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1.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 442: 116003, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763987

ABSTRACT

Molnupiravir is an orally active nucleoside analog antiviral drug that recently was approved by the U.S. FDA for emergency treatment of adult patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus and at risk for severe progression. The active form of the drug, N-hydroxycytidine (NHC) triphosphate competes for incorporation by RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) into the replicating viral genome resulting in mutations and arrest of the replicating virus. Historically, some nucleoside analog antiviral drugs have been found to lack specificity for the virus and also inhibit replication and/or expression of the mitochondrial genome. The objective of the present study was to test whether molnupiravir and/or NHC also target mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (PolG) or RNA polymerase (POLRMT) activity to inhibit the replication and/or expression of the mitochondrial genome leading to impaired mitochondrial function. Human-derived HepG2 cells were exposed for 48 h in culture to increasing concentrations of either molnupiravir or NHC after which cytotoxicity, mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial gene expression were determined. The phenotypic endpoint, mitochondrial respiration, was measured with the Seahorse® XF96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Both molnupiravir and NHC were cytotoxic at concentrations of ≥10 µM. However, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, neither significantly altered mitochondrial gene dose or transcription, or mitochondrial respiration. From this we conclude that mitochondrial toxicity is not a primary off target in the mechanism of cytotoxicity for either molnupiravir or its active metabolite NHC in the HepG2 cell line.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleosides , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Mitochondria/metabolism , RNA , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763118

ABSTRACT

Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer and has proven to be critical in viral infections. Metabolic reprogramming provides the cell with energy and biomass for large-scale biosynthesis. Based on studies of the cellular changes that contribute to metabolic reprogramming, seven main hallmarks can be identified: (1) increased glycolysis and lactic acid, (2) increased glutaminolysis, (3) increased pentose phosphate pathway, (4) mitochondrial changes, (5) increased lipid metabolism, (6) changes in amino acid metabolism, and (7) changes in other biosynthetic and bioenergetic pathways. Viruses depend on metabolic reprogramming to increase biomass to fuel viral genome replication and production of new virions. Viruses take advantage of the non-metabolic effects of metabolic reprogramming, creating an anti-apoptotic environment and evading the immune system. Other non-metabolic effects can negatively affect cellular function. Understanding the role metabolic reprogramming plays in viral pathogenesis may provide better therapeutic targets for antivirals.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Viruses , Energy Metabolism , Glycolysis , Humans , Mitochondria/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Virus Replication , Viruses/genetics
3.
Trends Parasitol ; 38(4): 269-271, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757761

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria regulate energy production, cell cycle, and immune signaling. Li et al. recently reported that Toxoplasma gondii induces the shedding of mitochondrial outer membrane to promote its growth. Intriguingly, the hijacking of host mitochondria has been shown to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Toxoplasma , Humans , Mitochondria/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Toxoplasma/physiology
4.
Cells ; 11(4)2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715130

ABSTRACT

Mitophagy, which is able to selectively clear excess or damaged mitochondria, plays a vital role in the quality control of mitochondria and the maintenance of normal mitochondrial functions in eukaryotic cells. Mitophagy is involved in many physiological and pathological processes, including apoptosis, innate immunity, inflammation, cell differentiation, signal transduction, and metabolism. Viral infections cause physical dysfunction and thus pose a significant threat to public health. An accumulating body of evidence reveals that some viruses hijack mitophagy to enable immune escape and self-replication. In this review, we systematically summarize the pathway of mitophagy initiation and discuss the functions and mechanisms of mitophagy in infection with classical swine fever virus and other specific viruses, with the aim of providing a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of related diseases.


Subject(s)
Mitophagy , Virus Diseases , Animals , Apoptosis , Immunity, Innate , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitophagy/physiology , Swine , Virus Diseases/metabolism
5.
J Med Chem ; 65(5): 3706-3728, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699705

ABSTRACT

Glucose, the primary substrate for ATP synthesis, is catabolized during glycolysis to generate ATP and precursors for the synthesis of other vital biomolecules. Opportunistic viruses and cancer cells often hijack this metabolic machinery to obtain energy and components needed for their replication and proliferation. One way to halt such energy-dependent processes is by interfering with the glycolytic pathway. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) is a synthetic glucose analogue that can inhibit key enzymes in the glycolytic pathway. The efficacy of 2-DG has been reported across an array of diseases and disorders, thereby demonstrating its broad therapeutic potential. Recent approval of 2-DG in India as a therapeutic approach for the management of the COVID-19 pandemic has brought renewed attention to this molecule. The purpose of this perspective is to present updated therapeutic avenues as well as a variety of chemical synthetic strategies for this medically useful sugar derivative, 2-DG.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxyglucose/chemistry , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Deoxyglucose/metabolism , Deoxyglucose/pharmacology , Deoxyglucose/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/pathology , Glycolysis/drug effects , Humans , Isotope Labeling , Mitochondria/metabolism , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
Immunity ; 55(3): 423-441.e9, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693372

ABSTRACT

Cell death plays an important role during pathogen infections. Here, we report that interferon-γ (IFNγ) sensitizes macrophages to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced death that requires macrophage-intrinsic death ligands and caspase-8 enzymatic activity, which trigger the mitochondrial apoptotic effectors, BAX and BAK. The pro-apoptotic caspase-8 substrate BID was dispensable for BAX and BAK activation. Instead, caspase-8 reduced pro-survival BCL-2 transcription and increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), thus facilitating BAX and BAK signaling. IFNγ-primed, TLR-induced macrophage killing required iNOS, which licensed apoptotic caspase-8 activity and reduced the BAX and BAK inhibitors, A1 and MCL-1. The deletion of iNOS or caspase-8 limited SARS-CoV-2-induced disease in mice, while caspase-8 caused lethality independent of iNOS in a model of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. These findings reveal that iNOS selectively licenses programmed cell death, which may explain how nitric oxide impacts disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 infection and other iNOS-associated inflammatory conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Caspase 8/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Mitochondria/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Caspase 8/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Humans , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Macrophage Activation , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/immunology , Signal Transduction , bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein/genetics , bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
7.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(5)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675573

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury is associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients. However, host cell changes underlying infection of renal cells with SARS-CoV-2 remain unknown and prevent understanding of the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to renal pathology. Here, we carried out quantitative translatome and whole-cell proteomics analyses of primary renal proximal and distal tubular epithelial cells derived from human donors infected with SARS-CoV-2 or MERS-CoV to disseminate virus and cell type-specific changes over time. Our findings revealed shared pathways modified upon infection with both viruses, as well as SARS-CoV-2-specific host cell modulation driving key changes in innate immune activation and cellular protein quality control. Notably, MERS-CoV infection-induced specific changes in mitochondrial biology that were not observed in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, we identified extensive modulation in pathways associated with kidney failure that changed in a virus- and cell type-specific manner. In summary, we provide an overview of the effects of SARS-CoV-2 or MERS-CoV infection on primary renal epithelial cells revealing key pathways that may be essential for viral replication.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Kidney , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Proteome , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Nucleus/genetics , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Distal , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Mitochondria/genetics , Mitochondria/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Proteomics/methods , Virus Replication
8.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 322(2): C218-C230, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673516

ABSTRACT

Selective autophagy of mitochondria, known as mitophagy, is a major quality control pathway in the heart that is involved in removing unwanted or dysfunctional mitochondria from the cell. Baseline mitophagy is critical for maintaining fitness of the mitochondrial network by continuous turnover of aged and less-functional mitochondria. Mitophagy is also critical in adapting to stress associated with mitochondrial damage or dysfunction. The removal of damaged mitochondria prevents reactive oxygen species-mediated damage to proteins and DNA and suppresses activation of inflammation and cell death. Impairments in mitophagy are associated with the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancers, inflammatory diseases, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease. Mitophagy is a highly regulated and complex process that requires the coordination of labeling dysfunctional mitochondria for degradation while simultaneously promoting de novo autophagosome biogenesis adjacent to the cargo. In this review, we provide an update on our current understanding of these steps in mitophagy induction and discuss the physiological and pathophysiological consequences of altered mitophagy in the heart.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitophagy/physiology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Humans , Mitochondria/pathology , Phagocytosis/physiology
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 799558, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662582

ABSTRACT

The poor outcome of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is associated with systemic hyperinflammatory response and immunopathology. Although inflammasome and oxidative stress have independently been implicated in COVID-19, it is poorly understood whether these two pathways cooperatively contribute to disease severity. Herein, we found an enrichment of CD14highCD16- monocytes displaying inflammasome activation evidenced by caspase-1/ASC-speck formation in severe COVID-19 patients when compared to mild ones and healthy controls, respectively. Those cells also showed aberrant levels of mitochondrial superoxide and lipid peroxidation, both hallmarks of the oxidative stress response, which strongly correlated with caspase-1 activity. In addition, we found that NLRP3 inflammasome-derived IL-1ß secretion by SARS-CoV-2-exposed monocytes in vitro was partially dependent on lipid peroxidation. Importantly, altered inflammasome and stress responses persisted after short-term patient recovery. Collectively, our findings suggest oxidative stress/NLRP3 signaling pathway as a potential target for host-directed therapy to mitigate early COVID-19 hyperinflammation and also its long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Caspase 1/metabolism , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitochondria/pathology , Monocytes/pathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology
10.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(1): 9-15, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After an acute treatment for coronavirus disease (COVID-19), some symptoms may persist for several weeks, for example: fatigue, headaches, muscle and joint pain, cough, loss of taste and smell, sleep and memory disturbances, depression. Many viruses manipulate mitochondrial function, but the exact mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 virus effect remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 virus may affect mitochondrial energy production and endogenous biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). METHODS: Ten patients after COVID-19 and 15 healthy individuals were included in the study. Platelets isolated from peripheral blood were used as an accessible source of mitochondria. High-resolution respirometry for the evaluation of platelets mitochondrial function, and HPLC method for CoQ10 determination were used. Oxidative stress was evaluated by TBARS concentration in plasma. RESULTS: Platelet mitochondrial respiratory chain function, oxidative phosphorylation and endogenous CoQ10 level were reduced in the patients after COVID-19. CONCLUSION: We assume that a reduced concentration of endogenous CoQ10 may partially block electron transfer in the respiratory chain resulting in a reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in the patients after COVID-19. Targeted mitochondrial therapy with CoQ10 supplementation and spa rehabilitation may improve mitochondrial health and accelerate the recovery of the patients after COVID-19. Platelet mitochondrial function and CoQ10 content may be useful mitochondrial health biomarkers after SARS-CoV-2 infection (Tab. 3, Fig. 3, Ref. 46).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Mitochondria/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquinone/analogs & derivatives , Ubiquinone/metabolism
11.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597185

ABSTRACT

Beta-3 adrenergic receptor activation via exercise or CL316,243 (CL) induces white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, improves glucose tolerance, and reduces visceral adiposity. Our aim was to determine if sex or adipose tissue depot differences exist in response to CL. Daily CL injections were administered to diet-induced obese male and female mice for two weeks, creating four groups: male control, male CL, female control, and female CL. These groups were compared to determine the main and interaction effects of sex (S), CL treatment (T), and WAT depot (D). Glucose tolerance, body composition, and energy intake and expenditure were assessed, along with perigonadal (PGAT) and subcutaneous (SQAT) WAT gene and protein expression. CL consistently improved glucose tolerance and body composition. Female PGAT had greater protein expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), while SQAT (S, p < 0.001) was more responsive to CL in increasing UCP1 (S×T, p = 0.011) and the mitochondrial biogenesis induction protein, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) (S×T, p = 0.026). Females also displayed greater mitochondrial OXPHOS (S, p < 0.05) and adiponectin protein content (S, p < 0.05). On the other hand, male SQAT was more responsive to CL in increasing protein levels of PGC1α (S×T, p = 0.046) and adiponectin (S, p < 0.05). In both depots and in both sexes, CL significantly increased estrogen receptor beta (ERß) and glucose-related protein 75 (GRP75) protein content (T, p < 0.05). Thus, CL improves systemic and adipose tissue-specific metabolism in both sexes; however, sex differences exist in the WAT-specific effects of CL. Furthermore, across sexes and depots, CL affects estrogen signaling by upregulating ERß.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , PPAR gamma/genetics , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha/genetics , Uncoupling Protein 1/genetics , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adipose Tissue, Brown/growth & development , Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism , Animals , Body Composition/genetics , Dioxoles/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism/genetics , Estrogen Receptor beta/genetics , Estrogens/genetics , Estrogens/metabolism , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Male , Mice , Mitochondria/genetics , Mitochondria/metabolism , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3/genetics , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3/metabolism , Sex Characteristics
12.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 143: 106138, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588223

ABSTRACT

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate fast synaptic transmission in neuro-muscular junctions and autonomic ganglia and modulate survival, proliferation and neurotransmitter or cytokine release in the brain and non-excitable cells. The neuronal-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are expressed in the outer mitochondria membrane to regulate the release of pro-apoptotic substances like cytochrome c or reactive oxygen species. In the intracellular environment, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling is ion-independent and triggers intramitochondrial kinases, similar to those activated by plasma membrane nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The present review will describe the data obtained during the last five years including, in particular, post-translational glycosylation as a targeting signal to mitochondria, mechanisms of mitochondrial nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling studied with subtype-specific agonists, antagonists, positive allosteric modulators and knockout mice lacking certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits, interaction of mitochondrial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with Bcl-2 family proteins and their involvement in important pathologies like neuroinflammation, liver damage and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/genetics , Mitochondria/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/genetics , Receptors, Nicotinic/genetics , Allosteric Regulation , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mitochondria/metabolism , /pathology , Nicotinic Agonists/pharmacology , Nicotinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Receptors, Nicotinic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1/genetics , Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1/metabolism
13.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(1): 67-78, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541184

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused severe morbidity and mortality in humans. It is urgent to understand the function of viral genes. However, the function of open reading frame 10 (ORF10), which is uniquely expressed by SARS-CoV-2, remains unclear. In this study, we showed that overexpression of ORF10 markedly suppressed the expression of type I interferon (IFN-I) genes and IFN-stimulated genes. Then, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) was identified as the target via which ORF10 suppresses the IFN-I signaling pathway, and MAVS was found to be degraded through the ORF10-induced autophagy pathway. Furthermore, overexpression of ORF10 promoted the accumulation of LC3 in mitochondria and induced mitophagy. Mechanistically, ORF10 was translocated to mitochondria by interacting with the mitophagy receptor Nip3-like protein X (NIX) and induced mitophagy through its interaction with both NIX and LC3B. Moreover, knockdown of NIX expression blocked mitophagy activation, MAVS degradation, and IFN-I signaling pathway inhibition by ORF10. Consistent with our observations, in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, ORF10 inhibited MAVS expression and facilitated viral replication. In brief, our results reveal a novel mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 inhibits the innate immune response; that is, ORF10 induces mitophagy-mediated MAVS degradation by binding to NIX.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Open Reading Frames , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Autophagy/immunology , Gene Silencing , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitophagy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
14.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 142: 106946, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mitochondria play a central role in the host response to viral infection and immunity, being key to antiviral signaling and exacerbating inflammatory processes. Mitochondria and Toll-like receptor (TLR) have been suggested as potential targets in SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the involvement of TLR9 in SARS-Cov-2-induced endothelial dysfunction and potential contribution to cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 have not been demonstrated. This study determined whether infection of endothelial cells by SARS-CoV-2 affects mitochondrial function and induces mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) release. We also questioned whether TLR9 signaling mediates the inflammatory responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 in endothelial cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were infected by SARS-CoV-2 and immunofluorescence was used to confirm the infection. Mitochondrial function was analyzed by specific probes and mtDNA levels by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Inflammatory markers were measured by ELISA, protein expression by western blot, intracellular calcium (Ca2+) by FLUOR-4, and vascular reactivity with a myography. KEY RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infected HUVECs, which express ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteins, and promoted mitochondrial dysfunction, i.e. it increased mitochondria-derived superoxide anion, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mtDNA release, leading to activation of TLR9 and NF-kB, and release of cytokines. SARS-CoV-2 also decreased nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and inhibited Ca2+ responses in endothelial cells. TLR9 blockade reduced SARS-CoV-2-induced IL-6 release and prevented decreased eNOS expression. mtDNA increased vascular reactivity to endothelin-1 (ET-1) in arteries from wild type, but not TLR9 knockout mice. These events were recapitulated in serum samples from COVID-19 patients, that exhibited increased levels of mtDNA compared to sex- and age-matched healthy subjects and patients with comorbidities. CONCLUSION AND APPLICATIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs mitochondrial function and activates TLR9 signaling in endothelial cells. TLR9 triggers inflammatory responses that lead to endothelial cell dysfunction, potentially contributing to the severity of symptoms in COVID-19. Targeting mitochondrial metabolic pathways may help to define novel therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DNA, Mitochondrial , Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Mitochondria/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 9/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 9/metabolism
15.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463838

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is currently infecting millions of people worldwide and is causing drastic changes in people's lives. Recent studies have shown that neurological symptoms are a major issue for people infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, the mechanism through which the pathological effects emerge is still unclear. Brain endothelial cells (ECs), one of the components of the blood-brain barrier, are a major hurdle for the entry of pathogenic or infectious agents into the brain. They strongly express angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for its normal physiological function, which is also well-known to be an opportunistic receptor for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, facilitating their entry into host cells. First, we identified rapid internalization of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) S1 domain (S1) and active trimer (Trimer) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein through ACE2 in brain ECs. Moreover, internalized S1 increased Rab5, an early endosomal marker while Trimer decreased Rab5 in the brain ECs. Similarly, the permeability of transferrin and dextran was increased in S1 treatment but decreased in Trimer, respectively. Furthermore, S1 and Trimer both induced mitochondrial damage including functional deficits in mitochondrial respiration. Overall, this study shows that SARS-CoV-2 itself has toxic effects on the brain ECs including defective molecular delivery and metabolic function, suggesting a potential pathological mechanism to induce neurological signs in the brain.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Brain/metabolism , Brain/virology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Mice , Mitochondria/metabolism , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , rab5 GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 308, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364579

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm induced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major pathological feature of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a crucial determinant in COVID-19 prognosis. Understanding the mechanism underlying the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm is critical for COVID-19 control. Here, we identify that SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a and host hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) play key roles in the virus infection and pro-inflammatory responses. RNA sequencing shows that HIF-1α signaling, immune response, and metabolism pathways are dysregulated in COVID-19 patients. Clinical analyses indicate that HIF-1α production, inflammatory responses, and high mortalities occurr in elderly patients. HIF-1α and pro-inflammatory cytokines are elicited in patients and infected cells. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a induces mitochondrial damage and Mito-ROS production to promote HIF-1α expression, which subsequently facilitates SARS-CoV-2 infection and cytokines production. Notably, HIF-1α also broadly promotes the infection of other viruses. Collectively, during SARS-CoV-2 infection, ORF3a induces HIF-1α, which in turn aggravates viral infection and inflammatory responses. Therefore, HIF-1α plays an important role in promoting SARS-CoV-2 infection and inducing pro-inflammatory responses to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mitochondria/pathology , RNA-Seq , THP-1 Cells , Vero Cells
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335100

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria are vital intracellular organelles that play an important role in regulating various intracellular events such as metabolism, bioenergetics, cell death (apoptosis), and innate immune signaling. Mitochondrial fission, fusion, and membrane potential play a central role in maintaining mitochondrial dynamics and the overall shape of mitochondria. Viruses change the dynamics of the mitochondria by altering the mitochondrial processes/functions, such as autophagy, mitophagy, and enzymes involved in metabolism. In addition, viruses decrease the supply of energy to the mitochondria in the form of ATP, causing viruses to create cellular stress by generating ROS in mitochondria to instigate viral proliferation, a process which causes both intra- and extra-mitochondrial damage. SARS-COV2 propagates through altering or changing various pathways, such as autophagy, UPR stress, MPTP and NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, these pathways act as potential targets for viruses to facilitate their proliferation. Autophagy plays an essential role in SARS-COV2-mediated COVID-19 and modulates autophagy by using various drugs that act on potential targets of the virus to inhibit and treat viral infection. Modulated autophagy inhibits coronavirus replication; thus, it becomes a promising target for anti-coronaviral therapy. This review gives immense knowledge about the infections, mitochondrial modulations, and therapeutic targets of viruses.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , COVID-19/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitochondria/virology , Animals , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Mitochondrial Dynamics/drug effects , Mitophagy/drug effects , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/metabolism
18.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323128

ABSTRACT

Programmed cell death is a conserved evolutionary process of cell suicide that is central to the development and integrity of eukaryotic organisms [...].


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Disease , Health , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Biological Products/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Caspase 2/metabolism , Humans , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology , Nerve Degeneration/pathology
19.
Redox Biol ; 46: 102078, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322332

ABSTRACT

ACE2 plays a pivotal role in the balance between the pro-oxidative pro-inflammatory and the anti-oxidative anti-inflammatory arms of the renin-angiotensin system. Furthermore, ACE2 is the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Clarification of ACE2-related mechanisms is crucial for the understanding of COVID-19 and other oxidative stress and inflammation-related processes. In rat and monkey brain, we discovered that the intracellular ACE2 and its products Ang 1-7 and alamandine are highly concentrated in the mitochondria and bind to a new mitochondrial Mas-related receptor MrgE (MrgE) to produce nitric oxide. We found MrgE expressed in neurons and glia of rodents and primates in the substantia nigra and different brain regions. In the mitochondria, ACE2 and MrgE expressions decreased and NOX4 increased with aging. This new ACE2/MrgE/NO axis may play a major role in mitochondrial regulation of oxidative stress in neurons, and possibly other cells. Therefore, dysregulation of the mitochondrial ACE2/MrgE/NO axis may play a major role in neurodegenerative processes of dopaminergic neurons, where mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a crucial role. Since ACE2 binds SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the mitochondrial ACE2/MrgE/NO axis may also play a role in SARS-CoV-2 cellular effects.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Dopaminergic Neurons/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19 , Humans , Primates , Rats , Rodentia , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
20.
J Neurosci ; 41(25): 5338-5349, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282334

ABSTRACT

Clinical reports suggest that the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (CoV-2) has not only taken millions of lives, but has also created a major crisis of neurologic complications that persist even after recovery from the disease. Autopsies of patients confirm the presence of the coronaviruses in the CNS, especially in the brain. The invasion and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the CNS is not clearly defined, but, because the endocytic pathway has become an important target for the development of therapeutic strategies for COVID-19, it is necessary to understand endocytic processes in the CNS. In addition, mitochondria and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways play a critical role in the antiviral immune response, and may also be critical for endocytic activity. Furthermore, dysfunctions of mitochondria and mTOR signaling pathways have been associated with some high-risk conditions such as diabetes and immunodeficiency for developing severe complications observed in COVID-19 patients. However, the role of these pathways in SARS-CoV-2 infection and spread are largely unknown. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into the CNS and how mitochondria and mTOR pathways might regulate endocytic vesicle-mitochondria interactions and dynamics during SARS-CoV-2 infection. The mechanisms that plausibly account for severe neurologic complications with COVID-19 and potential treatments with Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs targeting mitochondria and the mTOR pathways are also addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Neurons/virology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitochondria/virology , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Neurons/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
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