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1.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 49-54, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an uptake of telehealth in cystic fibrosis care. Previous studies show disparities in telehealth use based on socioeconomic status (SES). We aimed to: (1) understand telehealth use and perceptions and (2) identify the facilitators and barriers to telehealth use among people with CF and their families (PwCF) from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of the 2020 Cystic Fibrosis State of Care surveys completed by PwCF (PFSoC), CF Care Programs (SoC1) and the CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR). RESULTS: A total of 424 PwCF and 286 programs responded to the PFSoC and SoC1. Among PwCF, 90% self-identified as White, 6% as Hispanic/Latino, and 2% as Black. Racial/ethnic minorities were less likely to have had a telehealth visit (p=.015). This difference was pronounced among the Hispanic/Latino population (p<.01). Telehealth use did not differ by health insurance and was similarly offered independent of financial status. Compared to PwCF who denied financial constraints, those who reported financial difficulties found telehealth more difficult to use (p=.018) and were less likely to think that their concerns (p=.010) or issues that mattered most to them (p=.020) were addressed during telehealth. Programs perceived lack of technology, language barriers, and home conditions as barriers to telehealth in vulnerable populations. CONCLUSION: PFSoC and SoC1 identified differences in telehealth use and care perceptions by ethnicity, race, and socioeconomic characteristics. Further studies are needed to understand how telehealth can change access to CF care in diverse subpopulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication Barriers , Cystic Fibrosis , Minority Health , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cystic Fibrosis/economics , Cystic Fibrosis/ethnology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Financial Stress/ethnology , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Humans , Minority Health/ethnology , Minority Health/standards , Minority Health/statistics & numerical data , Needs Assessment , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18117, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406408

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination is being rapidly rolled out in the US and many other countries, and it is crucial to provide fast and accurate assessment of vaccination coverage and vaccination gaps to make strategic adjustments promoting vaccine coverage. We reported the effective use of real-time geospatial analysis to identify barriers and gaps in COVID-19 vaccination in a minority population living in South Texas on the US-Mexico Border, to inform vaccination campaign strategies. We developed 4 rank-based approaches to evaluate the vaccination gap at the census tract level, which considered both population vulnerability and vaccination priority and eligibility. We identified areas with the highest vaccination gaps using different assessment approaches. Real-time geospatial analysis to identify vaccination gaps is critical to rapidly increase vaccination uptake, and to reach herd immunity in the vulnerable and the vaccine hesitant groups. Our results assisted the City of Brownsville Public Health Department in adjusting real-time targeting of vaccination, gathering coverage assessment, and deploying services to areas identified as high vaccination gap. The analyses and responses can be adopted in other locations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Geography , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Mexico/ethnology , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Minority Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Texas/ethnology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination Coverage/methods , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
7.
Saúde Soc ; 30(3): e201026, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1365472

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este trabalho investiga como a saúde de pessoas lésbicas, gays, bissexuais, travestis, transexuais e intersexuais (LGBTI) tem sido afetada no contexto da pandemia da covid-19, por meio da percepção de ativistas da sociedade civil organizada, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil. Realizou-se uma análise qualitativa, que reporta dados preliminares de um estudo maior sobre a Política Nacional de Saúde LGBTI. O levantamento foi feito entre maio e julho de 2020, com a aplicação de entrevistas realizadas online. O enfoque se deu sobre as percepções, as experiências individuais e coletivas de ativistas sobre a temática da saúde LGBTI, em meio ao atravessamento da pandemia da covid-19. Constataram-se efeitos sobre a mobilização comunitária; o acesso aos serviços de saúde; a saúde mental; e as situações de violência e proteção social. Conclui-se que as intervenções coletivas de pessoas LGBTI são fundamentais em contextos de crise sanitária e dão suporte à garantia do direito à saúde e preservação de políticas públicas a esta população.


Abstract This study investigates how the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transvestite, transsexual, and intersex (LGBTI) people has been affected in the context of the covid-19 pandemic, by the perception of organized civil society activists in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is a qualitative analysis, which reports data from a larger study on the National Health Policy LGBTI. The survey was conducted between May and July 2020, with the application of online interviews. The focus was on the perceptions, individual and collective experiences of activists on the theme of LGBTI health, amidst the covid-19 pandemic. We found effects on community mobilization; access to health services; mental health; and situations of violence and social protection. The study concluded that the collective interventions of LGBTI people are fundamental in contexts of health crisis and support the guarantee of the right to health and the preservation of public policies for this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Public Policy , Adaptation, Psychological , Health Law , Minority Health , Sexual and Gender Minorities , COVID-19
10.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211018354, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health disparities have become apparent since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. When observing racial discrimination in healthcare, self-reported incidences, and perceptions among minority groups in the United States suggest that, the most socioeconomically underrepresented groups will suffer disproportionately in COVID-19 due to synergistic mechanisms. This study reports racially-stratified data regarding the experiences and impacts of different groups availing the healthcare system to identify disparities in outcomes of minority and majority groups in the United States. METHODS: Studies were identified utilizing PubMed, Embase, CINAHL Plus, and PsycINFO search engines without date and language restrictions. The following keywords were used: Healthcare, raci*, ethnic*, discriminant, hosti*, harass*, insur*, education, income, psychiat*, COVID-19, incidence, mortality, mechanical ventilation. Statistical analysis was conducted in Review Manager (RevMan V.5.4). Unadjusted Odds Ratios, P-values, and 95% confidence intervals were presented. RESULTS: Discrimination in the United States is evident among racial groups regarding medical care portraying mental risk behaviors as having serious outcomes in the health of minority groups. The perceived health inequity had a low association to the majority group as compared to the minority group (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.78; P = .007), and the association of mental health problems to the Caucasian-American majority group was low (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.45 to 0.58; P < .001). CONCLUSION: As the pandemic continues into its next stage, efforts should be taken to address the gaps in clinical training and education, and medical practice to avoid the recurring patterns of racial health disparities that become especially prominent in community health emergencies. A standardized tool to assess racial discrimination and inequity will potentially improve pandemic healthcare delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Discrimination, Psychological , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Minority Health , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Racism , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 51(2): 16-21, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173809

ABSTRACT

Harrowing stories reported in the media describe Covid-19 ravaging through families. This essay reports professional experiences of this phenomenon, family clustering, as encountered during the pandemic's spread across Southern California. We identify three ethical challenges following from it: Family clustering impedes shared decision-making by reducing available surrogate decision-makers for incapacitated patients, increases the emotional burdens of surrogate decision-makers, and exacerbates health disparities for and the suffering of people of color at increased likelihood of experiencing family clustering. We propose that, in response to these challenges, efforts in advance care planning be expanded, emotional support offered to surrogates and family members be increased, more robust state guidance be issued on ethical decision-making for unrepresented patients, ethics consultation be increased in the setting of conflict following from family clustering dynamics, and health care professionals pay more attention to systemic and personal racial biases and inequities that affect patient care and the surrogate experience.


Subject(s)
Advance Care Planning , COVID-19/epidemiology , Family Health , Family/psychology , Minority Health , Patient Care , Advance Care Planning/ethics , Advance Care Planning/legislation & jurisprudence , California/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Decision Making, Shared , Family Health/ethics , Family Health/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Minority Health/ethics , Minority Health/ethnology , Patient Care/ethics , Patient Care/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Third-Party Consent/ethics
14.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 34, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173034

ABSTRACT

Background: Incidence and mortality from COVID-19 are starkly elevated in poor, minority and marginalized communities. These differences reflect longstanding disparities in income, housing, air quality, preexisting health status, legal protections, and access to health care. The COVID-19 pandemic and its economic consequences have made these ancient disparities plainly visible. Methodology: As scholars in Catholic research universities committed to advancing both scientific knowledge and social justice, we examined these disparities through the lenses of both epidemiology and ethics. Findings: We see these widening disparities as not only as threats to human health, societal stability, and planetary health, but also as moral wrongs - outward manifestations of unrecognized privilege and greed. They are the concrete consequences of policies that promote structural violence and institutionalize racism. Recommendations: We encourage governments to take the following three scientific and ethical justified actions to reduce disparities, prevent future pandemics, and advance the common good: (1) Invest in public health systems; (2) Reduce economic inequities by making health care affordable to all; providing education, including early education, to all children; strengthening environmental and occupational safeguards; and creating more just tax structures; and (3) Preserve our Common Home, the small blue planet on which we all live.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Minority Health , Quality of Life , Social Justice/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Global Health , Healthcare Disparities/ethics , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Minority Health/ethics , Minority Health/standards , Minority Health/statistics & numerical data , Quality Improvement , Social Determinants of Health
15.
J Community Health ; 46(5): 932-941, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144373

ABSTRACT

We examined factors associated with and reasons for perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 among urban and rural adults in Alabama. We surveyed 575 eligible participants' engagement in preventive behaviors, concern about COVID-19 in their communities, perceived susceptibility to the virus, and reasons for susceptibility across three response options (Yes, No, and Don't Know/Not Sure). Bivariate analyses compared characteristics by level of perceived susceptibility to COVID-19. A multinomial logistic regression model evaluated the association of demographics, health insurance coverage, and chronic illness status with perceived susceptibility. Participants' race, gender, and educational attainment were significantly associated with perceived susceptibility to COVID-19. African Americans and males had higher odds of responding 'No', compared to 'Yes' and 'Don't Know/Not Sure' than Whites and females. Participants with a high school education and lower had higher odds of responding 'Don't Know/Not Sure' versus 'Yes' compared to those with college or higher education. Those unconcerned about COVID-19 in their community had higher odds of responding 'No' (OR = 2.51, CI 1.35-4.68) and 'Don't Know/Not Sure' (OR = 2.51, CI 1.26-4.99) versus 'Yes', as compared to those who were concerned. Possibility of exposure at work was the most frequent reasons for perceiving themselves susceptible to COVID-19, engagement in recommended preventive measures was the most frequent reason among respondents who indicated 'No', and uncertainty/perception that everyone is at risk was the most frequent reason among the ones who indicated 'Don't Know/Not Sure'. Results indicate that tailored efforts to heighten perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 among specific demographics are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Susceptibility/ethnology , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Alabama/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Educational Status , Female , Health Belief Model , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Health , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1032-1038, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085129

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has severely impacted the meat processing industry in the United States. We sought to detail demographics and outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections among workers in Nebraska meat processing facilities and determine the effects of initiating universal mask policies and installing physical barriers at 13 meat processing facilities. During April 1-July 31, 2020, COVID-19 was diagnosed in 5,002 Nebraska meat processing workers (attack rate 19%). After initiating both universal masking and physical barrier interventions, 8/13 facilities showed a statistically significant reduction in COVID-19 incidence in <10 days. Characteristics and incidence of confirmed cases aligned with many nationwide trends becoming apparent during this pandemic: specifically, high attack rates among meat processing industry workers, disproportionately high risk of adverse outcomes among ethnic and racial minority groups and men, and effectiveness of using multiple prevention and control interventions to reduce disease transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Food-Processing Industry , Infection Control , Meat-Packing Industry , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Food-Processing Industry/methods , Food-Processing Industry/organization & administration , Food-Processing Industry/trends , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Meat-Packing Industry/methods , Meat-Packing Industry/organization & administration , Meat-Packing Industry/trends , Minority Health/statistics & numerical data , Nebraska/epidemiology , Occupational Health/standards , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Workplace/standards
18.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(2): E189-195, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080733

ABSTRACT

Following the US Civil War, newly freed Black Americans had significantly poorer health than Whites. Founded in 1865, the Freedmen's Bureau offered a range of support (eg, food, health care, shelter, legal aid) to try to improve health among the newly freed. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the persistence of racial health inequity in American life. Ethical obligations to address it exist now, just as they did in 1865.


Subject(s)
African Americans , Healthcare Disparities/history , Minority Health/history , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans , Public Health/ethics , United States/epidemiology
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