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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1052850, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142039

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a contemporary hazard to people. It has been known that COVID-19 can both induce heart failure (HF) and raise the risk of patient mortality. However, the mechanism underlying the association between COVID-19 and HF remains unclear. The common molecular pathways between COVID-19 and HF were identified using bioinformatic and systems biology techniques. Transcriptome analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). To identify gene ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, common DEGs were used for enrichment analysis. The results showed that COVID-19 and HF have several common immune mechanisms, including differentiation of T helper (Th) 1, Th 2, Th 17 cells; activation of lymphocytes; and binding of major histocompatibility complex class I and II protein complexes. Furthermore, a protein-protein interaction network was constructed to identify hub genes, and immune cell infiltration analysis was performed. Six hub genes (FCGR3A, CD69, IFNG, CCR7, CCL5, and CCL4) were closely associated with COVID-19 and HF. These targets were associated with immune cells (central memory CD8 T cells, T follicular helper cells, regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils). Additionally, transcription factors, microRNAs, drugs, and chemicals that are closely associated with COVID-19 and HF were identified through the interaction network.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Humans , Systems Biology , Computational Biology , SARS-CoV-2 , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Heart Failure/genetics
2.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0074122, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992937

ABSTRACT

Within the past 2 decades, three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses have emerged, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The health threats and economic burden posed by these tremendously severe coronaviruses have paved the way for research on their etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Compared to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV genome encoded fewer accessory proteins, among which the ORF4b protein had anti-immunity ability in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Our work for the first time revealed that ORF4b protein was unstable in the host cells and could be degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system. After extensive screenings, it was found that UBR5 (ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component N-recognin 5), a member of the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases, specifically regulated the ubiquitination and degradation of ORF4b. Similar to ORF4b, UBR5 can also translocate into the nucleus through its nuclear localization signal, enabling it to regulate ORF4b stability in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Through further experiments, lysine 36 was identified as the ubiquitination site on the ORF4b protein, and this residue was highly conserved in various MERS-CoV strains isolated from different regions. When UBR5 was knocked down, the ability of ORF4b to suppress innate immunity was enhanced and MERS-CoV replication was stronger. As an anti-MERS-CoV host protein, UBR5 targets and degrades ORF4b protein through the ubiquitin proteasome system, thereby attenuating the anti-immunity ability of ORF4b and ultimately inhibiting MERS-CoV immune escape, which is a novel antagonistic mechanism of the host against MERS-CoV infection. IMPORTANCE ORF4b was an accessory protein unique to MERS-CoV and was not present in SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 which can also cause severe respiratory disease. Moreover, ORF4b inhibited the production of antiviral cytokines in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, which was likely to be associated with the high lethality of MERS-CoV. However, whether the host proteins regulate the function of ORF4b is unknown. Our study first determined that UBR5, a host E3 ligase, was a potential host anti-MERS-CoV protein that could reduce the protein level of ORF4b and diminish its anti-immunity ability by inducing ubiquitination and degradation. Based on the discovery of ORF4b-UBR5, a critical molecular target, further increasing the degradation of ORF4b caused by UBR5 could provide a new strategy for the clinical development of drugs for MERS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Host Microbial Interactions , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(30): e2123065119, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947760

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, undergoes continuous evolution, highlighting an urgent need for development of novel antiviral therapies. Here we show a quantitative mass spectrometry-based succinylproteomics analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Caco-2 cells, revealing dramatic reshape of succinylation on host and viral proteins. SARS-CoV-2 infection promotes succinylation of several key enzymes in the TCA, leading to inhibition of cellular metabolic pathways. We demonstrated that host protein succinylation is regulated by viral nonstructural protein (NSP14) through interaction with sirtuin 5 (SIRT5); overexpressed SIRT5 can effectively inhibit virus replication. We found succinylation inhibitors possess significant antiviral effects. We also found that SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and membrane proteins underwent succinylation modification, which was conserved in SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Collectively, our results uncover a regulatory mechanism of host protein posttranslational modification and cellular pathways mediated by SARS-CoV-2, which may become antiviral drug targets against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Caco-2 Cells , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sirtuins/metabolism , Succinates/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 835830, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902993

ABSTRACT

CD8+ T cells have key protective roles in many viral infections. While an overall Th1-biased cellular immune response against SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated, most reports of anti-SARS-CoV-2 cellular immunity have evaluated bulk T cells using pools of predicted epitopes, without clear delineation of the CD8+ subset and its magnitude and targeting. In recently infected persons (mean 29.8 days after COVID-19 symptom onset), we confirm a Th1 bias (and a novel IL-4-producing population of unclear significance) by flow cytometry, which does not correlate to antibody responses against the receptor binding domain. Evaluating isolated CD8+ T cells in more detail by IFN-γ ELISpot assays, responses against spike, nucleocapsid, matrix, and envelope proteins average 396, 901, 296, and 0 spot-forming cells (SFC) per million, targeting 1.4, 1.5, 0.59, and 0.0 epitope regions respectively. Nucleocapsid targeting is dominant in terms of magnitude, breadth, and density of targeting. The magnitude of responses drops rapidly post-infection; nucleocapsid targeting is most sustained, and vaccination selectively boosts spike targeting. In SARS-CoV-2-naïve persons, evaluation of the anti-spike CD8+ T cell response soon after vaccination (mean 11.3 days) yields anti-spike CD8+ T cell responses averaging 2,463 SFC/million against 4.2 epitope regions, and targeting mirrors that seen in infected persons. These findings provide greater clarity on CD8+ T cell anti-SARS-CoV-2 targeting, breadth, and persistence, suggesting that nucleocapsid inclusion in vaccines could broaden coverage and durability.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Nucleocapsid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States , Vaccination
6.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105549, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803807

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Based on bioinformatics and network pharmacology, the treatment of Saussurea involucrata (SAIN) on novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was evaluated by the GEO clinical sample gene difference analysis, compound-target molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation. role in the discovery of new targets for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19, to better serve the discovery and clinical application of new drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Taking the Traditional Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology Database (TCMSP) as the starting point for the preliminary selection of compounds and targets, we used tools such as Cytoscape 3.8.0, TBtools 1.098, AutoDock vina, R 4.0.2, PyMol, and GROMACS to analyze the compounds of SAIN and targets were initially screened. To further screen the active ingredients and targets, we carried out genetic difference analysis (n = 72) through clinical samples of COVID-19 derived from GEO and carried out biological process (BP) analysis on these screened targets (P ≤ 0.05)., gene = 9), KEGG pathway analysis (FDR≤0.05, gene = 9), protein interaction network (PPI) analysis (gene = 9), and compounds-target-pathway network analysis (gene = 9), to obtain the target Point-regulated biological processes, disease pathways, and compounds-target-pathway relationships. Through the precise molecular docking between the compounds and the targets, we further screened SAIN's active ingredients (Affinity ≤ -7.2 kcal/mol) targets and visualized the data. After that, we performed molecular dynamics simulations and consulted a large number of related Validation of the results in the literature. RESULTS: Through the screening, analysis, and verification of the data, it was finally confirmed that there are five main active ingredients in SAIN, which are Quercitrin, Rutin, Caffeic acid, Jaceosidin, and Beta-sitosterol, and mainly act on five targets. These targets mainly regulate Tuberculosis, TNF signaling pathway, Alzheimer's disease, Pertussis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Influenza A, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, Complement and coagulation cascades, Fructose and mannose metabolism, and Metabolic pathways, play a role in preventing or treating COVID-19. Molecular dynamics simulation results show that the four active ingredients of SAIN, Quercitrin, Rutin, Caffeic acid, and Jaceosidin, act on the four target proteins of COVID-19, AKR1B1, C5AR1, GSK3B, and IL1B to form complexes that can be very stable in the human environment. Tertiary structure exists. CONCLUSION: Our study successfully explained the effective mechanism of SAIN in improving COVID-19, and at the same time predicted the potential targets of SAIN in the treatment of COVID-19, AKR1B1, IL1B, and GSK3B. It provides a new basis and provides great support for subsequent research on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Saussurea , Aldehyde Reductase , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Network Pharmacology , Rutin
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760646

ABSTRACT

The impressive advances in the knowledge of biomarkers and molecular targets has enabled significant progress in drug therapy for crucial diseases such as cancer. Specific areas of pharmacology have contributed to these therapeutic outcomes-mainly targeted therapy, immunomodulatory therapy, and gene therapy. This review focuses on the pharmacological profiles of these therapeutic classes and intends, on the one hand, to provide a systematic definition and, on the other, to highlight some aspects related to pharmacovigilance, namely the monitoring of safety and the identification of potential toxicities and adverse drug reactions. Although clinicians often consider pharmacovigilance a non-priority area, it highlights the risk/benefit ratio, an essential factor, especially for these advanced therapies, which represent the most innovative and promising horizon in oncology.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/drug therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Genetic Therapy , Humans , Medical Oncology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/adverse effects , Pharmacovigilance
8.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 169, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713217

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 proteases Mpro and PLpro are promising targets for antiviral drug development. In this study, we present an antiviral screening strategy involving a novel in-cell protease assay, antiviral and biochemical activity assessments, as well as structural determinations for rapid identification of protease inhibitors with low cytotoxicity. We identified eight compounds with anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity from a library of 64 repurposed drugs and modeled at protease active sites by in silico docking. We demonstrate that Sitagliptin and Daclatasvir inhibit PLpro, and MG-101, Lycorine HCl, and Nelfinavir mesylate inhibit Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. The X-ray crystal structure of Mpro in complex with MG-101 shows a covalent bond formation between the inhibitor and the active site Cys145 residue indicating its mechanism of inhibition is by blocking the substrate binding at the active site. Thus, we provide methods for rapid and effective screening and development of inhibitors for blocking virus polyprotein processing as SARS-CoV-2 antivirals. Additionally, we show that the combined inhibition of Mpro and PLpro is more effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 and the delta variant.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Targeted Therapy
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 802447, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699427

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious epidemic, characterized by potential mutation and can bring about poor vaccine efficiency. It is evidenced that patients with malignancies, including prostate cancer (PC), may be highly vulnerable to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Currently, there are no existing drugs that can cure PC and COVID-19. Luteolin can potentially be employed for COVID-19 treatment and serve as a potent anticancer agent. Our present study was conducted to discover the possible drug target and curative mechanism of luteolin to serve as treatment for PC and COVID-19. The differential gene expression of PC cases was determined via RNA sequencing. The application of network pharmacology and molecular docking aimed to exhibit the drug targets and pharmacological mechanisms of luteolin. In this study, we found the top 20 up- and downregulated gene expressions in PC patients. Enrichment data demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects, where improvement of metabolism and enhancement of immunity were the main functions and mechanism of luteolin in treating PC and COVID-19, characterized by associated signaling pathways. Additional core drug targets, including MPO and FOS genes, were computationally identified accordingly. In conclusion, luteolin may be a promising treatment for PC and COVID-19 based on bioinformatics findings, prior to future clinical validation and application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery/methods , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Computational Biology/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Luteolin/pharmacology , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , Protein Interaction Maps/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2594, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692553

ABSTRACT

Complex glycans decorate viral surface proteins and play a critical role in virus-host interactions. Viral surface glycans shield vulnerable protein epitopes from host immunity yet can also present distinct "glycoepitopes" that can be targeted by host antibodies such as the potent anti-HIV antibody 2G12 that binds high-mannose glycans on gp120. Two recent publications demonstrate 2G12 binding to high mannose glycans on SARS-CoV-2 and select Influenza A (Flu) H3N2 viruses. Previously, our lab observed 2G12 binding and functional inhibition of a range of Flu viruses that include H3N2 and H1N1 lineages. In this manuscript, we present these data alongside structural analyses to offer an expanded picture of 2G12-Flu interactions. Further, based on the remarkable breadth of 2G12 N-glycan recognition and the structural factors promoting glycoprotein oligomannosylation, we hypothesize that 2G12 glycoepitopes can be defined from protein structure alone according to N-glycan site topology. We develop a model describing 2G12 glycoepitopes based on N-glycan site topology, and apply the model to identify viruses within the Protein Data Bank presenting putative 2G12 glycoepitopes for 2G12 repurposing toward analytical, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , HIV Antibodies/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Models, Immunological , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Dogs , Drug Repositioning , Epitopes , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/metabolism , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/metabolism , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neutralization Tests , Polysaccharides/metabolism
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 828115, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680008

ABSTRACT

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a non-selective mechanosensitive ion channel expressed by various macrophage populations. Recent reports have characterized the role of TRPV4 in shaping the activity and phenotype of macrophages to influence the innate immune response to pathogen exposure and inflammation. TRPV4 has been studied extensively in the context of inflammation and inflammatory pain. Although TRPV4 activity has been generally described as pro-inflammatory, emerging evidence suggests a more complex role where this channel may also contribute to anti-inflammatory activities. However, detailed understanding of how TRPV4 may influence the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of inflammatory disease remains limited. This review highlights recent insights into the cellular processes through which TRPV4 contributes to pathological conditions and immune processes, with a focus on macrophage biology. The potential use of high-throughput and omics methods as an unbiased approach for studying the functional outcomes of TRPV4 activation is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Signal Transduction , TRPV Cation Channels/genetics , TRPV Cation Channels/metabolism , Animals , Carrier Proteins , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Ligands , Macrophage Activation/genetics , Macrophage Activation/immunology , Mechanotransduction, Cellular , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Binding
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 838082, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674340

ABSTRACT

Recombinant antibodies such as nanobodies are progressively demonstrating to be a valid alternative to conventional monoclonal antibodies also for clinical applications. Furthermore, they do not solely represent a substitute for monoclonal antibodies but their unique features allow expanding the applications of biotherapeutics and changes the pattern of disease treatment. Nanobodies possess the double advantage of being small and simple to engineer. This combination has promoted extremely diversified approaches to design nanobody-based constructs suitable for particular applications. Both the format geometry possibilities and the functionalization strategies have been widely explored to provide macromolecules with better efficacy with respect to single nanobodies or their combination. Nanobody multimers and nanobody-derived reagents were developed to image and contrast several cancer diseases and have shown their effectiveness in animal models. Their capacity to block more independent signaling pathways simultaneously is considered a critical advantage to avoid tumor resistance, whereas the mass of these multimeric compounds still remains significantly smaller than that of an IgG, enabling deeper penetration in solid tumors. When applied to CAR-T cell therapy, nanobodies can effectively improve the specificity by targeting multiple epitopes and consequently reduce the side effects. This represents a great potential in treating malignant lymphomas, acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, multiple myeloma and solid tumors. Apart from cancer treatment, multispecific drugs and imaging reagents built with nanobody blocks have demonstrated their value also for detecting and tackling neurodegenerative, autoimmune, metabolic, and infectious diseases and as antidotes for toxins. In particular, multi-paratopic nanobody-based constructs have been developed recently as drugs for passive immunization against SARS-CoV-2 with the goal of impairing variant survival due to resistance to antibodies targeting single epitopes. Given the enormous research activity in the field, it can be expected that more and more multimeric nanobody molecules will undergo late clinical trials in the next future. Systematic Review Registration.


Subject(s)
Single-Domain Antibodies/chemistry , Single-Domain Antibodies/therapeutic use , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Humans , Immunomodulation , Molecular Imaging , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology
13.
Future Oncol ; 18(6): 719-725, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674207

ABSTRACT

Aim: To delineate clinical correlates of COVID-19 infection severity in hospitalized patients with malignancy. Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective review of all hospitalized patients with a hematologic and/or solid tumor malignancy presenting to the authors' institution between 1 March 2020 and 5 January 2021, with a laboratory confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations between specific severity outcomes and clinical characteristics. Results: Among 2771 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 246 (8.88%) met inclusion criteria. Patients who were actively receiving treatment had an increased rate of death following admission (odds ratio [OR]: 2.7). After adjusting for significant covariates, the odds ratio increased to 4.4. Patients with cancer involvement of the lungs had a trend toward increased odds of death after adjusting for covariates (OR: 2.3). Conclusions: Among COVID-19 positive hospitalized cancer patients, systemic anti-cancer therapy was associated with significantly increased odds of mortality.


Plain language summary Though cancer is a biologically heterogenous disease with a wide spectrum of clinical features and behavior, accumulating evidence suggests that cancer patients are at greater susceptibility to COVID-19 infection and more likely to experience morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 infection than non-cancer patients. In this study, the authors reviewed the clinical characteristics of patients with a diagnosis of cancer hospitalized with COVID-19 to assess potential correlates of COVID-19 severity in this population. Notably, analysis of the hospital data revealed a statistically significant increased incidence of mortality in cancer patients who were receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy or targeted therapy, than in those not on therapy. Likewise, there was a trend toward increased mortality in those with either primary or metastatic tumor involvement of the lung compared with those without lung involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , California/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 29, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655546

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted on mink farms between minks and humans in many countries. However, the systemic pathological features of SARS-CoV-2-infected minks are mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrated that minks were largely permissive to SARS-CoV-2, characterized by severe and diffuse alveolar damage, and lasted at least 14 days post inoculation (dpi). We first reported that infected minks displayed multiple organ-system lesions accompanied by an increased inflammatory response and widespread viral distribution in the cardiovascular, hepatobiliary, urinary, endocrine, digestive, and immune systems. The viral protein partially co-localized with activated Mac-2+ macrophages throughout the body. Moreover, we first found that the alterations in lipids and metabolites were correlated with the histological lesions in infected minks, especially at 6 dpi, and were similar to that of patients with severe and fatal COVID-19. Particularly, altered metabolic pathways, abnormal digestion, and absorption of vitamins, lipids, cholesterol, steroids, amino acids, and proteins, consistent with hepatic dysfunction, highlight metabolic and immune dysregulation. Enriched kynurenine in infected minks contributed to significant activation of the kynurenine pathway and was related to macrophage activation. Melatonin, which has significant anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects, was significantly downregulated at 6 dpi and displayed potential as a targeted medicine. Our data first illustrate systematic analyses of infected minks to recapitulate those observations in severe and fetal COVID-19 patients, delineating a useful animal model to mimic SARS-CoV-2-induced systematic and severe pathophysiological features and provide a reliable tool for the development of effective and targeted treatment strategies, vaccine research, and potential biomarkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Metabolome , Mink/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Amino Acids/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Melatonin/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sterols/metabolism , Virulence , Virus Replication/genetics
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650980

ABSTRACT

TMPRSS2 is a type II transmembrane protease with broad expression in epithelial cells of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, the prostate, and other organs. Although the physiological role of TMPRSS2 remains largely elusive, several endogenous substrates have been identified. TMPRSS2 serves as a major cofactor in SARS-CoV-2 entry, and primes glycoproteins of other respiratory viruses as well. Consequently, inhibiting TMPRSS2 activity is a promising strategy to block viral infection. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of TMPRSS2 in the entry processes of different respiratory viruses. We then review the different classes of TMPRSS2 inhibitors and their clinical development, with a focus on COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy/trends , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Virus Internalization/drug effects
16.
Nature ; 601(7894): 496, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641925

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Drug Development/trends , Drug Resistance, Viral , Research Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/supply & distribution , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Cytidine/administration & dosage , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/pharmacology , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Drug Approval , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxylamines/administration & dosage , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Lactams/administration & dosage , Lactams/pharmacology , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/administration & dosage , Leucine/pharmacology , Leucine/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Mutagenesis , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Nitriles/pharmacology , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/administration & dosage , Proline/pharmacology , Proline/therapeutic use , Public-Private Sector Partnerships/economics , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Int J Med Sci ; 19(2): 213-224, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627517

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), severely infects people and has rapidly spread worldwide. JingFangBaiDu San (JFBDS) has been used to treat prevalent epidemic pathogens, common cold, headache, cough due to lung-cold, and other symptoms; however, its treatment for COVID-19 is unknown. Molecular docking and network pharmacology were applied to obtain ingredient-protein structures and the herb-ingredient-disease target network model, respectively, to explore the potential mechanism of JFBDS in COVID-19 treatment. Network pharmacology analysis showed that acacetin, wogonin, and isorhamnetin were the main active ingredients of JFBDS, and EGFR, PIK3CA, LCK, MAPK1, MAPK3, MAPK8, STAT3, TNF, IL2, and RELA were speculated to be crucial therapeutic targets. Moreover, the Toll-like receptors, HIF-1, PIK3K/AKT, MAPK, NF-κB and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways were important for JFBDS in COVID-19 treatment. Molecular docking analysis indicated that ingredients of JFBDS could bind to angiotensin converting enzyme II, spike protein, and chymotrypsin like protease (3CLpro), which inhibits virus entry and replication in host cells. This study provides a new perspective for understanding potential therapeutic effects and mechanisms of JFBDS in COVID-19 and may facilitate its clinical application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Phytotherapy , Protein Interaction Maps
18.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 27(1): 6, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622208

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is associated with a high mortality rate. The majority of deaths in this disease are caused by ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) followed by cytokine storm and coagulation complications. Although alterations in the level of the number of coagulation factors have been detected in samples from COVID-19 patients, the direct molecular mechanism which has been involved in this pathologic process has not been explored yet. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is an intracellular pathway which plays a central role in cell survival. Also, in recent years the association between this pathway and coagulopathies has been well clarified. Therefore, based on the evidence on over-activity of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in SARS-CoV-2 infection, in the current review, the probable role of this cellular pathway as a therapeutic target for the prevention of coagulation complications in patients with COVID-19 is discussed.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Animals , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
19.
Chem Biol Interact ; 353: 109796, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611644

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a serious global public health emergency. Hospitalization and mortality rates of lung cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 are higher than those of patients presenting with other cancers. However, the reasons for the outcomes being disproportionately severe in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients with COVID-19 remain elusive. The present study aimed to identify the possible causes for disproportionately severe COVID-19 outcomes in LUAD patients and determine a therapeutic target for COVID-19 patients with LUAD. We used publicly available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases and various bioinformatics tools to identify and analyze the genes implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection in LUAD patients. Upregulation of the SARS-CoV-2 infection-related molecules dipeptidyl peptidase 4, basigin, cathepsin B (CTSB), methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, and peptidylprolyl isomerase B rather than angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 may explain the relatively high susceptibility of LUAD patients to SARS-CoV-2 infection. CTSB was highly expressed in the LUAD tissues after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and its expression was positively correlated with immune cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine expression. These findings suggest that CTSB plays a vital role in the hyperinflammatory response in COVID-19 patients with LUAD and is a promising target for the development of a novel drug therapy for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung/virology , COVID-19/genetics , Cathepsin B/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/immunology , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/mortality , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Basigin/genetics , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Cricetinae , Cyclophilins/genetics , Cytokines/blood , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NADP)/genetics , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Prognosis , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , Up-Regulation
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595807

ABSTRACT

The IL-4 and IL-13 cytokine pathways play integral roles in stimulating IgE inflammation, with the IL-4 cytokine being a major cytokine in the etiology of thunderstorm asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis. The increasing prevalence of thunderstorm asthma in the younger population and the lessening efficacy of corticosteroids and other anti-inflammatories has created a need for more effective pharmaceuticals. This review summarizes the IL-4 and IL-13 pathways while highlighting and discussing the current pathway inhibitors aimed at treating thunderstorm asthma and atopic dermatitis, as well as the potential efficacy of peptide therapeutics in this field.


Subject(s)
Allergens/adverse effects , Asthma/immunology , Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Allergens/immunology , Asthma/drug therapy , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Interleukin-13/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects
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