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1.
Med Care ; 59(12): 1067-1074, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increase in telehealth in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic highlights the need to understand patients' capacity to utilize this care modality. Patient portals are a tool whose use requires similar resources and skills as those required for telehealth. Patients' capacity to use patient portals may therefore provide insight regarding patients' readiness and capacity to use telehealth. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine factors related to patients' capacity to use a patient portal and test the impact of these factors on patients' portal use. RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Using data from a large-scale pragmatic randomized controlled trial of patient portal use, 1081 hospitalized patients responded to survey items that were then mapped onto the 4 dimensions of the Engagement Capacity Framework: self-efficacy, resources, willingness, and capabilities. MEASURES: The outcome variable was frequency of outpatient portal use. We evaluated associations between Engagement Capacity Framework dimensions and patient portal use, using regression analyses. RESULTS: Patients with fewer resources, fewer capabilities, lower willingness, and lower overall capacity to use patient portals used the portal less; in contrast, those with lower perceived self-efficacy used the portal more. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight differences in patients' capacity to use patient portals, which provide an initial understanding of factors that may influence the use of telehealth and offer important guidance in efforts to support patients' telehealth use. Offering patients training tailored to the use of telehealth tools may be particularly beneficial.


Subject(s)
Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Portals , Telemedicine , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Psychological , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Self Efficacy , Self-Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1571, 2020 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a major global public health challenge. This study aimed to investigate on how people perceive the COVID-19 outbreak using the components of the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) and to find out how this might contribute to possible behavioral responses to the prevention and control of the disease. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran during March and April 2020. Participants were recruited via online applications using a number of platforms such as Telegram, WhatsApp, and Instagram asking people to take part in the study. To collect data an electronic self-designed questionnaire based on the EPPM was used in order to measure the risk perception (efficacy, defensive responses, perceived treat) related to the COVID-19. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA), were used to explore the data. RESULTS: A total of 3727 individuals with a mean age (SD) of 37.0 (11.1) years participated in the study. The results revealed significant differences in efficacy, defensive responses and perceived treat among different population groups particularly among those aged 60 and over. Women had significantly higher scores than men on some aspects such as self-efficacy, reactance, and avoidance but men had higher perceived susceptibility scores compared to women. Overall 56.4% of participants were engaged in danger control (preventive behavior) while the remaining 43.6% were engaged in fear control (non-preventive behavior) process. CONCLUSION: More than half of all participants motivated by danger control. This indicated that more than half of participants had high perceived efficacy (i.e., self-efficacy and response efficacy). Self-efficacy scores were significantly higher among participants who were older, female, single, lived in rural areas, and had good economic status. The results suggest that socioeconomic and demographic factors are the main determinants of the COVID-19 risk perception. Indeed, targeted interventions are essential for controlling the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Models, Psychological , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Risk Assessment , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 114(1): 72-86, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451867

ABSTRACT

Choosing a larger-later reward over a smaller-sooner reward may be thought of as altruism toward one's future self. A question that arises in this connection is: What is the relation between delay and social discounting? To begin to answer this question, social and delay discount functions need to be comparable. Delay is ordinarily measured on a ratio scale (time), which allows for meaningful division and addition. Social distance is ordinarily measured on an ordinal scale (rank order of social closeness). To convert social distance to a ratio scale we use a psychophysical distance function obtained via magnitude estimation (Stevens, 1956). The distance functions obtained are well described by a power function (median exponent = 1.9); we show how they may be used to rescale ordinal to ratio social discount functions.


Subject(s)
Delay Discounting , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Perception/psychology , Adult , Altruism , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Psychological , Probability
4.
Med Care ; 59(12): 1067-1074, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increase in telehealth in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic highlights the need to understand patients' capacity to utilize this care modality. Patient portals are a tool whose use requires similar resources and skills as those required for telehealth. Patients' capacity to use patient portals may therefore provide insight regarding patients' readiness and capacity to use telehealth. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine factors related to patients' capacity to use a patient portal and test the impact of these factors on patients' portal use. RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Using data from a large-scale pragmatic randomized controlled trial of patient portal use, 1081 hospitalized patients responded to survey items that were then mapped onto the 4 dimensions of the Engagement Capacity Framework: self-efficacy, resources, willingness, and capabilities. MEASURES: The outcome variable was frequency of outpatient portal use. We evaluated associations between Engagement Capacity Framework dimensions and patient portal use, using regression analyses. RESULTS: Patients with fewer resources, fewer capabilities, lower willingness, and lower overall capacity to use patient portals used the portal less; in contrast, those with lower perceived self-efficacy used the portal more. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight differences in patients' capacity to use patient portals, which provide an initial understanding of factors that may influence the use of telehealth and offer important guidance in efforts to support patients' telehealth use. Offering patients training tailored to the use of telehealth tools may be particularly beneficial.


Subject(s)
Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Portals , Telemedicine , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Psychological , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Self Efficacy , Self-Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
5.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(11): 1089-1103, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, prevention behavior adoption occurred in a rapidly changing context. In contrast to expectancy-value theories, the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) is well-suited for investigating novel and socially informed behaviors. PURPOSE: We explored whether PWM social cognitions predicted coronavirus prevention behaviors. METHOD: A representative sample of United States adults (N = 738; Mage = 46.8; 51.8% women; 78% white; April 2020) who had not had COVID-19 reported PWM predictor variables (perceived vulnerability, prevention descriptive norms, prototypes engaging in prevention behavior, and prevention behavioral intentions). Two weeks later, participants reported their prevention behaviors (handwashing, mask-wearing, social distancing, etc.) and future public health behavioral willingness (contact tracing, temperature checks, etc.). RESULTS: Controlling for putative demographic, past behavior, and coronavirus-contextual (e.g., local infection rates) covariates, mediation models indicated that higher norms and favorable prototypes were associated with greater prevention behavioral intentions, which in turn predicted increased prevention behavior, F(18, 705) = 92.20, p < .001, R2 = .70. Higher norms and favorable prototypes associated both directly and indirectly (through greater prevention behavioral intention) with greater willingness to engage in emerging public health behaviors, F(15, 715) = 21.49, p < .001, R2 = .31. CONCLUSIONS: Greater descriptive norms and favorable prototypes for prevention behavior predicted: (a) future prevention behaviors through increases in behavioral intentions and (b) willingness to participate in emerging public health behaviors. These results held across demographic groups, political affiliation, and severity of regional outbreaks. Public health efforts to curb pandemics should highlight normative prevention participation and enhance positive prototypes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognition/physiology , Models, Psychological , Social Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(8): 1188-1201, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368913

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused hundreds of thousands of deaths in the U.S. As chief strategists of their respective firms, how do Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) react to mortality salience associated with the number of new daily COVID deaths in the U.S.? To answer this question, we integrate terror management theory (TMT) with regulatory focus theory to examine how CEOs respond to mortality salience. Based on a sample of CEOs of S&P 500 firms, we found that mortality salience was associated with CEOs' increased other-orientation, and this association was more pronounced among those with high prevention focus. Mortality salience also was associated with CEOs' decreased self-orientation, particularly among those with high promotion focus. We also found that CEOs' self-orientation was negatively related to the likelihood of their firms' making community donations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commerce/economics , Death , Fear/psychology , Models, Psychological , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Charities , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Organizational Culture , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366852

ABSTRACT

Recent evidence suggests that vaccination hesitancy is too high in many countries to sustainably contain COVID-19. Using a factorial survey experiment administered to 20,500 online respondents in Germany, we assess the effectiveness of three strategies to increase vaccine uptake, namely, providing freedoms, financial remuneration, and vaccination at local doctors. Our results suggest that all three strategies can increase vaccination uptake on the order of two to three percentage points (PP) overall and five PP among the undecided. The combined effects could be as high as 13 PP for this group. The returns from different strategies vary across age groups, however, with older cohorts more responsive to local access and younger cohorts most responsive to enhanced freedoms for vaccinated citizens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Motivation/ethics , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mass Vaccination/economics , Middle Aged , Models, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255615, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365421

ABSTRACT

Social scientists and psychologists take interest in understanding how people express emotions and sentiments when dealing with catastrophic events such as natural disasters, political unrest, and terrorism. The COVID-19 pandemic is a catastrophic event that has raised a number of psychological issues such as depression given abrupt social changes and lack of employment. Advancements of deep learning-based language models have been promising for sentiment analysis with data from social networks such as Twitter. Given the situation with COVID-19 pandemic, different countries had different peaks where rise and fall of new cases affected lock-downs which directly affected the economy and employment. During the rise of COVID-19 cases with stricter lock-downs, people have been expressing their sentiments in social media. This can provide a deep understanding of human psychology during catastrophic events. In this paper, we present a framework that employs deep learning-based language models via long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks for sentiment analysis during the rise of novel COVID-19 cases in India. The framework features LSTM language model with a global vector embedding and state-of-art BERT language model. We review the sentiments expressed for selective months in 2020 which covers the major peak of novel cases in India. Our framework utilises multi-label sentiment classification where more than one sentiment can be expressed at once. Our results indicate that the majority of the tweets have been positive with high levels of optimism during the rise of the novel COVID-19 cases and the number of tweets significantly lowered towards the peak. We find that the optimistic, annoyed and joking tweets mostly dominate the monthly tweets with much lower portion of negative sentiments. The predictions generally indicate that although the majority have been optimistic, a significant group of population has been annoyed towards the way the pandemic was handled by the authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Models, Biological , Models, Psychological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , India/epidemiology
9.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 627-642, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364573

ABSTRACT

Anti-Asian racism has spiked since the outbreak of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, creating compounded threats to Asian Americans' psychological wellbeing on top of other pandemic stressors (e.g., fears of infection, financial insecurity, or quarantine isolation). COVID-19 anti-Asian racism signifies the relevance of race and racism during public health crises and highlights the importance of examining the psychological impacts of racialized stress and avenues for resilience during a pandemic. This article describes a conceptual model that emphasizes the importance of rechanneling the experience of COVID-19 anti-Asian racism toward resilience. Specifically, the proposed model identifies a tripartite process of collective psychosocial resilience, comprised of (a) critical consciousness of discrimination as a common fate, (b) critical consciousness-informed racial/ethnic identity, and (c) advocacy, for empowering Asian Americans and protecting them against the harmful effects of COVID-19 anti-Asian racism during and beyond the pandemic. Theoretical and empirical underpinnings of the proposed tripartite process for cultivating resilience against COVID-19 anti-Asian racism are delineated. Practice implications and future research directions, as informed and revealed by the conceptual model, are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Racism , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Models, Psychological , Racism/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/ethnology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , United States/epidemiology
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256041, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362088

ABSTRACT

Despite the severe psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, some individuals do not develop high levels of psychological distress and can be termed resilient. Using the ecological resilience model, we examined factors promoting or hindering resilience in the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the 1034 participants (49.9±16.2 years; females 51.2%) from Italian general population, 70% displayed resilient outcomes and 30% reported moderate-severe anxiety and/or depression. A binary regression model revealed that factors promoting resilience were mostly psychological (e.g., trait resilience, conscientiousness) together with social distancing. Conversely, factors hindering resilience included COVID-19-anxiety, COVID-19-related PTSD symptoms, intolerance of uncertainty, loneliness, living with children, higher education, and living in regions where the virus was starting to spread. In conclusion, the ecological resilience model in the COVID-19 pandemic explained 64% of the variance and identified factors promoting or hindering resilient outcomes. Critically, these findings can inform psychological interventions supporting individuals by strengthening factors associated with resilience.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Psychological , Physical Distancing , Risk Factors
11.
Br J Community Nurs ; 26(8): 384-389, 2021 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339725

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has increased workload demands for many NHS staff including those working in the community. Nurse managers can make a difference by being authentic leaders, nurturing a supportive organisation where the workload is managed participatively and self-kindness is legitimate. Unfortunately some staff may experience burnout and this article presents a personal management plan to address the symptoms of burnout and aid recovery, although it cannot promote a total recovery if the cause of the symptoms remains unaddressed.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nurses, Community Health/psychology , Occupational Stress/prevention & control , Pandemics , Community Health Nursing/organization & administration , Humans , Leadership , Models, Psychological , Psychosocial Support Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom , Work Schedule Tolerance , Workload
12.
Psicothema ; 33(3): 423-432, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several biopsychosocial variables could play an important role as risk and protective factors of mental health, COVID-19 outbreak studies among older people have seldom focused on protective factors. The purpose of this study was to analyze how older adults' personal strengths predict their well-being and emotional distress. METHOD: 783 Spanish people aged 60 and over completed a survey that included sociodemographic characteristics, perceived health, direct or indirect infection by COVID-19, resilience, gratitude, experiential avoidance, family functioning, emotional distress and well-being. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was performed. SEM invariance was also used to analyze whether there were differences between older people affected by COVID-19 and those not affected. RESULTS: The best model supports the mediation effect of resilience, gratitude and experiential avoidance on older people's well-being and emotional distress. Whether participants or relatives had been infected by the virus or not did not affect the results. CONCLUSIONS: Variables used as criteria in older adults are related to well-being and emotional distress, but only indirectly and mediated by resilience, gratitude and experiential avoidance. This confirms the importance of considering psychological strengths in older people's well-being. Interventions focused on these personal resources should be considered.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Resilience, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Avoidance Learning , COVID-19/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Psychological , Protective Factors , Psychological Distress , Social Isolation/psychology
13.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255156, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323021

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Covid-19 pandemic is hitting societies hard, and people living in disadvantaged circumstances are among the most affected. We investigate the combined effects of the Covid-19 crisis and living in a deprived neighbourhood on two dimensions of subjective well-being: hedonic (i.e. mental health) and evaluative (i.e. life satisfaction) subjective well-being. METHODS: We use longitudinal data from the Understanding Society UK panel. We combine data gathered in the main survey between 2015 and 2019 with very recent data from the Covid-19 online survey between April and July 2020. Leveraging a sample of nearly 9,600 English individuals, we first run a set of cross-sectional OLS regressions to analyse changes over time in the relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and subjective well-being. Then, as our main model of interest, we use a fixed effect difference-in-differences model to provide more robust evidence. RESULTS: Since the beginning of the crisis, both levels of hedonic and evaluative well-being have decreased as a result of the pandemic and lockdown. However, for those living in more deprived neighbourhoods the level of hedonic well-being decreased more than for those living in better areas. We found no such difference for evaluative well-being. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the importance of reducing neighbourhood inequalities as the spatial clustering of disadvantages has increased by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Models, Psychological , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Residence Characteristics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors
15.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253430, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278195

ABSTRACT

This study examines the evolution of Schwartz's Basic Human Values during the COVID-19 outbreak, and their relationships with perceived threat, compliance with movement restrictions and social distancing. An online questionnaire was administered to a heterogeneous sample of French citizens (N = 1025) during the first French lockdown related to the outbreak. Results revealed a significant evolution of values; the conservation value was higher during the outbreak than usual, and both self-enhancement and openness-to-change values were lower during the COVID-19 outbreak than usual. Conservation and perceived threat during the outbreak were robustly and positively related to both compliance with movement restrictions and social distancing. Conservation during the outbreak emerged as a significant partial mediator of the relationship between perceived threat and outcomes (i.e., compliance with movement restrictions and social distancing). Implications of these results for the malleability of values and the COVID-19 modelling are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Young Adult
17.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 363-367, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended behavioral measures to slow the spread of COVID-19, such as social distancing and wearing masks. Although many individuals comply with these recommendations, compliance has been far from universal. Identifying predictors of compliance is crucial for improving health behavior messaging and thereby reducing disease spread and fatalities. METHODS: We report preregistered analyses from a longitudinal study that investigated personality predictors of compliance with behavioral recommendations in diverse US adults across five waves from March to August 2020 (n = 596) and cross-sectionally in August 2020 (n = 405). RESULTS: Agreeableness-characterized by compassion-was the most consistent predictor of compliance, above and beyond other traits, and sociodemographic predictors (sample A, ß = 0.25; sample B, ß = 0.12). The effect of agreeableness was robust across two diverse samples and sensitivity analyses. In addition, openness, conscientiousness, and extraversion were also associated with greater compliance, but effects were less consistent across sensitivity analyses and were smaller in sample A. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who are less agreeable are at higher risk for noncompliance with behavioral mandates, suggesting that health messaging can be meaningfully improved with approaches that address these individuals in particular. These findings highlight the strong theoretical and practical utility of testing long-standing psychological theories during real-world crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Health Behavior , Models, Psychological , Personality , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Empathy , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Personality Tests , Physical Distancing , United States
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11485, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253982

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been mandated to keep enlarged distances from others. We interviewed 136 German subjects over five weeks from the end of March to the end of April 2020 during the first wave of infections about their preferred interpersonal distance (IPD) before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. In response to the pandemic, subjects adapted to distance requirements and preferred a larger IPD. This enlarged IPD was judged to partially persist after the pandemic crisis. People anticipated keeping more IPD to others even if there was no longer any risk of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also sampled two follow-up measurements, one in August, after the first wave of infections had been flattened, and one in October 2020, at the beginning of the second wave. Here, we observed that IPD varied with the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 within Germany. Overall, our data indicated that adaptation to distance requirements might happen asymmetrically. Preferred IPD rapidly adapted in response to distance requirements, but an enlargement of IPD may partially linger after the COVID-19 pandemic-crisis. We discuss our findings in light of proxemic theory and as an indicator for socio-cultural adaptation beyond the course of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Physical Distancing , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Fear , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Models, Psychological , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Stigma , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Young Adult
19.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251081, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238762

ABSTRACT

From infancy, humans have the ability to distinguish animate agents from inert objects, and preschoolers map biological and mechanical insides to their appropriate kinds. However, less is known about how identifying something as an animate agent shapes specific inferences about its internal properties. Here, we test whether preschool children (N = 92; North American population) have specifically biological expectations about animate agents, or if they have more general expectations that animate agents should have an internal source of motion. We presented preschoolers with videos of two puppets: a "self-propelled" fur-covered puppet, and a fur-covered puppet that is seen to be moved by a human actor. In addition, we presented preschoolers with images of a familiar artifact (motorcycle) and familiar animal (sheep). For each item, we asked them to choose what they thought was inside each of these entities: nothing, biological insides, or mechanical insides. Preschoolers were less likely to say that a self-propelled fur-covered object was empty, compared to a fur-covered object that was moved by a human actor, which converges with past work with infants. However, preschoolers showed no specifically biological expectations about these objects, despite being able to accurately match biological insides to familiar animals and mechanical insides to familiar artifacts on the follow-up measure. These results suggest that preschoolers do not have specifically biological expectations about animate agents as a category, but rather general expectations that such agents should not be empty inside.


Subject(s)
Intuition/physiology , Child Development/physiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Psychological , Photic Stimulation , Play and Playthings , Psychology, Child
20.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250878, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238761

ABSTRACT

With the in-depth development of globalization, individuals are increasingly embedded in a culturally diverse environment. Effective communication and management ability (Cultural Intelligence) of employees in this type of diverse and heterogeneous environment impacts behavior and performance, affecting the sustainable innovation ability of organizations. Researchers have not yet fully assessed the impact of individuals' cross-cultural management ability on sustainable innovation. Using Cultural Intelligence Theory and Trait Activation Theory, this paper discusses the influence of individual cultural intelligence on sustainable innovation behavior. The results showed that employees' cultural intelligence positively affected their sustainable innovation behavior. Employee knowledge sharing plays an mediating role between intelligence and behavior. Differences in organizational culture have a negative moderating effect on the impact of employees' cultural intelligence on knowledge sharing and sustainable innovation behaviors. The research results provide theoretical guidance for managing organizational cultural diversity and advancing cultural intelligence and sustainable innovation behaviors among employees.


Subject(s)
Cultural Diversity , Organizational Culture , Organizational Innovation , China , Creativity , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Intelligence , Knowledge , Models, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
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