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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 104, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The approved COVID-19 vaccines have shown great promise in reducing disease transmission and severity of outcomes. However, the success of the COVID-19 vaccine rollout is dependent on public acceptance and willingness to be vaccinated. In this study, we aim to examine how the attitude towards public sector officials and the government impact vaccine willingness. The secondary aim is to understand the impact of ethnicity on vaccine-willingness after we explicitly account for trust in public institutions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from a UK population based longitudinal household survey (Understanding Society COVID-19 study, Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study) between April 2020-January 2021. Data from 22,421 participants in Waves 6 and 7 of the study were included after excluding missing data. Demographic details in addition to previous survey responses relating to public sector/governmental trust were included as covariates in the main analysis. A logit model was produced to describe the association between public sector/governmental mistrust and the willingness for vaccination with interaction terms included to account for ethnicity/socio-economic status. RESULTS: In support of existing literature, we identified those from BAME groups were more likely to be unwilling to take the COVID-19 vaccine. We found that positive opinions towards public sector officials (OR 2.680: 95% CI 1.888 - 3.805) and the UK government (OR 3.400; 95% CI 2.454-4.712) led to substantive increase in vaccine willingness. Most notably we identified this effect to vary across ethnicity and socio-economic status with those from South Asian background (OR 4.513; 95% CI 1.012-20.123) and possessing a negative attitude towards public officials and the government being the most unwilling to be vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggests that trust in public sector officials play a key factor in the low vaccination rates particularly seen in at-risk groups. Given the additional morbidity/mortality risk posed by COVID-19 to those from lower socio-economic or ethnic minority backgrounds, there needs to be urgent public health action to review how to tailor health promotion advice given to these groups and examine methods to improve trust in public sector officials and the government.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom , Vaccination
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053327, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627515

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify the key individual-level (demographics, attitudes, mobility) and contextual (COVID-19 case numbers, tiers of mobility restrictions, urban districts) determinants of adopting the NHS COVID-19 contact tracing app and continued use overtime. DESIGN AND SETTING: A three-wave panel survey conducted in England in July 2020 (background survey), November 2020 (first measure of app adoption) and March 2021 (continued use of app and new adopters) linked with official data. PARTICIPANTS: N=2500 adults living in England, representative of England's population in terms of regional distribution, age and gender (2011 census). PRIMARY OUTCOME: Repeated measures of self-reported app usage. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Multilevel logistic regression linking a range of individual level (from survey) and contextual (from linked data) determinants to app usage. RESULTS: We observe initial app uptake at 41%, 95% CI (0.39% to 0.43%), and a 12% drop-out rate by March 2021, 95% CI (0.10% to 0.14%). We also found that 7% of nonusers as of wave 2 became new adopters by wave 3, 95% CI (0.05% to 0.08%). Initial uptake (or failure to use) of the app associated with social norms, privacy concerns and misinformation about third-party data access, with those living in postal districts with restrictions on mobility less likely to use the app. Perceived lack of transparent evidence of effectiveness was associated with drop-out of use. In addition, those who trusted the government were more likely to adopt in wave 3 as new adopters. CONCLUSIONS: Successful uptake of the contact tracing app should be evaluated within the wider context of the UK Government's response to the crisis. Trust in government is key to adoption of the app in wave 3 while continued use is linked to perceptions of transparent evidence. Providing clear information to address privacy concerns could increase uptake, however, the disparities in continued use among ethnic minority participants needs further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Adult , Contact Tracing , Humans , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , Semantic Web
3.
Pediatrics ; 149(1)2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626689

ABSTRACT

A physician workforce that reflects the patient population is associated with improved patient outcomes and promotes health equity. Notwithstanding, racial and ethnic disparities persist within US medical schools, making some individuals underrepresented in medicine (URM). We sought to increase the percentage of URM residents who matched into our pediatric residency programs from a baseline of 5% to 35% to achieve demographic parity with our patients. We developed a multifaceted approach using multiple iterative tests of change, with the primary strategy being increased visibility of URM trainees and faculty to residency applicants. Strategies included applicant interviews with URM faculty, interview dinners with URM residents, visibility at academic conferences for URM trainees, development of targeted marketing materials, and a visiting student program supported by networking with URM residents. The primary outcome measure was the percentage of matched residents in the categorical pediatrics, child neurology, and medical genetics training programs who identified as URM. The percentage of URM residents increased to 16% (6 of 37) in 2018, 26% (11 of 43) in 2019, 19% (8 of 43) in 2020, and 21% (9 of 43) in 2021 (a four-year average of 22% URM residents; P = .0002). This progress toward a more representative residency program was met by challenges, such as pipeline concerns, the minority tax, and recruitment during a pandemic. We were able to implement small, low-resource strategies that had a large cumulative impact and could be implemented in other residency programs. Specific tactics and challenges encountered are discussed in this special article.


Subject(s)
Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Pediatrics/education , Program Development , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Equity , Humans , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pediatricians/supply & distribution , United States/epidemiology
4.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(1): 79-85, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604045

ABSTRACT

Analysis of Current Population Survey data suggests a tightening labor market for registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nursing assistants, marked by falling employment and rising wages through June 2021. Unemployment rates remain higher in nonhospital settings and among registered nurses and nursing assistants who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Employment , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(1): 1-3, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593023

ABSTRACT

It is impossible to write this editorial without recognizing that we are living in challenging times. Unprecedented changes in how, when, where, and with whom we work have occurred in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to the threat to human life, the pandemic is expected to increase poverty and deepen preexisting inequalities for vulnerable groups such as women (United Nations, 2020) and individuals living in poorer countries (United Nations Development Programme, 2020). In the United States, the pandemic has disproportionately negatively affected racial and ethnic minority group members (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/race-ethnicity.html). For example, in the United States infection and mortality rates are especially high among African Americans (Yancy, 2020). These sobering realities, along with the recent deaths of George Floyd, Ahmaud Arbery, and Breonna Taylor, and so many others, are vivid and wrenching reminders of longstanding social injustice and systematic racism, both in the United States and around the globe. When preparing my candidate statement and vision for the journal, a global pandemic and widespread social protest were the furthest thing from my mind. However, several aspects of my vision for JAP are highly relevant to the current context. This includes increasing representation and supporting diversity, as well as improving the translation of our science for the public good. Other elements of my vision for the journal include enhancing the review process and promoting open science. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Poverty/psychology , Psychology, Applied/methods , Racism/psychology , Social Justice/psychology , /psychology , Humans , Minority Groups/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e053396, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594465

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To gain exploratory insights into the multifaceted, lived experience impact of COVID-19 on a small sample of ethnic minority healthcare staff to cocreate a module of questions for follow-up online surveys on the well-being of healthcare staff during the pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design using two online focus groups among ethnic minority healthcare workers who worked in care or supportive roles in a hospital, community health or primary care setting for at least 12 months. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen healthcare workers (11 female) aged 26-62 years from diverse ethnic minority backgrounds, 11 working in clinical roles. RESULTS: Five primary thematic domains emerged: (1) viral vulnerability, centring around perceived individual risk and vulnerability perceptions; (2) risk assessment, comprising pressures to comply, perception of a tick-box exercise and issues with risk and resource stratification; (3) interpersonal relations in the workplace, highlighting deficient consultation of ethnic minority staff, cultural insensitivity, need for support and collegiate judgement; (4) lived experience of racial inequality, consisting of job insecurity and the exacerbation of systemic racism and its emotional burden; (5) community attitudes, including public prejudice and judgement, and patient appreciation. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel study has shown ethnic minority National Health Service (NHS) staff have experienced COVID-19 in a complex, multidimensional manner. Future research with a larger sample should further examine the complexity of these experiences and should enumerate the extent to which these varied thematic experiences are shared among ethnic minority NHS workers so that more empathetic and supportive management and related occupational practices can be instituted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , State Medicine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e052646, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591557

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine magnitude of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on inequalities in premature mortality in England by deprivation and ethnicity. DESIGN: A statistical model to estimate increased mortality in population subgroups during the COVID-19 pandemic by comparing observed with expected mortality in each group based on trends over the previous 5 years. SETTING: Information on deaths registered in England since 2015 was used, including age, sex, area of residence and cause of death. Ethnicity was obtained from Hospital Episode Statistics records linked to death data. PARTICIPANTS: Population study of England, including all 569 824 deaths from all causes registered between 21 March 2020 and 26 February 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Excess mortality in each subgroup over and above the number expected based on trends in mortality in that group over the previous 5 years. RESULTS: The gradient in excess mortality by area deprivation was greater in the under 75s (the most deprived areas had 1.25 times as many deaths as expected, least deprived 1.14) than in all ages (most deprived had 1.24 times as many deaths as expected, least deprived 1.20). Among the black and Asian groups, all area deprivation quintiles had significantly larger excesses than white groups in the most deprived quintiles and there were no clear gradients across quintiles. Among the white group, only those in the most deprived quintile had more excess deaths than deaths directly involving COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has widened inequalities in premature mortality by area deprivation. Among those under 75, the direct and indirect effects of the pandemic on deaths have disproportionately impacted ethnic minority groups irrespective of area deprivation, and the white group the most deprived areas. Statistics limited to deaths directly involving COVID-19 understate the pandemic's impact on inequalities by area deprivation and ethnic group at younger ages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , England/epidemiology , Humans , Minority Groups , Mortality , Mortality, Premature , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 743003, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581124

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has revealed existing health inequalities in racial and ethnic minority groups in the US. This work investigates and quantifies the non-uniform effects of geographical location and other known risk factors on various ethnic groups during the COVID-19 pandemic at a national level. To quantify the geographical impact on various ethnic groups, we grouped all the states of the US. into four different regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West) and considered Non-Hispanic White (NHW), Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), Hispanic, Non-Hispanic Asian (NHA) as ethnic groups of our interest. Our analysis showed that infection and mortality among NHB and Hispanics are considerably higher than NHW. In particular, the COVID-19 infection rate in the Hispanic community was significantly higher than their population share, a phenomenon we observed across all regions in the US but is most prominent in the West. To gauge the differential impact of comorbidities on different ethnicities, we performed cross-sectional regression analyses of statewide data for COVID-19 infection and mortality for each ethnic group using advanced age, poverty, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes as risk factors. After removing the risk factors causing multicollinearity, poverty emerged as one of the independent risk factors in explaining mortality rates in NHW, NHB, and Hispanic communities. Moreover, for NHW and NHB groups, we found that obesity encapsulated the effect of several other comorbidities such as advanced age, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. At the same time, advanced age was the most robust predictor of mortality in the Hispanic group. Our study quantifies the unique impact of various risk factors on different ethnic groups, explaining the ethnicity-specific differences observed in the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings could provide insight into focused public health strategies and interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
10.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1905918, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576028

ABSTRACT

In the USA, numerous summer programs are available for undergraduate students that seek to increase the number of individuals from groups underrepresented in medicine (URM) that matriculate to medical school. These programs have typically been conducted at research-focused institutions, involving hands-on-research and various enrichment experiences. For 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the suspension of on-campus student activities at American universities, necessitating a switch to a virtual format for these URM-focused programs. Outcomes, however, from these programs conducted virtually, necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, have not been reported. The Penn Access Summer Scholars (PASS) program at the Perelman School of Medicine (PSOM) targets URM undergraduates, providing two consecutive summers of mentored research and enrichment experiences, with the goal of enabling participants' matriculation to PSOM. PASS has been an 8 week on-campus experience, but during summer 2020, virtual programming of 6 weeks was provided due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants in the 2020 virtual offering of PASS completed pre- and post-program surveys that included 5-point Likert-style and open-ended questions to determine the impact of the programing on self-assessments of research skills, familiarity with the physician identity, and preparedness to be a PSOM student. Post-program, participants also assessed program administration and content. With respect to program objectives, participants reported significant increases in their self-reported confidence in conducting research, understanding of physician identity, and sense of preparedness for medical school. The educational value of the program content, their level of engagement in the program and the overall quality of the program were rated as excellent or outstanding by large majorities of respondents. Content analyses of participant comments were consistent with these quantitative results. Therefore, a premedical summer enrichment program targeting URM undergraduates can be successfully conducted virtually to achieve program objectives and may increase the availability to these initiatives.


Subject(s)
Mentors , Minority Groups , Research/education , Students, Premedical , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pennsylvania , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Medical , Self Report , Universities
11.
Popul Stud (Camb) ; 75(sup1): 179-199, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569371

ABSTRACT

Despite common perceptions to the contrary, pandemic diseases do not affect populations indiscriminately. In this paper, we review literature produced by demographers, historians, epidemiologists, and other researchers on disparities during the 1918-20 influenza pandemic and the Covid-19 pandemic. Evidence from these studies demonstrates that lower socio-economic status and minority/stigmatized race or ethnicity are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. However, such research often lacks theoretical frameworks or appropriate data to explain the mechanisms underlying these disparities fully. We suggest using a framework that considers proximal and distal factors contributing to differential exposure, susceptibility, and consequences as one way to move this research forward. Further, current pandemic preparedness plans emphasize medically defined risk groups and epidemiological approaches. Therefore, we conclude by arguing in favour of a transdisciplinary paradigm that recognizes socially defined risk groups, includes input from the social sciences and humanities and other diverse perspectives, and contributes to the reduction of health disparities before a pandemic hits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1949, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While previous studies have examined the relationships between social support and health care accessibility among ethnic minority populations, studies on Korean Americans remain scarce. Therefore, this study aims to assess the relationship between Korean Americans' mental health, accessibility to health care, and how they perceive the level of social support during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD/RESULT: We distributed online surveys to Korean Americans from May 24, 2020, to June 14, 2020, generating 790 responses from participants residing in 42 states. Binary Logistic and Ordinary Least Square regression analyses revealed that poor mental health was associated with language barriers inhibiting Korean Americans' access to COVID-19-related information. Their perceived social support from family members and close friends was positively associated with mental health. CONCLUSION: Our findings recommend that equipping community health care services with translators or interpreters is necessary. Additionally, health practitioners and staff should be trained to utilize telehealth tools to effectively treat individuals with mental health problems. American policymakers and health care professionals need to understand and address the unique hardships Korean Americans experience amid COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Asian Americans , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status , Humans , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Social Work , United States/epidemiology
13.
Clin Imaging ; 82: 224-227, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559395

ABSTRACT

Disparities in screening mammography and barriers to accessing breast cancer screening are most prevalent among racial/ethnic minority and low-income women. The significant breast cancer mortality rates experienced in both Hispanic and African American populations are found to be connected to delayed screening. For these women to follow the screening guidelines outlined by the American College of Radiology and Society of Breast Imaging, they must successfully navigate existing barriers to screening. These barriers include differential access to care, language barriers, and lack of medical insurance. The COVID-19 Pandemic has worsened the barriers to breast cancer screening faced by these groups of women. These barriers need to be addressed or they may further exacerbate disparities.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mammography , Mass Screening , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 222: 103458, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549619

ABSTRACT

Risk perceptions are important influences on health behaviours. We used descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models to assess cross-sectionally risk perceptions for severe Covid-19 symptoms and their health behaviour correlates among 2206 UK adults from the HEBECO study. The great majority (89-99%) classified age 70+, having comorbidities, being a key worker, overweight, and from an ethnic minority as increasing the risk. People were less sure about alcohol drinking, vaping, and nicotine replacement therapy use (17.4-29.5% responding 'don't know'). Relative to those who did not, those who engaged in the following behaviours had higher odds of classifying these behaviours as (i) decreasing the risk: smoking cigarettes (adjusted odds ratios, aORs, 95% CI = 2.26, 1.39-3.37), and using e-cigarettes (aORs = 5.80, 3.25-10.34); (ii) having no impact: smoking cigarettes (1.98; 1.42-2.76), using e-cigarettes (aORs = 2.63, 1.96-3.50), drinking alcohol (aORs = 1.75, 1.31-2.33); and lower odds of classifying these as increasing the risk: smoking cigarettes (aORs: 0.43, 0.32-0.56), using e-cigarettes (aORs = 0.25, 0.18-0.35). Similarly, eating more fruit and vegetables was associated with classifying unhealthy diet as 'increasing risk' (aOR = 1.37, 1.12-1.69), and exercising more with classifying regular physical activity as 'decreasing risk' (aOR = 2.42, 1.75-3.34). Risk perceptions for severe Covid-19 among UK adults were lower for their own health behaviours, evidencing optimism bias. These risk perceptions may form barriers to changing people's own unhealthy behaviours, make them less responsive to interventions that refer to the risk of Covid-19 as a motivating factor, and exacerbate inequalities in health behaviours and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Cessation , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Behavior , Humans , Minority Groups , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices
15.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(5): 2028-2031, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545672

ABSTRACT

This viewpoint article describes an effective model for creating and sustaining an affinity group for undergraduate and graduate students from racial and ethnic backgrounds historically underrepresented in the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association who are enrolled in communication sciences and disorders (CSD) programs at predominantly White institutions (PWIs). The Speech-Language Therapy & Audiology Minority Program (STAMP) at Nazareth College is an affinity group and mentorship program for undergraduate and graduate students, CSD program alumni, and area professionals who identify as minorities. Affinity groups have been shown to increase the sense of belonging of minority students at PWIs. At Nazareth College, we have observed this as students who participate in STAMP have reported that the program contributes to their feeling of belonging in the CSD department and at the institution and provides them with a safe place where they can share and discuss their experiences as minorities at a PWI. Additionally, our students have reported that participating in this affinity group supports their academic and clinical success and helps them manage their stress. By sharing our model for creating an affinity group for underrepresented CSD students at a PWI, we hope to encourage the establishment and support of groups like STAMP in CSD programs across the country. Considerations for departments considering starting their own affinity groups are discussed. STAMP, and other affinity groups, have the potential to grow by facilitating constructive discussion and collective action toward issues that significantly impact students from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds.


Subject(s)
Minority Groups , Communication , Humans , Students , United States , Universities
16.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 263: 106-116, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544979

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-2 which causes COVID-19 disease results in severe morbidity and mortality especially in vulnerable groups. Pregnancy by virtue of its physiological and anatomical adaptations increases the risk of severe infections especially those of the respiratory tract. This single stranded RNA virus is transmitted by droplets as well as soiled fomites. There are various degrees of disease severity- asymptomatic, mild, moderate severe and critical. Most infections in pregnancy are asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. For these women, the consequences on the mother or pregnancy are minimal unless they have additional risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiorespiratory disease, obesity or are of ethnic minority background. Most women with symptoms will present with fever, unproductive cough, sore throat, myalgia, nasal congestion, loss of smell and taste with associated leukocytosis and lymphopenia. Diagnosis is by RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal flocked swabs or saliva and pathognomonic features of ground-glass appearance and pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray or CT scans. Management in pregnancy is same as that for non-pregnant women with COVID-19. It is not an indication for elective delivery but assisted delivery in the second stage for those with moderate, severe or critical disease may be required to shorten this stage. COVID-19 is not an indication for interrupting pregnancy or caesarean section but the latter may be performed to facilitate ventilation support or resuscitation in those with severe disease. Pain relief in labour should not be different but regional analgesia is preferred for operative deliveries. Postpartum thromboprophylaxis should be considered and breast feeding encouraged with appropriate precautions to minimize vertical transmission. Pregnant and lactating women should be encouraged to receive the mRNA based vaccines as there is no evidence of adverse outcomes with these.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Lactation , Minority Groups , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 248, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic shows the presence of health disparities, especially in terms of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence on the association of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) with health outcomes and access to healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We retrieved published evidence from late December 2019 through March 1, 2021. The target population was the population of the countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. The exposures were defined as belonging to racial/ethnic minority groups and/or low SES. The primary outcomes of interest include (1) death from COVID-19, (2) COVID-19 incidence/infection, (3) COVID-19 hospitalization, (4) ICU admission, (5) need for mechanical ventilation, (6) confirmed diagnosis, and (7) access to testing. We systematically synthesized the findings from different studies and provided a narrative explanation of the results. RESULTS: After removing the duplicate results and screening for relevant titles and abstracts, 77 studies were selected for full-text review. Finally, 52 studies were included in the review. The majority of the studies were from the United States (37 studies). Despite the significant incongruity among the studies, most of them showed that racial/ethnic minority groups had higher risks of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, confirmed diagnosis, and death. Additionally, most of the studies cited factors such as low level of education, poverty, poor housing conditions, low household income, speaking in a language other than the national language in a country, and living in overcrowded households as risk factors of COVID-19 incidence/infection, death, and confirmed diagnosis. However, findings in terms of the association of lack of health insurance coverage and unemployment with the outcome measures as well as the association of requiring mechanical ventilation, ICU admission, and access to testing for COVID-19 with race/ethnicity were limited and inconsistent. CONCLUSION: It is evident that racial/ethnic minority groups and those from low SES are more vulnerable to COVID-19; therefore, public health policymakers, practitioners, and clinicians should be aware of these inequalities and strive to narrow the gap by focusing on vulnerable populations. This systematic review also revealed a major incongruity in the definition of the racial/ethnic minority groups and SES among the studies. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020190105.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , United States/epidemiology
19.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1116-1126, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525995

ABSTRACT

Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA were the first population to be identified with AIDS and continue to be at very high risk of HIV acquisition. We did a systematic literature search to identify the factors that explain the reasons for the ongoing epidemic in this population, using a social-ecological perspective. Common features of the HIV epidemic in American MSM include role versatility and biological, individual, and social and structural factors. The high-prevalence networks of some racial and ethnic minority men are further concentrated because of assortative mixing, adverse life experiences (including high rates of incarceration), and avoidant behaviour because of negative interactions with the health-care system. Young MSM have additional risks for HIV because their impulse control is less developed and they are less familiar with serostatus and other risk mitigation discussions. They might benefit from prevention efforts that use digital technologies, which they often use to meet partners and obtain health-related information. Older MSM remain at risk of HIV and are the largest population of US residents with chronic HIV, requiring culturally responsive programmes that address longer-term comorbidities. Transgender MSM are an understudied population, but emerging data suggest that some are at great risk of HIV and require specifically tailored information on HIV prevention. In the current era of pre-exposure prophylaxis and the undetectable equals untransmittable campaign, training of health-care providers to create culturally competent programmes for all MSM is crucial, since the use of antiretrovirals is foundational to optimising HIV care and prevention. Effective control of the HIV epidemic among all American MSM will require scaling up programmes that address their common vulnerabilities, but are sufficiently nuanced to address the specific sociocultural, structural, and behavioural issues of diverse subgroups.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/psychology , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(4): 120, 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520536

ABSTRACT

The slogan that 'the virus doesn't discriminate' has been belied by the emergence of stark and persistent disparities in rates of infection, hospitalisation, and death from Covid-19 between various social groups. I focus on two groups that have been disproportionately affected, and that have been constructed or designated as particularly 'at-risk' during the Covid-19 pandemic: racial or ethnic minorities and fat people. I trace the range of narratives that have arisen in the context of explaining these disparities, in both the scientific literature and wider expert and public discourse. I show that the scientific and public narratives around these groups have differed significantly, revealing contested and competing conceptions of the basis of these categories themselves. These different conceptions have important impacts on the kinds of interventions that become possible or desirable. I show that in the case of racial or ethnic disparities, genetic narratives have been combatted by a strong focus on structural racism as a driver of pandemic inequalities. However, in the case of fatness, individualising and stigmatising narratives have dominated discussions. I suggest that, given racial or ethnic differences in prevalence of fatness, and scholarship casting anti-fatness as historically racialised, the stigmatisation of fatness disproportionately affects racial or ethnic minorities in terms of placing individual blame or responsibility for the increased burden of Covid-19 on these groups. Despite widespread acknowledgement of the role of structural racism in driving racial inequalities in the burden of Covid-19, anti-obesity rhetoric and research provides a 'backdoor' to placing blame on individuals from racial minorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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