at COVID-19-dedicated hospitals and mortality and complications is not known. Objective: To analyze the mortality rate and complications associated with treatment at the COVID-19-dedicated hospitals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study evaluated data prospectively collected from March 1, 2020, through June 30, 2021, from 11 hospitals in Minnesota, including 2 hospitals created solely to care for patients with COVID-19. Data obtained included demographic characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of interest for all patients with a confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to this hospital system during the study period. Exposures: Patients were grouped based on whether they received treatment from 1 of the 2 COVID-19-dedicated hospitals compared with the remainder of the hospitals within the hospital system. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariate analyses, including risk-adjusted logistic regression and propensity score matching, were performed to evaluate the primary outcome of in-hospital mortality and secondary outcomes, including complications and use of COVID-specific therapeutics. Results: There were 5504 patients with COVID-19 admitted during the study period (median age, 62.5 [IQR, 45.0-75.6] years; 2854 women [51.9%]). Of these, 2077 patients (37.7%) (median age, 63.4 [IQR, 50.7-76.1] years; 1080 men [52.0%]) were treated at 1 of the 2 COVID-19-dedicated hospitals compared with 3427 (62.3%; median age, 62.0 [40.0-75.1] years; 1857 women (54.2%) treated at other hospitals. The mortality rate was 11.6% (n = 241) at the dedicated hospitals compared with 8.0% (n = 274) at the other hospitals (P < .001). However, risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was significantly lower for patients in the COVID-19-dedicated hospitals in both the unmatched group (n = 2077; odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59-0.95) and the propensity score-matched group (n = 1317; OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.58-0.99). The rate of overall complications in the propensity score-matched group was significantly lower (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99) and the use of COVID-19-specific therapeutics including deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis (83.9% vs 56.9%; P < .001), high-dose corticosteroids (56.1% vs 22.2%; P < .001), remdesivir (61.5% vs 44.5%; P < .001), and tocilizumab (7.9% vs 2.0; P < .001) was significantly higher. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19-dedicated hospitals had multiple benefits, including providing high-volume repetitive treatment and isolating patients with the infection. This experience suggests improved in-hospital mortality for patients treated at dedicated hospitals owing to improved processes of care and supports the use of establishing cohorts for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Special , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Minnesota/epidemiology , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Propensity Score , Quality of Health Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e220536, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1711992

ABSTRACT

Importance: Characterizing rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinated and unvaccinated persons with the same exposure is critical to understanding the association of vaccination with the risk of infection with the Delta variant. Additionally, evidence of Delta variant transmission by children to vaccinated adults has important public health implications. Objective: To characterize transmission and infection of SARS-CoV-2 among vaccinated and unvaccinated attendees of an indoor wedding reception. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included attendees at an indoor wedding reception in Minnesota in July 2021. Data were collected from REDCap surveys and routine surveillance interviews. The full list of attendees and a partial list of emails were obtained. Fifty-seven attendees completed the emailed survey. Eighteen additional attendees were identified from the state health department COVID-19 surveillance database. Exposures: Attendance at an indoor event. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinated and unvaccinated attendees, identification of an index case, whole genome sequencing (WGS) to identify the COVID-19 variant, understanding of transmission patterns, and assessment of secondary transmission. The primary case definition was an individual with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test who attended the wedding in the 14 days prior to their illness. Results: Data were gathered for 75 attendees (mean [SE] age, 37.5 [13.7] years; 57 [76%] female individuals), of whom 56 (75%) were fully vaccinated, 4 (5%) were partially vaccinated, and 15 (20%) were unvaccinated. Of 62 attendees who were tested, 29 (47%) tested positive, including 16 of 46 fully vaccinated attendees (35%), 2 of 4 partially vaccinated attendees (50%), and 11 of 12 unvaccinated attendees (92%). Being unvaccinated was associated with a higher risk of infection compared with being vaccinated (risk ratio, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.71-4.06; P = .001). One unvaccinated adult required hospitalization. An unvaccinated child who was symptomatic on the event date was identified as the index case. Eleven specimens were available for WGS. All sequenced specimens were closely related and were identified as the Delta variant. WGS supported secondary transmission from a vaccinated individual with SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study identified a COVID-19 Delta variant outbreak at an indoor event despite a high proportion of vaccinated attendees. It found that vaccination was associated with a reduced risk of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Middle Aged , Minnesota/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(11): 1100-1104, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700322

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Drastic and rapid changes to medical education are uncommon because of regulations and restrictions designed to ensure consistency among medical school curriculums and to safeguard student well-being. As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, medical education had to break away from its conventions and transition from time-honored teaching methods to innovative solutions. This article explores the anticipated and actual efficacy of the swift conversion of a specialty elective from a traditional in-person format to a fully virtual clerkship. In addition, it includes a noninferiority study to determine where a virtual classroom may excel or fall short in comparison with conventional clinical rotations.


Subject(s)
Clinical Clerkship , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Models, Educational , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/education , Adult , COVID-19 , Curriculum , Educational Measurement , Female , Humans , Male , Minnesota , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Gerontologist ; 62(3): 452-463, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low access to food can have an adverse impact on health yet there is limited research on how it is related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The objective of this study was to (a) better understand how inadequate food access was associated with older adult mortality from COVID-19 and (b) determine the spatial distribution of mortality from low food access utilizing a socio-ecological framework. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study area was the larger Midwest, a region of the United States, which included the following states: Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Data were aggregated from multiple sources at the county-level. Because the spatial data used in this study violated several assumptions of the global regression framework, geographically weighted regression (GWR) was employed. RESULTS: Results from GWR revealed low access to food was positively associated with mortality from COVID-19 for older adults but the association varied in (a) magnitude and (b) significance across the larger Midwest. More specifically, the socio-ecological framework suggested low access to food, female-headed households, and percentage Hispanic played a meaningful role in explaining older adult mortality for the western region of the larger Midwest. This was not as evident for the eastern portion. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Such a finding calls attention to the importance of capturing the local context when devising policies to reduce mortality for older adults from COVID-19. Regional policymakers can collaborate with public health professionals when applying these results to formulate local action plans that recognize variations across geographic space.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Female , Humans , Michigan , Minnesota , Ohio , Pennsylvania , United States/epidemiology
6.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 263-271, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Robust disease and syndromic surveillance tools are underdeveloped in the United States, as evidenced by limitations and heterogeneity in sociodemographic data collection throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. To monitor the COVID-19 pandemic in Minnesota, we developed a federated data network in March 2020 using electronic health record (EHR) data from 8 multispecialty health systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this serial cross-sectional study, we examined patients of all ages who received a COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test, had symptoms of a viral illness, or received an influenza test from January 3, 2016, through November 7, 2020. We evaluated COVID-19 testing rates among patients with symptoms of viral illness and percentage positivity among all patients tested, in aggregate and by zip code. We stratified results by patient and area-level characteristics. RESULTS: Cumulative COVID-19 positivity rates were similar for people aged 12-64 years (range, 15.1%-17.6%) but lower for adults aged ≥65 years (range, 9.3%-10.7%). We found notable racial and ethnic disparities in positivity rates early in the pandemic, whereas COVID-19 positivity was similarly elevated across most racial and ethnic groups by the end of 2020. Positivity rates remained substantially higher among Hispanic patients compared with other racial and ethnic groups throughout the study period. We found similar trends across area-level income and rurality, with disparities early in the pandemic converging over time. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: We rapidly developed a distributed data network across Minnesota to monitor the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings highlight the utility of using EHR data to monitor the current pandemic as well as future public health priorities. Building partnerships with public health agencies can help ensure data streams are flexible and tailored to meet the changing needs of decision makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Data Collection/methods , Electronic Health Records/organization & administration , Program Development , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Minnesota/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , Social Determinants of Health
7.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625724

ABSTRACT

Bats are a reservoir for coronaviruses (CoVs) that periodically spill over to humans, as evidenced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2. A collection of 174 bat samples originating from South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, and Nebraska submitted for rabies virus testing due to human exposure were analyzed using a pan-coronavirus PCR. A previously partially characterized CoV, Eptesicus bat CoV, was identified in 12 (6.9%) samples by nested RT-PCR. Six near-complete genomes were determined. Genetic analysis found a high similarity between all CoV-positive samples, Rocky Mountain bat CoV 65 and alphacoronavirus HCQD-2020 recently identified in South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences showed EbCoV is closely related to bat CoV HKU2 and swine acute diarrhea syndrome CoV; however, topological incongruences were noted for the spike gene that was more closely related to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Similar to some alphaCoVs, a novel gene, ORF7, was discovered downstream of the nucleocapsid, whose protein lacked similarity to known proteins. The widespread circulation of EbCoV with similarities to bat viruses that have spilled over to swine warrants further surveillance.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Phylogeny , Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , Genome, Viral , Iowa , Midwestern United States , Minnesota , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , South Dakota , Viral Zoonoses/transmission
8.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 352-361, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622163

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to assess an intervention that was created by a community-academic partnership to address COVID-19 health inequities. We evaluated a community-engaged bidirectional pandemic crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC) framework with immigrant and refugee populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A 17-year community-engaged research partnership adopted a CERC framework in March 2020 to address COVID-19 prevention, testing, and socioeconomic impacts with immigrant and refugee groups in southeast Minnesota. The partnership used bidirectional communication between communication leaders and their social networks to refine messages, leverage resources, and advise policy makers. We conducted a mixed-methods evaluation for intervention acceptability, feasibility, reach, adaptation, and sustainability through multisource data, including email communications, work group notes, semistructured interviews, and focus groups. RESULTS: The intervention reached at least 39 000 people in 9 months. It was implemented as intended and perceived efficacy was high. Frequent communication between community and academic partners allowed the team to respond rapidly to concerns and facilitated connection of community members to resources. Framework implementation also led to systems and policy changes to meet the needs of immigrant and refugee populations. CONCLUSIONS: Community-engaged CERC is feasible and sustainable and can reduce COVID-19 disparities through shared creation and dissemination of public health messages, enhanced connection to existing resources, and incorporation of community perspectives in regional pandemic mitigation policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Community Participation/methods , Community-Based Participatory Research/organization & administration , Emigrants and Immigrants , Health Communication/methods , Program Evaluation , Refugees , Humans , Minnesota , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211056595, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic has unfolded, understanding the virus and necessary measures to prevent infection have evolved. While effective preventative measures for COVID-19 have been identified, there are also identifiable barriers to implementation. OBJECTIVE: Explore the access to information, knowledge, and prevention methods and barriers of COVID-19 among Somali, Karen, and Latinx immigrant community members in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA through analysis of in-depth interviews. METHODS: Data were collected through 32 interviews via phone, video conference on a computer, or in-person with Somali, Karen, and Latinx adults to understand the experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic in each group's native language. All participants were over the age of 18, and identified as Somali, Karen, and Latinx refugee or immigrant. Interview protocol contained 9 main questions including probes. Data were analyzed through use of the qualitative analysis software, Atlas.ti using phenomenology. RESULTS: A total of 32 adults were interviewed (Somali = 12, Karen = 10, and Latinx = 10). One-third were in person and the remainder were remote. The average age recorded was 37 years (range 20-66 years), 43.8% males and 56.3% females. Somali, Karen, and Latinx respondents consistently had accurate knowledge about COVID-19 and were attentive to finding trustworthy information. Information was available in Somali, Karen, and Latinx written language, although Karen elders who are not literate would benefit more from video messaging. Knowledge of preventive measures was consistent; however, barriers included access, working in front-line positions, and living in high density housing. CONCLUSION: Exploring the impact of COVID-19 on Somali, Karen, and Latinx community members in Minneapolis, MN is advantageous in removing identified barriers and disparities in health. The results of this study highlight the need for increased efforts to address barriers in the prevention of COVID-19, as well as future pandemics for immigrant and refugee populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Language , Male , Middle Aged , Minnesota , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Somalia , Young Adult
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6611-6618, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544309

ABSTRACT

The objective of this longitudinal cohort study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in healthcare workers employed at healthcare settings in three rural counties in eastern South Dakota and western Minnesota from May 13, 2020, through December 22, 2020. Three blood draws were performed at five clinical sites and tested for the presence of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2. Serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies using a fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA), neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 spike-pseudotyped particles (SARS-CoV-2pp) assay, and serum virus neutralization (SVN) assay. The seroprevalence was determined to be 1/336 (0.29%) for samples collected from 5/13/20 to 7/13/20, 5/260 (1.92%) for samples collected from 8/13/20 to 9/25/20, and 35/235 (14.89%) for samples collected from 10/16/20 to 12/22/20. Eight of the 35 (22.8%) seropositive individuals identified in the final draw did not report a previous diagnosis with COVID-19. There was a high correlation (>90%) between the FMIA and virus neutralization assays. Each clinical site's seroprevalence was higher than the cumulative incidence for the general public in the respective county as reported by state public health agencies. As of December 2020, there was a high percentage (85%) of seronegative individuals in the study population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Rural Health Services/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Minnesota/epidemiology , Neutralization Tests , Seroepidemiologic Studies , South Dakota/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(2): 363-369, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads rapidly amongst residents of skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). The rapid transmission dynamics and high morbidity and mortality that occur in SNFs emphasize the need for early detection of cases. We hypothesized that residents of SNFs infected with SARS-CoV-2 would demonstrate an acute change in either temperature or oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) prior to symptom onset. The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) conducted a retrospective analysis of both temperature and SpO2 at two separate SNFs to assess the utility of these quantitative markers to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to the development of symptoms. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 165 individuals positive for SARS-CoV-2 who were residents of SNFs that experienced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks during April-June 2020 in a metropolitan area of Minnesota. Age, sex, symptomology, temperature and SpO2 values, date of symptom onset, and date of positive SARS-CoV-2 test were analyzed. Temperature and SpO2 values for the period 14 days before and after the date of initial positive test were included. Descriptive analyses evaluated changes in temperature and SpO2 , defined as either exceeding a set threshold or demonstrating an acute change between consecutive measurements. RESULTS: Two (1%) residents had a temperature value ≥100°F, and 30 (18%) had at least one value ≥99°F within 14 days before symptom development. One hundred and sixteen residents (70%) had at least one SpO2 value ≤94%, while 131 (80%) had an acute decrease in SpO2 of ≥3% between consecutive values in the 14 days prior to symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that acute change in SpO2 might be useful in the identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to the development of symptoms among residents living in SNFs. Facilities may consider adding SpO2 to daily temperature and symptom screening checklists to improve early detection of residents of SNFs infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Prodromal Symptoms , Skilled Nursing Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Temperature , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Minnesota , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21368, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493221

ABSTRACT

There is a need for wastewater based epidemiological (WBE) methods that integrate multiple, variously sized surveillance sites across geographic areas. We developed a novel indexing method, Melvin's Index, that provides a normalized and standardized metric of wastewater pathogen load for qPCR assays that is resilient to surveillance site variation. To demonstrate the utility of Melvin's Index, we used qRT-PCR to measure SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA levels in influent wastewater from 19 municipal wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF's) of varying sizes and served populations across the state of Minnesota during the Summer of 2020. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected at each WWTF during the 20-week sampling period at a mean concentration of 8.5 × 104 genome copies/L (range 3.2 × 102-1.2 × 109 genome copies/L). Lag analysis of trends in Melvin's Index values and clinical COVID-19 cases showed that increases in indexed wastewater SARS-CoV-2 levels precede new clinical cases by 15-17 days at the statewide level and by up to 25 days at the regional/county level. Melvin's Index is a reliable WBE method and can be applied to both WWTFs that serve a wide range of population sizes and to large regions that are served by multiple WWTFs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Suburban Population , Urban Population , Waste Disposal Facilities , Waste Water/virology , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Water Purification , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Minnesota/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Risk Factors
13.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(11): 1100-1104, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483693

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Drastic and rapid changes to medical education are uncommon because of regulations and restrictions designed to ensure consistency among medical school curriculums and to safeguard student well-being. As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, medical education had to break away from its conventions and transition from time-honored teaching methods to innovative solutions. This article explores the anticipated and actual efficacy of the swift conversion of a specialty elective from a traditional in-person format to a fully virtual clerkship. In addition, it includes a noninferiority study to determine where a virtual classroom may excel or fall short in comparison with conventional clinical rotations.


Subject(s)
Clinical Clerkship , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Models, Educational , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/education , Adult , COVID-19 , Curriculum , Educational Measurement , Female , Humans , Male , Minnesota , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(10): 1644-1653, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480468

ABSTRACT

Substantial racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 mortality have been observed at the state and national levels. However, less is known about how race and ethnicity and neighborhood-level disadvantage may intersect to contribute to both COVID-19 mortality and excess mortality during the pandemic. To assess this potential interaction of race and ethnicity with neighborhood disadvantage, we link death certificate data from Minnesota from the period 2017-20 to the Area Deprivation Index to examine hyperlocal disparities in mortality. Black, Indigenous, and people of color (BIPOC) standardized COVID-19 mortality was 459 deaths per 100,000 population in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods compared with 126 per 100,000 in the most advantaged. Total mortality increased in 2020 by 14 percent for non-Hispanic White people and 41 percent for BIPOC. Statistical decompositions show that most of this growth in racial and ethnic disparity is associated with mortality gaps between White people and communities of color within the same levels of area disadvantage, rather than with the fact that White people live in more advantaged areas. Policy interventions to reduce COVID-19 mortality must consider neighborhood context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Minnesota/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 33(10): 1105-1109, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434038

ABSTRACT

Delirium is reported to be one of the manifestations of coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. COVID-19 hospitalized patients are at a higher risk of delirium. Pathophysiology behind the association of delirium and COVID-19 is uncertain. We analyzed the association of delirium occurrence with outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, across all age groups, at Mayo Clinic hospitals.A retrospective study of all hospitalized COVID-19 patients at Mayo Clinic between March 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020 was performed. Occurrence of delirium and outcomes of mortality, length of stay, readmission, and 30-day mortality after hospital discharge were measured. Chi-square test, student t-test, survival analysis, and logistic regression analysis were performed to measure and compare outcomes of delirium group adjusted for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity score, and COVID-19 severity with no-delirium group.A total of 4351 COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Delirium occurrence in the overall study population was noted to be 22.4%. The highest occurrence of delirium was also noted in patients with critical COVID-19 illness severity. A statistically significant OR 4.35 (3.27-5.83) for in-hospital mortality and an OR 4.54 (3.25-6.38) for 30-day mortality after discharge in the delirium group were noted. Increased hospital length of stay, 30-day readmission, and need for skilled nursing facility on discharge were noted in the delirium group. Delirium in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is a marker for increased mortality and morbidity. In this group, outcomes appear to be much worse when patients are older and have a critical severity of COVID-19 illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Delirium/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Delirium/complications , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Minnesota/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(43): 1605-1610, 2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389857

ABSTRACT

Health care personnel (HCP) are at increased risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as a result of their exposure to patients or community contacts with COVID-19 (1,2). Since the first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Minnesota was reported on March 6, 2020, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) has required health care facilities* to report HCP† exposures to persons with confirmed COVID-19 for exposure risk assessment and to enroll HCP with higher-risk exposures into quarantine and symptom monitoring. During March 6-July 11, MDH and 1,217 partnering health care facilities assessed 21,406 HCP exposures; among these, 5,374 (25%) were classified as higher-risk§ (3). Higher-risk exposures involved direct patient care (66%) and nonpatient care interactions (e.g., with coworkers and social and household contacts) (34%). Within 14 days following a higher-risk exposure, nearly one third (31%) of HCP who were enrolled in monitoring reported COVID-19-like symptoms,¶ and more than one half (52%) of enrolled HCP with symptoms received positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. Among all HCP with higher-risk exposures, irrespective of monitoring enrollment, 7% received positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. Compared with HCP with higher-risk exposures working in acute care settings, those working in congregate living or long-term care settings more often returned to work (57%), worked while symptomatic (5%), and received a positive test result (10%) during 14-day postexposure monitoring than did HCP working outside of such settings. These data highlight the need for awareness of nonpatient care SARS-CoV-2 exposure risks and for targeted interventions to protect HCP, in addition to residents, in congregate living and long-term care settings. To minimize exposure risk among HCP, health care facilities need improved infection prevention and control, consistent personal protective equipment (PPE) availability and use, flexible sick leave, and SARS-CoV-2 testing access. All health care organizations and HCP should be aware of potential exposure risk from coworkers, household members, and social contacts.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Middle Aged , Minnesota/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Risk Assessment , Young Adult
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(10): 346-347, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389864

ABSTRACT

Since December 2020, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) Public Health Laboratory has been receiving 100 specimens per week (50 from each of two clinical partners) with low cycle threshold (Ct) values for routine surveillance for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. On January 25, 2021, MDH identified the SARS-CoV-2 variant P.1 in one specimen through this surveillance system using whole genome sequencing, representing the first identified case of this variant in the United States. The P.1 variant was first identified in travelers from Brazil during routine airport screening in Tokyo, Japan, in early January 2021 (1). This variant has been associated with increased transmissibility (2), and there are concerns that mutations in the spike protein receptor-binding domain might disrupt both vaccine-induced and natural immunity (3,4). As of February 28, 2021, a total of 10 P.1 cases had been identified in the United States, including the two cases described in this report, followed by one case each in Alaska, Florida, Maryland, and Oklahoma (5).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Minnesota/epidemiology , Travel-Related Illness , United States/epidemiology
19.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 771-780, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous COVID-19 pandemic research has focused on assessing the severity of psychological responses to pandemic-related stressors. Little is understood about (a) resilience as a mental health protective factor during these stressors, and (b) whether families from Eastern and Western cultures cope differently. This study examines how individual resilience and family resilience moderate the associations between pandemic-related stressors and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress in two culturally distinct regions. METHODS: A total of 1,039 adults (442 from Minnesota, United States, and 597 from Hong Kong) living with at least one family member completed an online survey about COVID-19-related experiences, mental health, individual resilience and family resilience from May 20 to June 30, 2020. Predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms were examined separately using hierarchical regression analyses. RESULTS: In both regions, pandemic-related stressors predicted higher symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Individual resilience and two domains of family resilience were associated with positive mental health. In Minnesota, higher levels of individual resilience buffered the negative relationship between pandemic-related stressors and depressive symptoms; higher levels of family communication and problem solving also buffered the negative relationship between pandemic-related stressors and stress symptoms. In Hong Kong, higher family-level positive outlook magnified the negative relationship between pandemic-related stressors and anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Individual and family resilience is protective against the adverse psychological effects of pandemic stressors, but they vary across cultures and as exposure to pandemic-related stressors increases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Depression/epidemiology , Family Health , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Minnesota/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
20.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 32(3): 1096-1101, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369548

ABSTRACT

Psychologists housed in two family medicine residency clinics located in underserved communities quickly transitioned their mode of psychotherapy from in-person to completely virtual at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. We share numerous successes and advantages of a telehealth model in serving our community and describe challenges we have encountered.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Medically Underserved Area , Psychotherapy , Telemedicine , Behavior Therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Minnesota/epidemiology , Pandemics , Videoconferencing
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