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1.
Molecules ; 27(10)2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875717

ABSTRACT

A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been developed based on a simple and sustainable strategy for the selective determination of citalopram (CTL) using screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). The MIP layer was prepared by electrochemical in situ polymerization of the 3-amino-4 hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA) functional monomer and CTL as a template molecule. To simulate the polymerization mixture and predict the most suitable ratio between the template and functional monomer, computational studies, namely molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, were carried out. During the experimental preparation process, essential parameters controlling the performance of the MIP sensor, including CTL:AHBA concentration, number of polymerization cycles, and square wave voltammetry (SWV) frequency were investigated and optimized. The electrochemical characteristics of the prepared MIP sensor were evaluated by both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Based on the optimal conditions, a linear electrochemical response of the sensor was obtained by SWV measurements from 0.1 to 1.25 µmol L-1 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.162 µmol L-1 (S/N = 3). Moreover, the MIP sensor revealed excellent CTL selectivity against very close analogues, as well as high imprinting factor of 22. Its applicability in spiked river water samples demonstrated its potential for adequate monitoring of CTL. This sensor offers a facile strategy to achieve portability while expressing a willingness to care for the environment.


Subject(s)
Molecular Imprinting , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers , Citalopram , Computer Simulation , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Molecular Imprinting/methods
2.
ACS Sens ; 7(4): 1122-1131, 2022 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788266

ABSTRACT

Rapid antigen tests are currently used for population screening of COVID-19. However, they lack sensitivity and utilize antibodies as receptors, which can only function in narrow temperature and pH ranges. Consequently, molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) are synthetized with a fast (2 h) and scalable process using merely a tiny SARS-CoV-2 fragment (∼10 amino acids). The nanoMIPs rival the affinity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies under standard testing conditions and surpass them at elevated temperatures or in acidic media. Therefore, nanoMIP sensors possess clear advantages over antibody-based assays as they can function in various challenging media. A thermal assay is developed with nanoMIPs electrografted onto screen-printed electrodes to accurately quantify SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Heat transfer-based measurements demonstrate superior detection limits compared to commercial rapid antigen tests and most antigen tests from the literature for both the alpha (∼9.9 fg mL-1) and delta (∼6.1 fg mL-1) variants of the spike protein. A prototype assay is developed, which can rapidly (∼15 min) validate clinical patient samples with excellent sensitivity and specificity. The straightforward epitope imprinting method and high robustness of nanoMIPs produce a SARS-CoV-2 sensor with significant commercial potential for population screening, in addition to the possibility of measurements in diagnostically challenging environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Molecular Imprinting , Nanoparticles , Antibodies , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760366

ABSTRACT

Recent developments of point-of-care testing (POCT) and in vitro diagnostic medical devices have provided analytical capabilities and reliable diagnostic results for rapid access at or near the patient's location. Nevertheless, the challenges of reliable diagnosis still remain an important factor in actual clinical trials before on-site medical treatment and making clinical decisions. New classes of POCT devices depict precise diagnostic technologies that can detect biomarkers in biofluids such as sweat, tears, saliva or urine. The introduction of a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) system as an artificial bioreceptor for the POCT devices could be one of the emerging candidates to improve the analytical performance along with physicochemical stability when used in harsh environments. Here, we review the potential availability of MIP-based biorecognition systems as custom artificial receptors with high selectivity and chemical affinity for specific molecules. Further developments to the progress of advanced MIP technology for biomolecule recognition are introduced. Finally, to improve the POCT-based diagnostic system, we summarized the perspectives for high expandability to MIP-based periodontal diagnosis and the future directions of MIP-based biosensors as a wearable format.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Molecular Imprinting , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Humans , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , Sweat
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686809

ABSTRACT

Recently, the studies on developing sensors and biosensors-with an obvious interdisciplinary character-have drawn the attention of many researchers specializing in various fundamental, but also complex domains such as chemistry, biochemistry, physics, biophysics, biology, bio-pharma-medicine, and bioengineering. Along these lines, the present paper is structured into three parts, and is aimed at synthesizing the most relevant studies on the construction and functioning of versatile devices, of electrochemical sensors and biosensors, respectively. The first part presents examples of the most representative scientific research focusing on the role and the importance of the phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan amino acids, selected depending on their chemical structure and their impact on the central nervous system. The second part is dedicated to presenting and exemplifying conductor polymers and molecularly imprinted polymers used as sensitive materials in achieving electrochemical sensors and biosensors. The last part of the review analyzes the sensors and biosensors developed so far to detect amino acids with the aid of conductor polymers and molecularly imprinted polymers from the point of view of the performances obtained, with emphasis on the detection methods, on the electrochemical reactions that take place upon detection, and on the electroanalytical performances. The present study was carried out with a view to highlighting, for the benefit of specialists in medicine and pharmacy, the possibility of achieving and purchasing efficient devices that might be used in the quality control of medicines, as well as in studying and monitoring diseases associated with these amino acids.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Molecular Imprinting/methods , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers/chemistry , Phenylalanine/analysis , Tryptophan/analysis , Tyrosine/analysis , Amino Acids/analysis , Polymers/chemistry
5.
Chemosphere ; 295: 133869, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664752

ABSTRACT

Melatonin (MLT), a hormone related to the regulation of brain functions, is directly related to sleep quality and is considered to be a possible adjuvant therapy for patients needing hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia, and accurate measurement of MLT is crucial. Herein, a new, highly sensitive, and easy operation fluorescent probe was provided based on Zr metal-organic framework encapsulation into the molecularly imprinted polymer (MOF@MIP). By combining unique properties of MIP and fluorescent MOF, selectivity and operation of the applied method were significantly improved. Different characterization methods, such as XRD, FT-IR, and FE-SEM, were used to confirm the synthesis reliability. MOF@MIP was successfully used for the precise identification and ultrasensitive detection for trace amounts of MLT. The detection mechanism for the analytical system is based on the ''turn-on'' fluorescence (FL) signal in 404 nm. The findings proved that it is possible to detect trace amounts of MLT in real samples including grape, cherry, and sour cherry juice. The linear range and the limit of detection (LOD) for trace amounts of MLT were obtained as 1-100 ng/mL and 0.18 ng/mL, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Molecular Imprinting , Humans , Limit of Detection , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
6.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640558

ABSTRACT

Rapid, selective, and cost-effective detection and determination of clinically relevant biomolecule analytes for a better understanding of biological and physiological functions are becoming increasingly prominent. In this regard, biosensors represent a powerful tool to meet these requirements. Recent decades have seen biosensors gaining popularity due to their ability to design sensor platforms that are selective to determine target analytes. Naturally generated receptor units have a high affinity for their targets, which provides the selectivity of a device. However, such receptors are subject to instability under harsh environmental conditions and have consequently low durability. By applying principles of supramolecular chemistry, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can successfully replace natural receptors to circumvent these shortcomings. This review summarizes the recent achievements and analytical applications of electrosynthesized MIPs, in particular, for the detection of protein-based biomarkers. The scope of this review also includes the background behind electrochemical readouts and the origin of the gate effect in MIP-based biosensors.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Molecular Imprinting , Biomimetics , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Molecular Imprinting/methods , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers , Polymers/chemistry , Proteins
7.
Anal Methods ; 13(47): 5772-5776, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532164

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic starting at 2020 induced by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2) has revealed a very pressing need for rapid, affordable and effective diagnosis for epidemic management and control. Although several commercialized analytical methods (e.g., reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) have been developed for detecting SARS-CoV-2, they are expensive and time-consuming. Most recently, low-cost molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based sensors have received attention. In this study, by introducing gold/graphene (Au/Gr) nanohybrids to modify a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) and using arginine as the functional monomer, a simple and highly sensitive MIP sensor was proposed to detect SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (ncovNP). By optimizing various influencing factors, the proposed MIP sensor shows wide linear range and low detection limit for ncovNP owing to excellent electrical property and large surface of Au/Gr and specific recognition ability of MIP, revealing important potential application for the effective early diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graphite , Molecular Imprinting , Arginine , Electrochemical Techniques , Gold , Humans , Pandemics , Peptides , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 196: 113729, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482463

ABSTRACT

Herein, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based electrochemical sensor for the determination of the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2-RBD) has been developed. For this purpose, first, a macroporous gold screen-printed electrode (MP-Au-SPE) has been fabricated. The MIP was then synthesized on the surface of the MP-Au-SPE through the electro-polymerization of ortho-phenylenediamine in the presence of SARS-CoV-2-RBD molecules as matrix polymer, and template molecules, respectively. During the fabrication process, the SARS-CoV-2-RBD molecules were embedded in the polymer matrix. Subsequently, the template molecules were removed from the electrode by using alkaline ethanol. The template molecules removal was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR). The fabricated MIP film acted as an artificial recognition element for the measurement of SARS-CoV-2-RBD. The EIS technique was used for the measurement of the SARS-CoV-2-RBD in the saliva solution. The electron transfer resistance (Ret) of the MIP-based sensor in a ferri/ferrocyanide solution increased as the SARS-CoV-2-RBD concentration increased due to the occupation of the imprinted cavities by the SARS-CoV-2-RBD. The MIP-based sensor exhibited a good response to the SARS-CoV-2-RBD in the concentration range between 2.0 and 40.0 pg mL-1 with a limit of detection of 0.7 pg mL-1. The obtained results showed that the fabricated MIP sensor has high selectivity sensitivity, and stability.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Molecular Imprinting , Electrochemical Techniques , Electrodes , Gold , Humans , Limit of Detection , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 305, 2021 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455975

ABSTRACT

Molecular imprinting (MI) is a technique that creates a template of a molecule for improving complementary binding sites in terms of size and shape to a peptide, protein, bacteria, mammalian cell, or virus on soft materials (such as polymers, hydrogels, or self-assembled materials). MI has been widely investigated for over 90 years in various industries but is now focused on improved tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, drug delivery, sensors, diagnostics, therapeutics and other medical applications. Molecular targets that have been studied so far in MI include those for the major antigenic determinants of microorganisms (like bacteria or viruses) leading to innovations in disease diagnosis via solid-phase extraction separation and biomimetic sensors. As such, although not widely investigated yet, MI demonstrates much promise for improving the detection of and treatment for the current Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-2019) pandemic as well as future pandemics. In this manner, this review will introduce the numerous applications of MI polymers, particularly using proteins and peptides, and how these MI polymers can be used as improved diagnostic and therapeutic tools for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies , Drug Carriers , Humans , Molecular Imprinting , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers/chemistry , Peptides , Proteins , Receptors, Cell Surface
10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 178: 113029, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046559

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is expanding around the globe. Hence, accurate and cheap portable sensors are crucially important for the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as robust synthetic molecular recognition materials with antibody-like ability to bind and discriminate between molecules can perfectly serve in building selective elements in such sensors. Herein, we report for the first time on the development of a MIP-based electrochemical sensor for detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein (ncovNP). A key element of the sensor is a disposable sensor chip - thin film electrode - interfaced with a MIP-endowed selectivity for ncovNP and connected with a portable potentiostat. The resulting ncovNP sensor showed a linear response to ncovNP in the lysis buffer up to 111 fM with a detection and quantification limit of 15 fM and 50 fM, respectively. Notably, the sensor was capable of signaling ncovNP presence in nasopharyngeal swab samples of COVID-19 positive patients. The presented strategy unlocks a new route for the development of rapid COVID-19 diagnostic tools.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Molecular Imprinting , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Polymers
11.
Talanta ; 225: 121977, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003086

ABSTRACT

SARS-COV-2 is a novel coronavirus discovered in Wuhan in December 30, 2019, and is a family of SARS-COV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus), that is, coronavirus family. After infection with SARS-COV-2, patients often experience fever, cough, gas prostration, dyspnea and other symptoms, which can lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), kidney failure and even death. The SARS-COV-2 virus is particularly infectious and has led to a global infection crisis, with an explosion in the number of infections. Therefore, rapid and accurate detection of the virus plays a vital role. At present, many detection methods are limited in their wide application due to their defects such as high preparation cost, poor stability and complex operation process. Moreover, some methods need to be operated by professional medical staff, which can easily lead to infection. In order to overcome these problems, a Surface molecular imprinting technology (SM-MIT) is proposed for the first time to detect SARS-COV-2 virus. For this SM-MIT method, this review provides detailed detection principles and steps. In addition, this method not only has the advantages of low cost, high stability and good specificity, but also can detect whether it is infected at designated points. Therefore, we think SM-MIT may have great potential in the detection of SARS-COV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Magnetite Nanoparticles/chemistry , Molecular Imprinting , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Microspheres , Ovalbumin/chemistry , Ovalbumin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/chemistry
12.
J Proteomics ; 219: 103736, 2020 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276943

ABSTRACT

"Plastic antibodies" are nano-sized biomimetics prepared by the molecular imprinting technology, which have the robustness of polymers, but specificity and selectivity alike natural receptors making them ideal for analytical uses. The current challenge is to translate plastic antibodies to in vivo applications for diagnosis, drug delivery, theranostic, therefore it is crucial to evaluate the effect of the biological sample complexity on the selectivity and the formation of protein corona (PCs), which ultimately dictate the fate of circulating nanoparticles. A set (n = 4) of plastic antibodies (nanoMIPs) against different proteins was prepared. Quantitative (iBAC) shotgun proteomics permitted to define the PC composition of nanoMIPs in human plasma, the relative protein abundances, the correlation between PC and the plasma dilution. NanoMIPs showed >200 proteins PC, while ~150 proteins were found on controls, suggesting the imprinting process influences the nanoparticle's structure hence the protein uptake. NanoMIPs and controls shared the 44% of the PC, but PC iBAQ values on nanoMIPs were 10-100 times higher than controls, suggesting PC/nanoMIPs interactions were far stronger than PC/non imprinted particles. PCs were richer in small proteins and in immunoglobulins, indicating a defensive response, while the selectivity was negatively challenged in the crowded plasma sample. SIGNIFICANCE: The formation and the composition of the protein corona (PC) is key to decide the fate of nanoparticles when in vivo, therefore there is the strong need to study the composition of the PC. To enable and to support the translation of the use of plastic antibodies (nanoMIPs), prepared by means of the molecular imprinting technique, to the clinical practice and to in vivo uses, the present work evaluates the effects of the complexity of the biological sample (plasma) on nanoMIPs composed of highly crosslinked polyacrylamide and acrylamide derivatives. Proteomic study offers an in depth insight of the protein corona formed in plasma on nanoMIPs. A set of nanoMIPs synthesized and raised to recognize either small or large proteins was tested. The selection abilities of the nanoMIPs when placed in plasma at different dilutions was studied. Quantitative shotgun proteomics allowed to define the composition of the formed protein corona (PC) enabling to detail the protein compositions, the relative abundances, its correlation to the biological sample composition and the correlation between PC and nanoMIP's imprinted template. In plasma, all the nanoMIPs gained a PC composed of more than 200 proteins. Type of protein recruited for the corona, molecular weight and abundance in the PC were studied. The PC on the nanoMIPs appeared to be driven by the protein composition of the plasma, while the template protein, towards which a nanoMIP was imprinted and that was proven to have high affinity for, did not influence the PC.


Subject(s)
Molecular Imprinting , Nanoparticles , Protein Corona , Humans , Polymers , Proteomics
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