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1.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 36: 3946320221142793, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138626

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Medicinal herbs are being investigated for medicationhg development against SARS-CoV-2 as a rich source of bioactive chemicals. One of the finest approaches for finding therapeutically effective drug molecules in real time is virtual screening scheme such as molecular docking in conjunction with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. These virtual techniques provide an ample opportunity for the screening of plausible inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 different target proteins from a comprehensive and extensive phytochemical library. The study was designed to identify potential phytochemicals by virtual screening against different receptor proteins. METHODS: In the current study, a library of plant secondary metabolites was created by manually curating 120 phytochemicals known to have antimicrobial as well as antiviral properties. In the current study, different potential phytochemicals were identified by virtual screening against various selected receptor proteins (i.e., viral main proteases, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), ADP ribose phosphatase, nonstructural proteins NSP7, NSP8, and NSP9) which are key proteins responsible for transcription, replication and maturation of SARS-CoV-2 in the host. Top three phytochemicals were selected against each viral receptor protein based on their best S-scores, RMSD values, molecular interactions, binding patterns and drug-likeness properties. RESULTS: The results of molecular docking study revealed that phytochemicals (i.e., baicalin, betaxanthin, epigallocatechin, fomecin A, gallic acid, hortensin, ichangin, kaempferol, limonoic acid, myricetin hexaacetat, pedalitin, quercetin, quercitrin, and silvestrol) have strong antiviral potential against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, the reported preeminent reliable phytochemicals also revealed toxicity by no means during the evaluation through ADMET profiling. Moreover, the MD simulation study also exhibited thermal stability and stable binding affinity of the pedalitin with SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and SARS-CoV-2 main protease which suggests appreciable efficacy of the lead optimization. CONCLUSION: The biological activity and pharmacologically distinguishing characteristics of these lead compounds also satisfied as repurposing antiviral drug contenders and are worth substantial evaluation in the biological laboratory for the recommendation of being plausible antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19986, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133634

ABSTRACT

RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), is an essential in the RNA replication within the life cycle of the severely acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing the deadly respiratory induced sickness COVID-19. Remdesivir is a prodrug that has seen some success in inhibiting this enzyme, however there is still the pressing need for effective alternatives. In this study, we present the discovery of four non-nucleoside small molecules that bind favorably to SARS-CoV-2 RdRp over the active form of the popular drug remdesivir (RTP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by utilizing high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) against the vast ZINC compound database coupled with extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. After post-trajectory analysis, we found that the simulations of complexes containing both ATP and RTP remained stable for the duration of their trajectories. Additionally, it was revealed that the phosphate tail of RTP was stabilized by both the positive amino acid pocket and magnesium ions near the entry channel of RdRp which includes residues K551, R553, R555 and K621. It was also found that residues D623, D760, and N691 further stabilized the ribose portion of RTP with U10 on the template RNA strand forming hydrogen pairs with the adenosine motif. Using these models of RdRp, we employed them to screen the ZINC database of ~ 17 million molecules. Using docking and drug properties scoring, we narrowed down our selection to fourteen candidates. These were subjected to 200 ns simulations each underwent free energy calculations. We identified four hit compounds from the ZINC database that have similar binding poses to RTP while possessing lower overall binding free energies, with ZINC097971592 having a binding free energy two times lower than RTP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Triphosphate , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Zinc
3.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(11): e202200266, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127606

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented global pandemic of COVID-19 has created a daunting scenario urging an immediate generation of therapeutic strategy. Interventions to curb the spread of viral infection primarily include setting targets against the virus. Here in this study we target S protein to obstruct the viral attachment and entry and also the M pro to prevent the viral replication. For this purpose, the interaction of S protein and M pro with phytocompounds, sanguinarine and eugenol, and their derivatives were studied using computational tools. Docking studies gave evidence that 8-hydroxydihydrosanguinarine (8-HDS), a derivative of sanguinarine, showed maximum binding affinity with both the targets. The binding energies of the ligand with S protein and M pro scored to be ΔGb -9.4 Kcal/mol and ΔGb -10.3 Kcal/mol, respectively. MD simulation studies depict that the phytocompound could effectively cause structural perturbations in the targets which would affect their functions. 8-Hydroxydihydrosanguinarine distorts the α-helix in the secondary structure of M pro and RBD site of S protein. Protein-protein interaction study in presence of 8-hydroxydihydrosanguinarine also corroborate the above findings which indicate that this polyphenol interferes in the coupling of S protein and ACE2. The alterations in protonation of M pro suggest that the protein structure undergoes significant structural changes at neutral pH. ADME property of 8-hydroxydihydrosanguinarine indicates this could be a potential drug. This makes the phyto-alkaloid a possible therapeutic molecule for anti COVID-19 drug design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pyridones
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0273256, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140475

ABSTRACT

The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of SARS-CoV-2 is one of the optimum targets for antiviral drug design and development. The hydroxyl groups of cytidine structures were modified with different aliphatic and aromatic groups to obtain 5´-O-acyl and 2´,3´-di-O-acyl derivatives, and then, these derivatives were employed in molecular modeling, antiviral prediction, molecular docking, molecular dynamics, pharmacological and POM studies. Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G++ level analyzed biochemical behavior and molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) of the modified cytidine derivatives. The antiviral parameters of the mutated derivatives revealed promising drug properties compared with those of standard antiviral drugs. Molecular docking has determined binding affinities and interactions between the cytidine derivatives and SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. The modified derivatives strongly interacted with prime Pro620 and Lys621 residues. The binding conformation and interactions stability were investigated by 200 ns of molecular dynamics simulations and predicted the compounds to firmly dock inside the RdRp binding pocket. Interestingly, the binding residues of the derivatives were revealed in high equilibrium showing an enhanced binding affinity for the molecules. Intermolecular interactions are dominated by both Van der Waals and electrostatic energies. Finally, the pharmacokinetic characterization of the optimized inhibitors confirmed the safety of derivatives due to their improved kinetic properties. The selected cytidine derivatives can be suggested as potential inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2. The POM Theory supports the hypothesis above by confirming the existence of an antiviral (Oδ--O'δ-) pharmacophore site of Hits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytidine/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptors, Drug , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase
5.
J Chem Phys ; 157(18): 185101, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119368

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is an essential enzyme for the replication of the virus causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Because there is no known homologue in humans, it has been proposed as a primary target for antiviral drug development. Here, we explore the potential of five acrylamide-based molecules as possible covalent inhibitors, leading to target MPro by docking, followed by polarizable molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. All calculations involving a classical potential were calculated with the AMOEBABIO18 polarizable force field, while electronic structure calculations were performed within the framework of density functional theory. Selected docking poses for each of the five compounds were used for MD simulations, which suggest only one of the tested leads remains bound in a catalytically active orientation. The QM/MM results for the covalent attachment of the promising lead to the catalytic serine suggest that this process is thermodynamically feasible but kinetically unlikely. Overall, our results are consistent with the low labeling percentages determined experimentally and may be useful for further development of acrylamide-based leads.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Acrylamide , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277745, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119307

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by a virus that can be transmitted from human to human via air droplets has changed the quality of life and economic systems all over the world. The viral DNA has mutated naturally over time leading to the diversity of coronavirus victims which has posed a serious threat to human security on a massive scale. The current variants have developed in a dominant way and are considered "Variants of Concern" by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this work, Kappa (B.1.617.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529) variants were obtained to evaluate whether naturally occurring mutations have strengthened viral infectivity. We apply reliable in silico structural dynamics and energetic frameworks of the mutated S-RBD protein for ACE2-binding to analyze and compare the structural information related to the wild-type. In particular, the hotspot residues at Q493, Q498, and N501 on the S-RBD protein were determined as contributing factors to the employment stability of the relevant binding interface. The L452R mutation induces an increment of the hydrogen bonds formed by changing the Q493 environment for ACE2 binding. Moreover, the Q493K exchange in Omicron enables the formation of two additional salt bridges, leading to a strong binding affinity by increased electrostatic interaction energy. These results could be used in proposing concrete informative data for a structure-based design engaged in finding better therapeutics against novel variants.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Quality of Life
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277328, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119171

ABSTRACT

A therapy for COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains elusive due to the lack of an effective antiviral therapeutic molecule. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), which plays a vital role in the viral life cycle, is one of the most studied and validated drug targets. In Several prior studies, numerous possible chemical entities were proposed as potential Mpro inhibitors; however, most failed at various stages of drug discovery. Repositioning of existing antiviral compounds accelerates the discovery and development of potent therapeutic molecules. Hence, this study examines the applicability of anti-dengue compounds against the substrate binding site of Mpro for disrupting its polyprotein processing mechanism. An in-silico structure-based virtual screening approach is applied to screen 330 experimentally validated anti-dengue compounds to determine their affinity to the substrate binding site of Mpro. This study identified the top five compounds (CHEMBL1940602, CHEMBL2036486, CHEMBL3628485, CHEMBL200972, CHEMBL2036488) that showed a high affinity to Mpro with a docking score > -10.0 kcal/mol. The best-docked pose of these compounds with Mpro was subjected to 100 ns molecular dynamic (MD) simulation followed by MM/GBSA binding energy. This showed the maximum stability and comparable ΔG binding energy against the reference compound (X77 inhibitor). Overall, we repurposed the reported anti-dengue compounds against SARS-CoV-2-Mpro to impede its polyprotein processing for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Polyproteins , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation
8.
Steroids ; 188: 109120, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113189

ABSTRACT

The present work reports simple and effective protocol for preparing 6α-nitro-5α-cholestano[7α,5-cd] pyrazolines (4-7) by the reaction of 7α-bromo-6-nitrocholest-5-enes (1-3) with hydrazine hydrate under reflux [the substrate (2) gave products (5) and (6) and the later on acetylation with AC2O/Py gave (7)]. In the case of reaction of 3ß-hydroxy analogue (3) with hydrazine, however, 6α-nitro-5α-cholestano [3α,5-cd] pyrazoline (8) and 6α-nitro-3ß, 5-oxido-5ß-cholestane (9) were obtained. The probable mechanism of the formation of pyrazolines has also been outlined. In the current pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 scenario, the in-silico study was performed with reactants (1-3), their products (4-9) against SARS-CoV-2 omicron protease (PDB ID:7T9L) for knowing significant interactions between them. Docking results give information that both reactants and products have binding energies ranges from -5.7 to 7.7 kcal/mol and strong interactions with various hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids such as ASP, PRO, PHE, SER and LEU which are significant residues playing important role in SARS-CoV-2 Omicron main protease (Mpro).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydrazines , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors
9.
J Phys Chem B ; 126(46): 9465-9475, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106303

ABSTRACT

Markov state models (MSMs) play a key role in studying protein conformational dynamics. A sliding count window with a fixed lag time is widely used to sample sub-trajectories for transition counting and MSM construction. However, sub-trajectories sampled with a fixed lag time may not perform well under different selections of lag time, which requires strong prior practice and leads to less robust estimation. To alleviate it, we propose a novel stochastic method from a Poisson process to generate perturbative lag time for sub-trajectory sampling and utilize it to construct a Markov chain. Comprehensive evaluations on the double-well system, WW domain, BPTI, and RBD-ACE2 complex of SARS-CoV-2 reveal that our algorithm significantly increases the robustness and power of a constructed MSM without disturbing the Markovian properties. Furthermore, the superiority of our algorithm is amplified for slow dynamic modes in complex biological processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Markov Chains , Protein Conformation , Algorithms , Molecular Dynamics Simulation
10.
Mol Divers ; 26(6): 3143-3155, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104017

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress, which occurs when an organism is exposed to an adverse stimulus that results in a misbalance of antioxidant and pro-oxidants species, is the common denominator of diseases considered as a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 lethality. Indeed, reactive oxygen species caused by oxidative stress have been related to many virus pathogenicity. In this work, simulations have been performed on the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein to study what residues are more susceptible to be attacked by ·OH, which is one of the most reactive radicals associated to oxidative stress. The results indicate that isoleucine (ILE) probably plays a crucial role in modification processes driven by radicals. Accordingly, QM/MM-MD simulations have been conducted to study both the ·OH-mediated hydrogen abstraction of ILE residues and the induced modification of the resulting ILE radical through hydroxylation or nitrosylation reactions. All in all, in silico studies show the importance of the chemical environment triggered by oxidative stress on the modifications of the virus, which is expected to help for foreseeing the identification or development of antioxidants as therapeutic drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Binding Sites , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Oxidative Stress
11.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 39(5): 1005-1014, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100336

ABSTRACT

We aim to screen out the active components that may have therapeutic effect on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from the severe and critical cases' prescriptions in the "Coronavirus Disease 2019 Diagnosis and Treatment Plan (Trial Ninth Edition)" issued by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China and explain its mechanism through the interactions with proteins. The ETCM database and SwissADME database were used to screen the active components contained in 25 traditional Chinese medicines in 3 prescriptions, and the PDB database was used to obtain the crystal structures of 4 proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Molecular docking was performed using Autodock Vina and molecular dynamics simulations were performed using GROMACS. Binding energy results showed that 44 active ingredients including xambioona, gancaonin L, cynaroside, and baicalin showed good binding affinity with multiple targets of SARS-CoV-2, while molecular dynamics simulations analysis showed that xambioona bound more tightly to the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 and exerted a potent inhibitory effect. Modern technical methods are used to study the active components of traditional Chinese medicine and show that xambioona is an effective inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, which provides a theoretical basis for the development of new anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs and their treatment methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
12.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099859

ABSTRACT

Protein phosphorylation is a post-translational modification that enables various cellular activities and plays essential roles in protein interactions. Phosphorylation is an important process for the replication of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To shed more light on the effects of phosphorylation, we used an ensemble of neural networks to predict potential kinases that might phosphorylate SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural proteins (nsps) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the effects of phosphorylation on nsps structure, which could be a potential inhibitory target to attenuate viral replication. Eight target candidate sites were found as top-ranked phosphorylation sites of SARS-CoV-2. During the process of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) analysis was used to measure conformational changes in each nsps. Root-mean-square fluctuation (RMSF) was employed to measure the fluctuation in each residue of 36 systems considered, allowing us to evaluate the most flexible regions. These analysis shows that there are significant structural deviations in the residues namely nsp1 THR 72, nsp2 THR 73, nsp3 SER 64, nsp4 SER 81, nsp4 SER 455, nsp5 SER284, nsp6 THR 238, and nsp16 SER 132. The identified list of residues suggests how phosphorylation affects SARS-CoV-2 nsps function and stability. This research also suggests that kinase inhibitors could be a possible component for evaluating drug binding studies, which are crucial in therapeutic discovery research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Virus Replication
13.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 33(10): 753-778, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096975

ABSTRACT

Since interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) and its receptor, CXCR1 and CXCR2, were known in the early 1990s, biological pathways related to these proteins were proven to have high clinical value in cancer and inflammatory/autoimmune conditions treatment. Recently, IL-8 has been identified as biomarker for severe COVID-19 patients and COVID-19 prognosis. Boyles et al. (mAbs 12 (2020), pp. 1831880) have published a high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the LY3041658 Fab in a complex human CXCL8. They described the ability to bind to IL-8 and the blocking of IL-8/its receptors interaction by the LY3041658 monoclonal antibody. Therefore, the study has been designed to identify potential small molecules inhibiting interleukin-8 by targeting LY3041658/IL-8 complex structure using an in silico approach. A structure­based pharmacophore and molecular docking models of the protein active site cavity were generated to identify possible candidates, followed by virtual screening with the ZINC database. ADME analysis of hit compounds was also conducted. Molecular dynamics simulations were then performed to survey the behaviour and stability of the ligand-protein complexes. Furthermore, the MM/PBSA technique has been utilized to evaluate the free binding energy. The final data confirmed that one newly obtained compound, ZINC21882765, may serve as the best potential inhibitor for IL-8.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-8 , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , COVID-19/drug therapy , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Ligands
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(93): 12939-12942, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096844

ABSTRACT

Here we show using mass photometry how proline substitutions, commonly used for SARS-CoV-2 spike stabilisation in vaccine design, directly affects ACE2 receptor interactions via dynamics of open and closed states. Conformational changes and ACE2 binding were influenced by spike variant and temperature, but independent of site-specific N-glycosylation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Photometry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Binding Sites
15.
J Chem Inf Model ; 62(22): 5715-5728, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096619

ABSTRACT

The prediction of ligand efficacy has long been linked to thermodynamic properties such as the equilibrium dissociation constant, which considers both the association and the dissociation rates of a defined protein-ligand complex. In the last 15 years, there has been a paradigm shift, with an increased interest in the determination of kinetic properties such as the drug-target residence time since they better correlate with ligand efficacy compared to other parameters. In this article, we present thermal titration molecular dynamics (TTMD), an alternative computational method that combines a series of molecular dynamics simulations performed at progressively increasing temperatures with a scoring function based on protein-ligand interaction fingerprints for the qualitative estimation of protein-ligand-binding stability. The protocol has been applied to four different pharmaceutically relevant test cases, including protein kinase CK1δ, protein kinase CK2, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2, and SARS-CoV-2 main protease, on a variety of ligands with different sizes, structures, and experimentally determined affinity values. In all four cases, TTMD was successfully able to distinguish between high-affinity compounds (low nanomolar range) and low-affinity ones (micromolar), proving to be a useful screening tool for the prioritization of compounds in a drug discovery campaign.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Humans , Ligands , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090288

ABSTRACT

Chemical investigation of the total extract of the Egyptian soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens, led to the isolation of eight compounds, including two new metabolites, sesquiterpene fusceterpene A (1) and a sterol fuscesterol A (4), along with six known compounds. The structures of 1-8 were elucidated via intensive studies of their 1D, 2D-NMR, and HR-MS analyses, as well as a comparison of their spectral data with those mentioned in the literature. Subsequent comprehensive in-silico-based investigations against almost all viral proteins, including those of the new variants, e.g., Omicron, revealed the most probable target for these isolated compounds, which was found to be Mpro. Additionally, the dynamic modes of interaction of the putatively active compounds were highlighted, depending on 50-ns-long MDS. In conclusion, the structural information provided in the current investigation highlights the antiviral potential of H. fuscescens metabolites with 3ß,5α,6ß-trihydroxy steroids with different nuclei against SARS-CoV-2, including newly widespread variants.


Subject(s)
Anthozoa , COVID-19 , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Anthozoa/chemistry , Sterols , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation
17.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090287

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 required immediate actions to control the transmission of the virus and minimize its impact on humanity. An extensive mutation rate of this viral genome contributes to the virus' ability to quickly adapt to environmental changes, impacts transmissibility and antigenicity, and may facilitate immune escape. Therefore, it is of great interest for researchers working in vaccine development and drug design to consider the impact of mutations on virus-drug interactions. Here, we propose a multitarget drug discovery pipeline for identifying potential drug candidates which can efficiently inhibit the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of spike glycoproteins from different variants of SARS-CoV-2. Eight homology models of RBDs for selected variants were created and validated using reference crystal structures. We then investigated interactions between host receptor ACE2 and RBDs from nine variants of SARS-CoV-2. It led us to conclude that efficient multi-variant targeting drugs should be capable of blocking residues Q(R)493 and N487 in RBDs. Using methods of molecular docking, molecular mechanics, and molecular dynamics, we identified three lead compounds (hesperidin, narirutin, and neohesperidin) suitable for multitarget SARS-CoV-2 inhibition. These compounds are flavanone glycosides found in citrus fruits - an active ingredient of Traditional Chinese Medicines. The developed pipeline can be further used to (1) model mutants for which crystal structures are not yet available and (2) scan a more extensive library of compounds against other mutated viral proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Docking Simulation , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Protein Binding , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Mutation
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17984, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087304

ABSTRACT

Parallel cascade selection molecular dynamics-based ligand binding-path sampling (LB-PaCS-MD) was combined with fragment molecular orbital (FMO) calculations to reveal the ligand path from an aqueous solution to the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) active site and to customise a ligand-binding pocket suitable for delivering a potent inhibitor. Rubraxanthone exhibited mixed-inhibition antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, relatively low cytotoxicity, and high cellular inhibition. However, the atomic inhibition mechanism remains ambiguous. LB-PaCS-MD/FMO is a hybrid ligand-binding evaluation method elucidating how rubraxanthone interacts with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. In the first step, LB-PaCS-MD, which is regarded as a flexible docking, efficiently samples a set of ligand-binding pathways. After that, a reasonable docking pose of LB-PaCS-MD is evaluated by the FMO calculation to elucidate a set of protein-ligand interactions, enabling one to know the binding affinity of a specified ligand with respect to a target protein. A possible conformation was proposed for rubraxanthone binding to the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro active site, and allosteric inhibition was elucidated by combining blind docking with k-means clustering. The interaction profile, key binding residues, and considerable interaction were elucidated for rubraxanthone binding to both Mpro sites. Integrated LB-PaCS-MD/FMO provided a more reasonable complex structure for ligand binding at the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro active site, which is vital for discovering and designing antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Ligands , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation
19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(41): 25391-25402, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077132

ABSTRACT

Here, we have carried out a proof-of-concept molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with adaptive tempering in a membrane mimetic environment to study the folding of single-pass membrane peptides. We tested the influenza A M2 viroporin, influenza B M2 viroporin, and protein E from coronaviruses MERS-Cov-2 and SARS-CoV-2 peptides with known experimental secondary structures in membrane bilayers. The two influenza-derived peptides are significantly different in the peptide sequence and secondary structure and more polar than the two coronavirus-derived peptides. Through a total of more than 50 µs of simulation time that could be accomplished in trifluoroethanol (TFE), as a membrane model, we characterized comparatively the folding behavior, helical stability, and helical propensity of these transmembrane peptides that match perfectly their experimental secondary structures, and we identified common motifs that reflect their quaternary organization and known (or not) biochemical function. We showed that BM2 is organized into two structurally distinct parts: a significantly more stable N-terminal half, and a fast-converting C-terminal half that continuously folds and unfolds between α-helical structures and non-canonical structures, which are mostly turns. In AM2, both the N-terminal half and C-terminal half are very flexible. In contrast, the two coronavirus-derived transmembrane peptides are much more stable and fast helix-formers when compared with the influenza ones. In particular, the SARS-derived peptide E appears to be the fastest and most stable helix-former of all the four viral peptides studied, with a helical structure that persists almost without disruption for the whole of its 10 µs simulation. By comparing the results with experimental observations, we benchmarked TFE in studying the conformation of membrane and hydrophobic peptides. This work provided accurate results suggesting a methodology to run long MD simulations and predict structural properties of biologically important membrane peptides.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptides/chemistry , Polytetrafluoroethylene , Protein Folding , Protein Structure, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Solvents , Trifluoroethanol/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins , Influenzavirus B , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17520, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077118

ABSTRACT

SiRNA is a new generation of drug molecules and a new approach for treating a variety of diseases such as cancer and viral infections. SiRNA delivery to cells and translocation into cytoplasm are the main challenges in the clinical application of siRNA. Lipid carriers are one of the most successful carriers for siRNA delivery. In this study, we investigated the interaction of siRNA with a zwitterionic bilayer and how ion concentration and lipid conjugation can affect it. The divalent cation such as Mg2+ ions could promote the siRNA adsorption on the bilayer surface. The cation ions can bind to the head groups of lipids and the grooves of siRNA molecules and form bridges between the siRNA and bilayer surface. Our findings demonstrated the bridges formed by divalent ions could facilitate the attachment of siRNA to the membrane surface. We showed that the divalent cations can regulate the bridging-driven membrane attachment and it seems the result of this modulation can be used for designing biomimetic devices. In the following, we examined the effect of cations on the interaction between siRNA modified by cholesterol and the membrane surface. Our MD simulations showed that in the presence of Mg2+, the electrostatic and vdW energy between the membrane and siRNA were higher compared to those in the presence of NA+. We showed that the electrostatic interaction between membrane and siRNA cannot be facilitated only by cholesterol conjugated. Indeed, cations are essential to create coulomb repulsion and enable membrane attachment. This study provides important insight into liposome carriers for siRNA delivery and could help us in the development of siRNA-based therapeutics. Due to the coronavirus pandemic outbreak, these results may shed light on the new approach for treating these diseases and their molecular details.


Subject(s)
Lipid Bilayers , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Lipid Bilayers/metabolism , Liposomes , Cations, Divalent , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cations , Cholesterol
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