Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 104
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(7): e17216, 2020 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent advancements in wearable sensor technology have shown the feasibility of remote physical therapy at home. In particular, the current COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the need and opportunity of internet-based wearable technology in future health care systems. Previous research has shown the feasibility of human activity recognition technologies for monitoring rehabilitation activities in home environments; however, few comprehensive studies ranging from development to clinical evaluation exist. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) develop a home-based rehabilitation (HBR) system that can recognize and record the type and frequency of rehabilitation exercises conducted by the user using a smartwatch and smartphone app equipped with a machine learning (ML) algorithm and (2) evaluate the efficacy of the home-based rehabilitation system through a prospective comparative study with chronic stroke survivors. METHODS: The HBR system involves an off-the-shelf smartwatch, a smartphone, and custom-developed apps. A convolutional neural network was used to train the ML algorithm for detecting home exercises. To determine the most accurate way for detecting the type of home exercise, we compared accuracy results with the data sets of personal or total data and accelerometer, gyroscope, or accelerometer combined with gyroscope data. From March 2018 to February 2019, we conducted a clinical study with two groups of stroke survivors. In total, 17 and 6 participants were enrolled for statistical analysis in the HBR group and control group, respectively. To measure clinical outcomes, we performed the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Upper Extremity, grip power test, Beck Depression Inventory, and range of motion (ROM) assessment of the shoulder joint at 0, 6, and 12 months, and at a follow-up assessment 6 weeks after retrieving the HBR system. RESULTS: The ML model created with personal data involving accelerometer combined with gyroscope data (5590/5601, 99.80%) was the most accurate compared with accelerometer (5496/5601, 98.13%) or gyroscope data (5381/5601, 96.07%). In the comparative study, the drop-out rates in the control and HBR groups were 40% (4/10) and 22% (5/22) at 12 weeks and 100% (10/10) and 45% (10/22) at 18 weeks, respectively. The HBR group (n=17) showed a significant improvement in the mean WMFT score (P=.02) and ROM of flexion (P=.004) and internal rotation (P=.001). The control group (n=6) showed a significant change only in shoulder internal rotation (P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that a home care system using a commercial smartwatch and ML model can facilitate participation in home training and improve the functional score of the WMFT and shoulder ROM of flexion and internal rotation in the treatment of patients with chronic stroke. This strategy can possibly be a cost-effective tool for the home care treatment of stroke survivors in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service KCT0004818; https://tinyurl.com/y92w978t.


Subject(s)
Home Care Services , Internet , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/physiopathology , Telerehabilitation , Upper Extremity/physiopathology , Wearable Electronic Devices , Aged , Chronic Disease , Exercise Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Machine Learning , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Models, Theoretical , Prospective Studies , Survivors , Treatment Outcome
2.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(8): e19857, 2020 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is the greatest public health crisis of the last 100 years. Countries have responded with various levels of lockdown to save lives and stop health systems from being overwhelmed. At the same time, lockdowns entail large socioeconomic costs. One exit strategy under consideration is a mobile phone app that traces the close contacts of those infected with COVID-19. Recent research has demonstrated the theoretical effectiveness of this solution in different disease settings. However, concerns have been raised about such apps because of the potential privacy implications. This could limit the acceptability of app-based contact tracing in the general population. As the effectiveness of this approach increases strongly with app uptake, it is crucial to understand public support for this intervention. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the user acceptability of a contact-tracing app in five countries hit by the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a largescale, multicountry study (N=5995) to measure public support for the digital contact tracing of COVID-19 infections. We ran anonymous online surveys in France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We measured intentions to use a contact-tracing app across different installation regimes (voluntary installation vs automatic installation by mobile phone providers) and studied how these intentions vary across individuals and countries. RESULTS: We found strong support for the app under both regimes, in all countries, across all subgroups of the population, and irrespective of regional-level COVID-19 mortality rates. We investigated the main factors that may hinder or facilitate uptake and found that concerns about cybersecurity and privacy, together with a lack of trust in the government, are the main barriers to adoption. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological evidence shows that app-based contact tracing can suppress the spread of COVID-19 if a high enough proportion of the population uses the app and that it can still reduce the number of infections if uptake is moderate. Our findings show that the willingness to install the app is very high. The available evidence suggests that app-based contact tracing may be a viable approach to control the diffusion of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Intention , Mobile Applications , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Female , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e21613, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic is showing negative effects on human health as well as on social and economic life. It is a critical and challenging task to revive public life while minimizing the risk of infection. Reducing interactions between people by social distancing is an effective and prevalent measure to reduce the risk of infection and spread of the virus within a community. Current developments in several countries show that this measure can be technologically accompanied by mobile apps; meanwhile, privacy concerns are being intensively discussed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine central cognitive variables that may constitute people's motivations for social distancing, using an app, and providing health-related data requested by two apps that differ in their direct utility for the individual user. The results may increase our understanding of people's concerns and convictions, which can then be specifically addressed by public-oriented communication strategies and appropriate political decisions. METHODS: This study refers to the protection motivation theory, which is adaptable to both health-related and technology-related motivations. The concept of social trust was added. The quantitative survey included answers from 406 German-speaking participants who provided assessments of data security issues, trust components, and the processes of threat and coping appraisal related to the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection by social distancing. With respect to apps, one central focus was on the difference between a contact tracing app and a data donation app. RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses showed that the present model could explain 55% of the interindividual variance in the participants' motivation for social distancing, 46% for using a contact tracing app, 42% for providing their own infection status to a contact tracing app, and 34% for using a data donation app. Several cognitive components of threat and coping appraisal were related to motivation measurements. Trust in other people's social distancing behavior and general trust in official app providers also played important roles; however, the participants' age and gender did not. Motivations for using and accepting a contact tracing app were higher than those for using and accepting a data donation app. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed some important cognitive factors that constitute people's motivation for social distancing and using apps to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Concrete implications for future research, public-oriented communication strategies, and appropriate political decisions were identified and are discussed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mobile Applications/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Distance , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e20572, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To track and reduce the spread of COVID-19, apps have been developed to identify contact with individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 and warn those who are at risk of having contracted the virus. However, the effectiveness of these apps depends highly on their uptake by the general population. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated factors influencing app use intention, based on the health belief model. In addition, associations with respondents' level of news consumption and their health condition were investigated. METHODS: A survey was administered in Flanders, Belgium, to 1500 respondents, aged 18 to 64 years. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate relationships across the model's constructs. RESULTS: In total, 48.70% (n=730) of respondents indicated that they intend to use a COVID-19 tracing app. The most important predictor was the perceived benefits of the app, followed by self-efficacy and perceived barriers. Perceived severity and perceived susceptibility were not related to app uptake intention. Moreover, cues to action (ie, individuals' exposure to [digital] media content) were positively associated with app use intention. As the respondents' age increased, their perceived benefits and self-efficacy for app usage decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Initiatives to stimulate the uptake of contact tracing apps should enhance perceived benefits and self-efficacy. A perceived barrier for some potential users is privacy concerns. Therefore, when developing and launching an app, clarification on how individuals' privacy will be protected is needed. To sustain perceived benefits in the long run, supplementary options could be integrated to inform and assist users.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Smartphone , Adolescent , Adult , Belgium , Betacoronavirus , Contact Tracing , Humans , Middle Aged , Privacy , Young Adult
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(29): 4182-4197, 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732795

ABSTRACT

Mobile health apps (MHAs) and medical apps (MAs) are becoming increasingly popular as digital interventions in a wide range of health-related applications in almost all sectors of healthcare. The surge in demand for digital medical solutions has been accelerated by the need for new diagnostic and therapeutic methods in the current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This also applies to clinical practice in gastroenterology, which has, in many respects, undergone a recent digital transformation with numerous consequences that will impact patients and health care professionals in the near future. MHAs and MAs are considered to have great potential, especially for chronic diseases, as they can support the self-management of patients in many ways. Despite the great potential associated with the application of MHAs and MAs in gastroenterology and health care in general, there are numerous challenges to be met in the future, including both the ethical and legal aspects of applying this technology. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current status of MHA and MA use in the field of gastroenterology, describe the future perspectives in this field and point out some of the challenges that need to be addressed.


Subject(s)
Gastroenterology/methods , Mobile Applications , Self-Management , Telemedicine , Wearable Electronic Devices , Betacoronavirus , Computer Literacy , Computer Security , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Ethics, Medical , Health Behavior , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Education as Topic , Physician-Patient Relations , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Smartphone
7.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 27(3)2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729406

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We present the integration of telemedicine into the healthcare system of West China Hospital of Sichuan University (WCH), one of the largest hospitals in the world with 4300 inpatient beds, as a means for maximising the efficiency of healthcare delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Implemented on 22 January 2020, the telemedicine technology allowed WCH providers to conduct teleconsultations, telerounds, teleradiology and tele-intensive care unit, which in culmination provided screening, triage and treatment for COVID-19 and other illnesses. To encourage its adoption, the government and the hospital publicised the platform on social media and waived fees. DISCUSSION: From 1 February to 1 April 2020, 10557 online COVID-19 consultations were conducted for 6662 individuals; meanwhile, 32676 patients without COVID completed virtual follow-ups. We discuss that high-quality, secure, affordable and user-friendly telemedical platforms should be integrated into global healthcare systems to help decrease the transmission of the virus and protect healthcare providers from infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , China , Cooperative Behavior , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Efficiency, Organizational , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Marketing of Health Services/organization & administration , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , Quality of Health Care , Triage/organization & administration
8.
IEEE Pulse ; 11(4): 14-17, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729277

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, before COVID-19 laid claim to the United States, Vice President Mike Pence briefed the press about the coronavirus outbreak, which at the time was a threat to passengers aboard the Grand Princess cruise ship moored off the coast of California [1]. At the time, cases had spiked in Iran, Italy, and Spain, but the disease was still an abstraction to most Americans. When asked about a potential outbreak in Washington, D.C., Pence called on Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, and a member of the U.S. Task Force, to address the question. Fauci replied that any individual who tested positive for the disease would undergo contact tracing, which he deemed "the public health weapon" for catching outbreaks before they start. Not long after, the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic, and the virus began spreading across the country.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
11.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(8): e19433, 2020 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dental visits are unpleasant; sometimes, patients only seek treatment when they are in intolerable pain. Recently, the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the need for remote communication when patients and dentists cannot meet in person. Gingivitis is very common and characterized by red, swollen, bleeding gums. Gingivitis heals within 10 days of professional care and with daily, thorough oral hygiene practices. If left untreated, however, its progress may lead to teeth becoming mobile or lost. Of the many medical apps currently available, none monitor gingivitis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present a characterization and development model of a mobile health (mHealth) app called iGAM, which focuses on periodontal health and improves the information flow between dentists and patients. METHODS: A focus group discussed the potential of an app to monitor gingivitis, and 3 semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted on the use of apps for monitoring gum infections. We used a qualitative design process based on the Agile approach, which incorporated the following 5 steps: (1) user story, (2) use cases, (3) functional requirements, (4) nonfunctional requirements, and (5) Agile software development cycles. In a pilot study with 18 participants aged 18-45 years and with different levels of health literacy, participants were given a toothbrush, toothpaste, mouthwash, toothpicks, and dental floss. After installing iGAM, they were asked to photograph their gums weekly for 4 weeks. RESULTS: All participants in the focus group believed in the potential of a mobile app to monitor gingivitis and reduce its severity. Concerns about security and privacy issues were discussed. From the interviews, 2 themes were derived: (1) "what's in it for me?" and (2) the need for a take-home message. The 5 cycles of development highlighted the importance of communication between dentists, app developers, and the pilot group. Qualitative analysis of the data from the pilot study showed difficulty with: (1) the camera, which was alleviated with the provision of mouth openers, and (2) the operation of the phone, which was alleviated by changing the app to be fully automated, with a weekly reminder and an instructions document. Final interviews showed satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: iGAM is the first mHealth app for monitoring gingivitis using self-photography. iGAM facilitates the information flow between dentists and patients between checkups and may be useful when face-to-face consultations are not possible (such as during the COVID-19 pandemic).


Subject(s)
Dental Care/methods , Gingivitis/prevention & control , Mobile Applications , Photography , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , User-Computer Interface , Young Adult
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714306

ABSTRACT

The globally fast-spreading novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is now testing the abilities of all countries to manage its widespread implications on public health. To effectively contain its impacts, a nation-wide temporary lockdown was enforced in India. The resultant panic buying and stockpiling incidents together with spread of misinformation created a sense of food insecurity at local level. This paper discusses a specific case of Nagpur from the worst affected Maharashtra state of India, wherein the urban-rural food supply chains were reportedly disrupted. Based on formal interviews with local government officials, a month-long timeline of COVID-19 outbreak in Nagpur was studied along with the consequent government initiatives for maintaining public health and food supply. While the city residents were confined to their homes, this study then assessed their perceived food security at household level, along with their "Immediate Concerns" and "Key Information Sources". Through online surveys at two different time intervals, the concerns of "Food and Grocery" were found to be rising, and "Government Apps and Websites" were identified as the most reliable source of information. Based on the research findings, the authors further suggest specific policy recommendations for addressing the immediate and long-term concerns related to food systems in Nagpur.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Food Supply/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Urban Population , Betacoronavirus , Cooperative Behavior , Coronavirus , Disaster Planning , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , Panic , Rural Population , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19338, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first case of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia was confirmed on March 3, 2020. Saudi Arabia, like many other countries worldwide, implemented lockdown of most public and private services in response to the pandemic and established population movement restrictions nationwide. With the implementation of these strict mitigation regulations, technology and digital solutions have enabled the provision of essential services. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to highlight how Saudi Arabia has used digital technology during the COVID-19 pandemic in the domains of public health, health care services, education, telecommunication, commerce, and risk communication. METHODS: We documented the use of digital technology in Saudi Arabia during the pandemic using publicly available official announcements, press briefings and releases, news clips, published data, peer-reviewed literature, and professional discussions. RESULTS: Saudi Arabia's government and private sectors combined developed and launched approximately 19 apps and platforms that serve public health functions and provide health care services. A detailed account of each is provided. Education processes continued using an established electronic learning infrastructure with a promising direction toward wider adoption in the future. Telecommunication companies exhibited smooth collaboration as well as innovative initiatives to support ongoing efforts. Risk communication activities using social media, websites, and SMS text messaging followed best practice guides. CONCLUSIONS: The Saudi Vision 2030 framework, released in 2017, has paved the path for digital transformation. COVID-19 enabled the promotion and testing of this transition. In Saudi Arabia, the use of artificial intelligence in integrating different data sources during future outbreaks could be further explored. Also, decreasing the number of mobile apps and merging their functions could increase and facilitate their use.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Education/methods , Mobile Applications/supply & distribution , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health/methods , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
14.
J Med Syst ; 44(9): 164, 2020 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710470

ABSTRACT

The global impact of COVID-19 pandemic has led to a rapid development and utilization of mobile health applications. These are addressing the unmet needs of healthcare and public health system including contact tracing, health information dissemination, symptom checking and providing tools for training healthcare providers. Here we provide an overview of mobile applications being currently utilized for COVID-19 and their assessment using the Mobile Application Rating Scale. We performed a systematic review of the literature and mobile platforms to assess mobile applications currently utilized for COVID-19, and a quality assessment of these applications using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS) for overall quality, Engagement, Functionality, Aesthetics, and Information. Finally, we provide an overview of the key salient features that should be included in mobile applications being developed for future use. Our search identified 63 apps that are currently being used for COVID-19. Of these, 25 were selected from the Google play store and Apple App store in India, and 19 each from the UK and US. 18 apps were developed for sharing up to date information on COVID-19, and 8 were used for contact tracing while 9 apps showed features of both. On MARS Scale, overall scores ranged from 2.4 to 4.8 with apps scoring high in areas of functionality and lower in Engagement. Future steps should involve developing and testing of mobile applications using assessment tools like the MARS scale and the study of their impact on health behaviours and outcomes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Mobile Applications/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Smartphone/standards , Telemedicine/standards , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods
16.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(9): e475-e483, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data for front-line health-care workers and risk of COVID-19 are limited. We sought to assess risk of COVID-19 among front-line health-care workers compared with the general community and the effect of personal protective equipment (PPE) on risk. METHODS: We did a prospective, observational cohort study in the UK and the USA of the general community, including front-line health-care workers, using self-reported data from the COVID Symptom Study smartphone application (app) from March 24 (UK) and March 29 (USA) to April 23, 2020. Participants were voluntary users of the app and at first use provided information on demographic factors (including age, sex, race or ethnic background, height and weight, and occupation) and medical history, and subsequently reported any COVID-19 symptoms. We used Cox proportional hazards modelling to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of our primary outcome, which was a positive COVID-19 test. The COVID Symptom Study app is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04331509. FINDINGS: Among 2 035 395 community individuals and 99 795 front-line health-care workers, we recorded 5545 incident reports of a positive COVID-19 test over 34 435 272 person-days. Compared with the general community, front-line health-care workers were at increased risk for reporting a positive COVID-19 test (adjusted HR 11·61, 95% CI 10·93-12·33). To account for differences in testing frequency between front-line health-care workers and the general community and possible selection bias, an inverse probability-weighted model was used to adjust for the likelihood of receiving a COVID-19 test (adjusted HR 3·40, 95% CI 3·37-3·43). Secondary and post-hoc analyses suggested adequacy of PPE, clinical setting, and ethnic background were also important factors. INTERPRETATION: In the UK and the USA, risk of reporting a positive test for COVID-19 was increased among front-line health-care workers. Health-care systems should ensure adequate availability of PPE and develop additional strategies to protect health-care workers from COVID-19, particularly those from Black, Asian, and minority ethnic backgrounds. Additional follow-up of these observational findings is needed. FUNDING: Zoe Global, Wellcome Trust, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Institutes of Health Research, UK Research and Innovation, Alzheimer's Society, National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Self Report , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e20572, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To track and reduce the spread of COVID-19, apps have been developed to identify contact with individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 and warn those who are at risk of having contracted the virus. However, the effectiveness of these apps depends highly on their uptake by the general population. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated factors influencing app use intention, based on the health belief model. In addition, associations with respondents' level of news consumption and their health condition were investigated. METHODS: A survey was administered in Flanders, Belgium, to 1500 respondents, aged 18 to 64 years. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate relationships across the model's constructs. RESULTS: In total, 48.70% (n=730) of respondents indicated that they intend to use a COVID-19 tracing app. The most important predictor was the perceived benefits of the app, followed by self-efficacy and perceived barriers. Perceived severity and perceived susceptibility were not related to app uptake intention. Moreover, cues to action (ie, individuals' exposure to [digital] media content) were positively associated with app use intention. As the respondents' age increased, their perceived benefits and self-efficacy for app usage decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Initiatives to stimulate the uptake of contact tracing apps should enhance perceived benefits and self-efficacy. A perceived barrier for some potential users is privacy concerns. Therefore, when developing and launching an app, clarification on how individuals' privacy will be protected is needed. To sustain perceived benefits in the long run, supplementary options could be integrated to inform and assist users.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Smartphone , Adolescent , Adult , Belgium , Betacoronavirus , Contact Tracing , Humans , Middle Aged , Privacy , Young Adult
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e21613, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic is showing negative effects on human health as well as on social and economic life. It is a critical and challenging task to revive public life while minimizing the risk of infection. Reducing interactions between people by social distancing is an effective and prevalent measure to reduce the risk of infection and spread of the virus within a community. Current developments in several countries show that this measure can be technologically accompanied by mobile apps; meanwhile, privacy concerns are being intensively discussed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine central cognitive variables that may constitute people's motivations for social distancing, using an app, and providing health-related data requested by two apps that differ in their direct utility for the individual user. The results may increase our understanding of people's concerns and convictions, which can then be specifically addressed by public-oriented communication strategies and appropriate political decisions. METHODS: This study refers to the protection motivation theory, which is adaptable to both health-related and technology-related motivations. The concept of social trust was added. The quantitative survey included answers from 406 German-speaking participants who provided assessments of data security issues, trust components, and the processes of threat and coping appraisal related to the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection by social distancing. With respect to apps, one central focus was on the difference between a contact tracing app and a data donation app. RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses showed that the present model could explain 55% of the interindividual variance in the participants' motivation for social distancing, 46% for using a contact tracing app, 42% for providing their own infection status to a contact tracing app, and 34% for using a data donation app. Several cognitive components of threat and coping appraisal were related to motivation measurements. Trust in other people's social distancing behavior and general trust in official app providers also played important roles; however, the participants' age and gender did not. Motivations for using and accepting a contact tracing app were higher than those for using and accepting a data donation app. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed some important cognitive factors that constitute people's motivation for social distancing and using apps to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Concrete implications for future research, public-oriented communication strategies, and appropriate political decisions were identified and are discussed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mobile Applications/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Distance , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(8): e19857, 2020 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is the greatest public health crisis of the last 100 years. Countries have responded with various levels of lockdown to save lives and stop health systems from being overwhelmed. At the same time, lockdowns entail large socioeconomic costs. One exit strategy under consideration is a mobile phone app that traces the close contacts of those infected with COVID-19. Recent research has demonstrated the theoretical effectiveness of this solution in different disease settings. However, concerns have been raised about such apps because of the potential privacy implications. This could limit the acceptability of app-based contact tracing in the general population. As the effectiveness of this approach increases strongly with app uptake, it is crucial to understand public support for this intervention. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the user acceptability of a contact-tracing app in five countries hit by the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a largescale, multicountry study (N=5995) to measure public support for the digital contact tracing of COVID-19 infections. We ran anonymous online surveys in France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We measured intentions to use a contact-tracing app across different installation regimes (voluntary installation vs automatic installation by mobile phone providers) and studied how these intentions vary across individuals and countries. RESULTS: We found strong support for the app under both regimes, in all countries, across all subgroups of the population, and irrespective of regional-level COVID-19 mortality rates. We investigated the main factors that may hinder or facilitate uptake and found that concerns about cybersecurity and privacy, together with a lack of trust in the government, are the main barriers to adoption. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological evidence shows that app-based contact tracing can suppress the spread of COVID-19 if a high enough proportion of the population uses the app and that it can still reduce the number of infections if uptake is moderate. Our findings show that the willingness to install the app is very high. The available evidence suggests that app-based contact tracing may be a viable approach to control the diffusion of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Intention , Mobile Applications , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Female , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 81(7): 1-3, 2020 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690875

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused major disruptions to the healthcare system, including increased reliance on virtual services, particularly clinic appointments. This leads to difficulty in obtaining informed consent; the vast majority of patients now need to be consented on the day of the procedure. To reduce problems with this process, the practice of obtaining electronic consent may be the correct way forward.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Informed Consent , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Mobile Applications , Pandemics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL