Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 16 de 16
Filter
1.
Mar Drugs ; 20(2)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707249

ABSTRACT

Fucoidan is a polysaccharide obtained from marine brown algae, with anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and immune-enhancing properties, thus, fucoidan may be used as an alternative treatment (complementary to prescribed medical therapy) for COVID-19 recovery. This work aimed to determine the ex-vivo effects of treatment with fucoidan (20 µg/mL) on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, using a cationic cyanine dye, 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6(3)) on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (HPBMC) isolated from healthy control (HC) subjects, COVID-19 patients (C-19), and subjects that recently recovered from COVID-19 (R1, 40 ± 13 days after infection). In addition, ex-vivo treatment with fucoidan (20 and 50 µg/mL) was evaluated on ΔΨm loss induced by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP, 150 µM) in HPBMC isolated from healthy subjects (H) and recovered subjects at 11 months post-COVID-19 (R2, 335 ± 20 days after infection). Data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces HPBMC loss of ΔΨm, even 11 months after infection, however, fucoidan promotes recovery of ΔΨm in PBMCs from COVID-19 recovered subjects. Therefore, fucoidan may be a potential treatment to diminish long-term sequelae from COVID-19, using mitochondria as a therapeutic target for the recovery of cellular homeostasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/drug effects , Phaeophyta/chemistry , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Young Adult
2.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(3): 2321-2324, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664478

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies demonstrate parallels between CVD, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and COVID-19 pathology, which accentuate pre-existing complications in patients infected with COVID-19 and potentially exacerbate the infection course. Antidiabetic drugs such as sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have garnered substantial attention recently due to their efficacy in reducing the severity of cardiorenal disease. The effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients with COVID-19 remains unclear particularly since SGLT-2 inhibitors contribute to altering the RAAS cascade activity, which includes ACE-2, the major cell entry receptor for SARS-CoV2. A study, DARE-19, was carried out to unveil the effects of SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment on comorbid disease complications and concomitant COVID-19 outcomes and demonstrated no statistical significance. However, the need for further studies is essential to provide conclusive clinical findings.


Subject(s)
Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Drug Repositioning , Heart Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Mitochondria/drug effects , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/physiology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580702

ABSTRACT

Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is common in a significant number of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This study was conducted to assess whether the improved mitochondrial bioenergetics by cardiometabolic drug meldonium can attenuate the development of ventricular dysfunction in experimental RV and LV dysfunction models, which resemble ventricular dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. Effects of meldonium were assessed in rats with pulmonary hypertension-induced RV failure and in mice with inflammation-induced LV dysfunction. Rats with RV failure showed decreased RV fractional area change (RVFAC) and hypertrophy. Treatment with meldonium attenuated the development of RV hypertrophy and increased RVFAC by 50%. Mice with inflammation-induced LV dysfunction had decreased LV ejection fraction (LVEF) by 30%. Treatment with meldonium prevented the decrease in LVEF. A decrease in the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation with a concomitant increase in pyruvate metabolism was noted in the cardiac fibers of the rats and mice with RV and LV failure, respectively. Meldonium treatment in both models restored mitochondrial bioenergetics. The results show that meldonium treatment prevents the development of RV and LV systolic dysfunction by enhancing mitochondrial function in experimental models of ventricular dysfunction that resembles cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Methylhydrazines/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiotoxicity/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelium/drug effects , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/metabolism , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Male , Methylhydrazines/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mitochondria/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/drug therapy
4.
Inorg Chem ; 59(23): 17109-17122, 2020 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387106

ABSTRACT

Metal complexes have numerous applications in the current era, particularly in the field of pharmaceutical chemistry and catalysis. A novel synthetic approach for the same is always a beneficial addition to the literature. Henceforth, for the first time, we report the formation of three new Pd(II) complexes through the Michael addition pathway. Three chromone-based thiosemicarbazone ligands (SVSL1-SVSL3) and Pd(II) complexes (1-3) were synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectroscopic tools. The Michael addition pathway for the formation of complexes was confirmed by spectroscopic studies. Distorted square planar structure of complex 2 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1-3 were subjected to DNA- and BSA-binding studies. The complex with cyclohexyl substituent on the terminal N of thiosemicarbazone (3) showed the highest binding efficacy toward these biomolecules, which was further understood through molecular docking studies. The anticancer potential of these complexes was studied preliminarily by using MTT assay in cancer and normal cell lines along with the benchmark drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin, and gemcitabine). It was found that complex 3 was highly toxic toward MDA-MB-231 and AsPC-1 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.5 and 0.9 µM, respectively, and was more efficient than the standard drugs. The programmed cell death mechanism of the complexes in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells was confirmed. Furthermore, the complexes induced apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathway. Conveniently, all the complexes showed less toxicity (≥50 µM) against MCF-10a normal cell line. Molecular docking studies were performed with VEGFR2, EGFR, and SARS-CoV-2 main protease to illustrate the binding efficiency of the complexes with these receptors. To our surprise, binding potential of the complexes with SARS-CoV-2 main protease was higher than that with chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Coordination Complexes/pharmacology , Mitochondria/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromones/chemical synthesis , Chromones/metabolism , Chromones/pharmacology , Coordination Complexes/chemical synthesis , Coordination Complexes/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , DNA/metabolism , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Intercalating Agents/chemical synthesis , Intercalating Agents/metabolism , Intercalating Agents/pharmacology , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Palladium/chemistry , Protein Binding , Thiosemicarbazones/chemical synthesis , Thiosemicarbazones/metabolism , Thiosemicarbazones/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/metabolism
5.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323128

ABSTRACT

Programmed cell death is a conserved evolutionary process of cell suicide that is central to the development and integrity of eukaryotic organisms [...].


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Disease , Health , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Biological Products/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Caspase 2/metabolism , Humans , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology , Nerve Degeneration/pathology
6.
Nanomedicine ; 37: 102422, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283501

ABSTRACT

As mitochondria network together to act as the master sensors and effectors of apoptosis, ATP production, reactive oxygen species management, mitophagy/autophagy, and homeostasis; this organelle is an ideal target for pharmaceutical manipulation. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to many diseases, for example, ß-amyloid has been shown to interfere with mitochondrial protein import and induce apoptosis in Alzheimer's Disease while some forms of Parkinson's Disease are associated with dysfunctional mitochondrial PINK1 and Parkin proteins. Mitochondrial medicine has applications in the treatment of an array of pathologies from cancer to cardiovascular disease. A challenge of mitochondrial medicine is directing therapies to a subcellular target. Nanotechnology based approaches combined with mitochondrial targeting strategies can greatly improve the clinical translation and effectiveness of mitochondrial medicine. This review discusses mitochondrial drug delivery approaches and applications of mitochondrial nanomedicines. Nanomedicine approaches have the potential to drive the success of mitochondrial therapies into the clinic.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Mitochondria/drug effects , Nanomedicine , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Adenosine Triphosphate/biosynthesis , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/genetics , Autophagy/drug effects , Autophagy/genetics , Humans , Mitochondria/genetics , Mitophagy/drug effects , Mitophagy/genetics , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Parkinson Disease/pathology , Reactive Oxygen Species
7.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1258-1267, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263614

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a pandemic disease caused by a viral infection, is associated with a high mortality rate. Most of the signs and symptoms, e.g. cytokine storm, electrolytes imbalances, thromboembolism, etc., are related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, targeting mitochondrion will represent a more rational treatment of COVID-19. The current work outlines how COVID-19's signs and symptoms are related to the mitochondrion. Proper understanding of the underlying causes might enhance the opportunity to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/pathology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Mitochondria/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(9): 4575-4587, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263176

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 or COVID-19 has been declared as a pandemic disease by the World Health Organization (WHO). Globally, this disease affected 159 million of the population and reported ~ 3.3 million deaths to the current date (May 2021). There is no definitive treatment strategy that has been identified, although this disease has prevailed in its current form for the past 18 months. The main challenges in the (SARS-CoV)-2 infections are in identifying the heterogeneity in viral strains and the plausible mechanisms of viral infection to human tissues. In parallel to the investigations into the patho-mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection, understanding the fundamental processes underlying the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 is very crucial for designing effective therapies. Since neurological symptoms are very apparent in COVID-19 infected patients, here, we tried to emphasize the involvement of redox imbalance and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction in the progression of the COVID-19 infection. It has been articulated that mitochondrial dysfunction is very apparent and also interlinked to neurological symptoms in COVID-19 infection. Overall, this article provides an in-depth overview of redox imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction involvement in aggravating COVID-19 infection and its probable contribution to the neurological manifestation of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mitochondria/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , Central Nervous System/virology , Drug Repositioning , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Humans , Mice , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/pathology , Models, Biological , Olfactory Nerve/virology , Organ Specificity , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Proteins/physiology , Viral Tropism , Viremia/complications , Virulence , Virus Internalization
9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 561: 14-18, 2021 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225147

ABSTRACT

In spite of numerous studies, many details of SARS-Cov-2 interaction with human cells are still poorly understood. The 674-685 fragment of SARS-Cov-2 spike protein is homologous to the fragment of α-cobratoxin underlying its interaction with α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The interaction of 674-685 peptide with α7 nAChR has been predicted in silico. In the present paper we confirm this prediction experimentally and investigate the effect of SARS-Cov-2 spike protein peptide on mitochondria, which express α7 nAChRs to regulate apoptosis-related events. We demonstrate that SARS-Cov-2 spike protein peptide 674-685 competes with the antibody against 179-190 fragment of α7 nAChR subunit for the binding to α7-expressing cells and mitochondria and prevents the release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria in response to 0.5 mM H2O2 but does not protect intact U373 cells against apoptogenic effect of H2O2. Our data suggest that the α7 nAChR-binding portion of SARS-Cov-2 spike protein prevents mitochondria-driven apoptosis when the virus is uncoated inside the cell and, therefore, supports the infected cell viability before the virus replication cycle is complete.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Computer Simulation , Female , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mitochondria/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/metabolism
10.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125084

ABSTRACT

Fighting infectious diseases, particularly viral infections, is a demanding task for human health. Targeting the pathogens or targeting the host are different strategies, but with an identical purpose, i.e., to curb the pathogen's spreading and cure the illness. It appears that targeting a host to increase tolerance against pathogens can be of substantial advantage and is a strategy used in evolution. Practically, it has a broader protective spectrum than that of only targeting the specific pathogens, which differ in terms of susceptibility. Methods for host targeting applied in one pandemic can even be effective for upcoming pandemics with different pathogens. This is even more urgent if we consider the possible concomitance of two respiratory diseases with potential multi-organ afflictions such as Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and seasonal flu. Melatonin is a molecule that can enhance the host's tolerance against pathogen invasions. Due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory activities, melatonin has the capacity to reduce the severity and mortality of deadly virus infections including COVID-19. Melatonin is synthesized and functions in mitochondria, which play a critical role in viral infections. Not surprisingly, melatonin synthesis can become a target of viral strategies that manipulate the mitochondrial status. For example, a viral infection can switch energy metabolism from respiration to widely anaerobic glycolysis even if plenty of oxygen is available (the Warburg effect) when the host cell cannot generate acetyl-coenzyme A, a metabolite required for melatonin biosynthesis. Under some conditions, including aging, gender, predisposed health conditions, already compromised mitochondria, when exposed to further viral challenges, lose their capacity for producing sufficient amounts of melatonin. This leads to a reduced support of mitochondrial functions and makes these individuals more vulnerable to infectious diseases. Thus, the maintenance of mitochondrial function by melatonin supplementation can be expected to generate beneficial effects on the outcome of viral infectious diseases, particularly COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Mitochondria/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Melatonin/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism
11.
Pharmacol Ther ; 224: 107825, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117458

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of single stranded RNA viruses, of which some of them such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 are associated with deadly worldwide human diseases. Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a condition caused by SARS-CoV-2, results in acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with high mortality in the elderly and in people with underlying comorbidities. Results from several studies suggest that CoVs localize in mitochondria and interact with mitochondrial protein translocation machinery to target their encoded products to mitochondria. Coronaviruses encode a number of proteins; this process is essential for viral replication through inhibiting degradation of viral proteins and host misfolded proteins including those in mitochondria. These viruses seem to maintain their replication by altering mitochondrial dynamics and targeting mitochondrial-associated antiviral signaling (MAVS), allowing them to evade host innate immunity. Coronaviruses infections such as COVID-19 are more severe in aging patients. Since endogenous melatonin levels are often dramatically reduced in the aged and because it is a potent anti-inflammatory agent, melatonin has been proposed to be useful in CoVs infections by altering proteasomal and mitochondrial activities. Melatonin inhibits mitochondrial fission due to its antioxidant and inhibitory effects on cytosolic calcium overload. The collective data suggests that melatonin may mediate mitochondrial adaptations through regulating both mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis. We propose that melatonin may inhibit SARS-CoV-2-induced cell damage by regulating mitochondrial physiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Melatonin/pharmacology , Mitochondria/pathology , Aged , Animals , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Virus Replication
12.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 40(2): 325-341, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067095

ABSTRACT

To assess the chondroprotective effect and influence of N,N'-bis(1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-3-oxopyrazol-4-yl) sebacamide (dpdo) that was synthesized through the reaction of phenazone with sebacoyl chloride and screened for its biological activity especially as anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory agent in a monoiodoacetate (MA)-induced experimental osteoarthritis (OA) model. Thirty male albino rats weighing "190-200 g" were divided randomly into three groups (10 each): control, MA-induced OA, and MA-induced OA + dpdo. In MA-induced OA rat, the tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factors, reactive oxygen species, as well as all the mitochondrial markers such as mitochondria membrane potential, swelling mitochondria, cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), and serum oxidative/antioxidant status (malondialdehyde level and activities of myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase) are elevated. Also, the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II), levels of ATP, the level of glutathione (GSH), and thiol were markedly diminished in the MA-induced OA group compared to the normal control rats. These findings showed that mitochondrial function is associated with OA pathophysiological alterations and high gene expressions of (IL-6, TNF-a, and IL-1b) and suggests a promising use of dpdo as potential ameliorative agents in the animal model of OA and could act as anti-inflammatory agent in case of severe infection with COVID-19. It is clearly appeared in improving the bone cortex and bone marrow in the treated group with the novel compound in histological and transmission electron microscopic sections which is a very important issue today in fighting severe infections that have significant effects on the blood indices and declining of blood corpuscles like COVID-19, in addition to declining the genotoxicity and inflammation induced by MA in male rats. The novel synthesized compound was highly effective in improving all the above mentioned parameters.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bone and Bones/ultrastructure , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione/metabolism , Iodoacetic Acid , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/physiology , Osteoarthritis/chemically induced , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Succinate Dehydrogenase/metabolism
13.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 163: 153-162, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065088

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical playing an important pathophysiological role in cardiovascular and immune systems. Recent studies reported that NO levels were significantly lower in patients with COVID-19, which was suggested to be closely related to vascular dysfunction and immune inflammation among them. In this review, we examine the potential role of NO during SARS-CoV-2 infection from the perspective of the unique physical, chemical and biological properties and potential mechanisms of NO in COVID-19, as well as possible therapeutic strategies using inhaled NO. We also discuss the limits of NO treatment, and the future application of this approach in prevention and therapy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Administration, Inhalation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/blood , Anticoagulants/blood , Antiviral Agents/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Inflammation , Lung/blood supply , Lung/virology , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/virology , Nitric Oxide/blood , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Vasodilation/drug effects
14.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(2)2021 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044768

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV, GS-5734), the first FDA-approved antiviral for the treatment of COVID-19, is a single diastereomer monophosphoramidate prodrug of an adenosine analogue. It is intracellularly metabolized into the active triphosphate form, which in turn acts as a potent and selective inhibitor of multiple viral RNA polymerases. RDV has broad-spectrum activity against members of the coronavirus family, such as SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV, as well as filoviruses and paramyxoviruses. To assess the potential for off-target toxicity, RDV was evaluated in a set of cellular and biochemical assays. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in a set of relevant human cell lines and primary cells. In addition, RDV was evaluated for mitochondrial toxicity under aerobic and anaerobic metabolic conditions, and for the effects on mitochondrial DNA content, mitochondrial protein synthesis, cellular respiration, and induction of reactive oxygen species. Last, the active 5'-triphosphate metabolite of RDV, GS-443902, was evaluated for potential interaction with human DNA and RNA polymerases. Among all of the human cells tested under 5 to 14 days of continuous exposure, the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values of RDV ranged from 1.7 to >20 µM, resulting in selectivity indices (SI, CC50/EC50) from >170 to 20,000, with respect to RDV anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity (50% effective concentration [EC50] of 9.9 nM in human airway epithelial cells). Overall, the cellular and biochemical assays demonstrated a low potential for RDV to elicit off-target toxicity, including mitochondria-specific toxicity, consistent with the reported clinical safety profile.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Mitochondria/drug effects , Primary Cell Culture
16.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110161, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694471

ABSTRACT

Immune dysregulation characterized by T cell exhaustion and high level of inflammatory cytokines is associated with severe COVID-19. Figuring out the early event of immune dysregulation would provide a potential treatment for COVID-19. Recent evidence indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction participates in the development of COVID-19 and may be responsible for the dysregulated immune response. Mitochondrial-targeted ubiquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, shows beneficial effects on various diseases through improving mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesize that MitoQ could act as a potential treatment in COVID-19. MitoQ may alleviate cytokine storm and restore the function of exhausted T cells in COVID-19 patients through improving mitochondrial dysfunction. In this article, we provide evidence to support the use of MitoQ as a potential treatment or adjunct therapy in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Mitochondria/drug effects , Organophosphorus Compounds/therapeutic use , Ubiquinone/analogs & derivatives , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immune System , Models, Theoretical , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Ubiquinone/therapeutic use
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL