Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 70
Filter
1.
Allergy ; 78(3): 639-662, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233683

ABSTRACT

The current monkeypox disease (MPX) outbreak constitutes a new threat and challenge for our society. With more than 55,000 confirmed cases in 103 countries, World Health Organization declared the ongoing MPX outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on July 23, 2022. The current MPX outbreak is the largest, most widespread, and most serious since the diagnosis of the first case of MPX in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), a country where MPX is an endemic disease. Throughout history, there have only been sporadic and self-limiting outbreaks of MPX outside Africa, with a total of 58 cases described from 2003 to 2021. This figure contrasts with the current outbreak of 2022, in which more than 55,000 cases have been confirmed in just 4 months. MPX is, in most cases, self-limiting; however, severe clinical manifestations and complications have been reported. Complications are usually related to the extent of virus exposure and patient health status, generally affecting children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised patients. The expansive nature of the current outbreak leaves many questions that the scientific community should investigate and answer in order to understand this phenomenon better and prevent new threats in the future. In this review, 50 questions regarding monkeypox virus (MPXV) and the current MPX outbreak were answered in order to provide the most updated scientific information and to explore the potential causes and consequences of this new health threat.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Disease Outbreaks , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology
2.
Lancet ; 401(10390): 1822-1824, 2023 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231783

ABSTRACT

Mpox (formerly known as monkeypox) is a zoonotic viral disease endemic in parts of Africa. In May, 2022, the world was alerted to circulation of monkeypox virus in many high-income countries outside of Africa. Continued spread resulted in a WHO declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Although there has been much attention on the global outbreak, most of the focus has been on high-income countries outside of Africa, despite the fact that monkeypox virus has been causing disease in parts of Africa for at least 50 years. Furthermore, the long-term consequences of this event, especially the risk that mpox fills the niche vacated through smallpox eradication, have not been sufficiently considered. The heart of the problem is the historical neglect of mpox in Africa where the disease is endemic, and the actual and potential consequences if this neglect is left uncorrected.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Smallpox , Humans , Animals , Smallpox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Zoonoses , Africa/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Monkeypox virus
3.
Virus Genes ; 59(3): 343-350, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235973

ABSTRACT

The recent widespread emergence of monkeypox (mpox), a rare and endemic zoonotic disease by monkeypox virus (MPXV), has made global headlines. While transmissibility (R0 ≈ 0.58) and fatality rate (0-3%) are low, as it causes prolonged morbidity, the World Health Organization has declared monkeypox as a public health emergency of international concern. Thus, effective containment and disease management require quick and efficient detection of MPXV. In this bioinformatic overview, we summarize the numerous molecular tests available for MPXV, and discuss the diversity of genes and primers used in the polymerase chain reaction-based detection. Over 90 primer/probe sets are used for the detection of poxviruses. While hemagglutinin and A-type inclusion protein are the most common target genes, tumor necrosis factor receptor and complement binding protein genes are frequently used for distinguishing Clade I and Clade II of MPXV. Problems and possibilities in the detection of MPXV have been discussed.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/pathology , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Viral/genetics , Public Health
4.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 53: 102574, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The re-emerging human monkeypox virus (MPXV) poses a global threat. The rising number of confirmed MPXV cases worldwide is a significant reason for concern. This study aims to investigate (1) hotel employees' knowledge in Egypt of MPXV source, signs/symptoms, transmission, prevention, and treatment, (2) the primary sources of their information about MPXV, (3) whether or not they received information about MPXV from their hotels, and (4) the differences of employees' knowledge in terms of gender, age, marital status, level of education, type of contract, professional category, hotel department, type of hotel, seniority in the hotel, and the number of hotel rooms. METHODS: Using a quantitative approach, we collected data from 453 employees in Egyptian hotels via a web-based questionnaire. The survey included questions regarding the MPXV source, signs/symptoms, transmission, prevention, and treatment, as well as its primary information sources. The questionnaire also included questions regarding participants' demographics and hotel characteristics. RESULTS: The findings indicated that more than half of hotel employees have inadequate knowledge of MPXV. Additionally, the majority of employees selected social media as their primary source of MPXV-related information. Surprisingly, most participants reported that their hotels neglected to provide them with the MPXV's information. Age, marital status, education, professional category, and tenure in the hotel all have a significant impact on their MPXV knowledge level. CONCLUSION: The current paper presents significant implications for both theory and practice. This study provides government agencies and hotels with guidelines for preventing the outbreak of MPXV. According to our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with hotel employees in the MPXV Egyptian context.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Egypt , Monkeypox virus , Disease Outbreaks
5.
Comput Biol Med ; 161: 106971, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242295

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox virus (mpox virus) outbreak has rapidly spread to 82 non-endemic countries. Although it primarily causes skin lesions, secondary complications and high mortality (1-10%) in vulnerable populations have made it an emerging threat. Since there is no specific vaccine/antiviral, it is desirable to repurpose existing drugs against mpox virus. With little knowledge about the lifecycle of mpox virus, identifying potential inhibitors is a challenge. Nevertheless, the available genomes of mpox virus in public databases represent a goldmine of untapped possibilities to identify druggable targets for the structure-based identification of inhibitors. Leveraging this resource, we combined genomics and subtractive proteomics to identify highly druggable core proteins of mpox virus. This was followed by virtual screening to identify inhibitors with affinities for multiple targets. 125 publicly available genomes of mpox virus were mined to identify 69 highly conserved proteins. These proteins were then curated manually. These curated proteins were funnelled through a subtractive proteomics pipeline to identify 4 highly druggable, non-host homologous targets namely; A20R, I7L, Top1B and VETFS. High-throughput virtual screening of 5893 highly curated approved/investigational drugs led to the identification of common as well as unique potential inhibitors with high binding affinities. The common inhibitors, i.e., batefenterol, burixafor and eluxadoline were further validated by molecular dynamics simulation to identify their best potential binding modes. The affinity of these inhibitors suggests their repurposing potential. This work can encourage further experimental validation for possible therapeutic management of mpox.


Subject(s)
Drug Repositioning , Monkeypox virus , Antiviral Agents , Databases, Factual , Genomics
6.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28763, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234552

ABSTRACT

People are expected to have been previously vaccinated with a Vaccinia-based vaccine, as until 1980 smallpox vaccination was a standard protocol in China. It is unclear whether people with smallpox vaccine still have antibody against vaccinia virus (VACV) and cross-antibody against monkeypox virus (MPXV). Herein, we assessed the binding antibodies with antigen of VACV-A33 and MPXV-A35 in the general population and HIV-1 infected patients. Firstly, we detected VACV antibody with A33 protein to evaluate the efficiency of smallpox vaccination. The result show that 29% (23 of 79) of hospital staff (age ≥ 42 years) and 63% (60 of 95) of HIV-positive patients (age ≥ 42 years) from Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital were able to bind A33. However, among the subjects below 42 years of age, 1.5% (3/198) of the hospital volunteer samples and 1% (1/104) of the samples from HIV patients were positive for antibodies against A33 antigen. Then, we assessed the specific cross-reactive antibodies against MPXV A35 protein. 24% (19 of 79) hospital staff (age〉 = 42 years) and 44% (42 of 95) of HIV-positive patients (age〉 = 42 years) were positive. 98% (194/198) of the hospital staff and 99% (103/104) of the HIV patients had no A35-binding antibodies. Further, we found significant sex differences for the reactivity to A35 antigen were observed in HIV population, but no significant sex differences in hospital staff. Further, we analyzed the positivity rate of anti-A35 antibody of men who have sex with men (MSM) and non-MSM in HIV patients (age〉 = 42years). We found that 47% of no-MSM population and 40% of MSM population were positive for A35 antigen, with no significant difference. Lastly, we found only 59 samples were positive for anti-A33 IgG and anti-A35 IgG in all participants. Together, we demonstrated A33 and A35 antigens binding antibodies were detected in HIV patients and general population who were older than 42 years, and cohort studies only provided data of serological detection to support early response to monkeypox outbreak.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Smallpox Vaccine , Smallpox , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Antigens, Viral , Homosexuality, Male , Immunoglobulin G , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Vaccinia virus , Viral Proteins
7.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1174223, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327003

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox virus (MPXV) cases have increased dramatically worldwide since May 2022. The Atlanta Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta CDC) had reported a total of 85,922 cases as of February 20th, 2023. During the COVID-19 pandemic, MPXV has emerged as a potential public threat. MPXV transmission and prevalence must be closely monitored. In this comprehensive review, we explained the basic characteristics and transmission routes of MPXV, individuals susceptible to it, as well as highlight the impact of the behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) and airline traveling on recent outbreaks of MPXV. We also describe the clinical implications, the prevention of MPXV, and clinical measures of viral detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 890: 164289, 2023 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326226

ABSTRACT

Molecular methods have been used to detect human pathogens in wastewater with sampling typically performed at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and upstream locations within the sewer system. A wastewater-based surveillance (WBS) program was established at the University of Miami (UM) in 2020, which included measurements of SARS-CoV-2 levels in wastewater from its hospital and within the regional WWTP. In addition to the development of a SARS-CoV-2 quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay, qPCR assays to detect other human pathogens of interest were also developed at UM. Here we report on the use of a modified set of reagents published by the CDC to detect nucleic acids of Monkeypox virus (MPXV) which emerged during May of 2022 to become a concern worldwide. Samples collected from the University hospital and from the regional WWTP were processed through DNA and RNA workflows and analyzed by qPCR to detect a segment of the MPXV CrmB gene. Results show positive detections of MPXV nucleic acids in the hospital and wastewater treatment plant wastewater which coincided with clinical cases in the community and mirrored the overall trend of nationwide MPXV cases reported to the CDC. We recommend the expansion of current WBS programs' methods to detect a broader range of pathogens of concern in wastewater and present evidence that viral RNA in human cells infected by a DNA virus can be detected in wastewater.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Monkeypox virus , Wastewater , Workflow , SARS-CoV-2 , DNA , Hospitals, University , RNA, Viral
9.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(8): 1149-1157, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The end of smallpox in 1980 and the subsequent stopping of vaccination against smallpox was followed by the emergence of monkeypox (mpox), a viral disease of animal origin, meaning that it is transmitted from animal to human. The symptoms of mpox are similar to smallpox, except that they are less severe in terms of clinical features. In the case of public health, the mpox virus is one of the most important orthopoxviruses (such as variola, cowpox, and vaccinia) that come from the family Poxviridae. Mpox occurs mostly in central Africa and sometimes in tropical rainforests or some urban areas. Also, there are threats other than COVID-19, that must be addressed and prevented from spreading, as there has been an outbreak of mpox cases since May 7, 2022, throughout the USA, Europe, Australia, and part of Africa. OBJECTIVES: In this review, we will discuss mpox between the past, the present and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, it offers an updated summary of the taxonomy, etiology, transmission, and epidemiology of mpox illness. In addition, the current review aims to highlight the importance of emerging pandemics in the same era such as mpox and COVID-19. METHODS: A literature search was done for the study using online sources like PubMed and Google Scholar. Publications in English were included. Data for study variables were extracted. After the duplicate articles were eliminated, full-text screening was performed on the papers' titles and abstracts. RESULTS: The evaluation included a series documenting mpox virus outbreaks, and both prospective and retrospectiveinvestigations. CONCLUSIONS: monkeypox is a viral disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), which is primarily found in central and western Africa. The disease is transmitted from animals to humans and presents symptoms similar to those of smallpox, including fever, headache, muscle aches, and a rash. Monkeypox can lead to complications such as secondary integument infection, bronchopneumonia, sepsis, and encephalitis, as well as corneal infection that can result in blindness. There is no specific clinically proven treatment for monkeypox, and treatment is primarily supportive. However, antiviral drugs and vaccines are available for cross-protection against the virus, and strict infection control measures and vaccination of close contacts of affected individuals can help prevent and control outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox , Animals , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
10.
Inquiry ; 60: 469580231175437, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315158

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic disease caused by the MPX virus from the poxviridae family of orthopoxviruses. Typically, endemic in central and west Africa, it has now become a matter of concern since cases have been reported in non-endemic countries around mid-June 2022, especially in the European region, with the transmission not related to travel. The diagnosis is made by PCR testing of the skin lesions. Even though treatment is symptomatic, antiretrovirals, such as tecovirimat, are used in severe cases. Vaccination with second and third generation vaccines is approved for prophylaxis in high risk individuals. Unfortunately, these options of treatment and prevention are only available in high income countries at the moment. This review, through a thorough literature search of articles from 2017 onward, focuses on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, challenges, treatment, prevention and control of MPX virus and how they can be corelated with other viral outbreaks including COVID-19, Acute Hepatitis of unknown origin, Measles and Dengue, to better predict and therefore prevent its transmission. The previous COVID-19 pandemic increased the disease burden on healthcare infrastructure of low-middle income countries, therefore, this recent MPX outbreak calls for a joint effort from healthcare authorities, political figures, and NGOs to combat the disease and prevent its further spread not only in high income but also in middle- and low-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox virus , Humans , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks , Africa, Western
11.
Microb Genom ; 9(4)2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298278

ABSTRACT

While the world is still recovering from the Covid-19 pandemic, monkeypox virus (MPXV) awaits to cause another global outbreak as a challenge to all of mankind. However, the Covid-19 pandemic has taught us a lesson to speed up the pace of viral genomic research for the implementation of preventive and treatment strategies. One of the important aspects of MPXV that needs immediate insight is its evolutionary lineage based on genomic studies. Utilizing high-quality isolates from the GISAID (Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data) database, primarily sourced from Europe and North America, we employed a SNP-based whole-genome phylogeny method and identified four major clusters among 628 MPXV isolates. Our findings indicate a distinct evolutionary lineage for the first MPXV isolate, and a complex epidemiology and evolution of MPXV strains across various countries. Further analysis of the host-pathogen interaction network revealed key viral proteins, such as E3, SPI-2, K7 and CrmB, that play a significant role in regulating the network and inhibiting the host's cellular innate immune system. Our structural analysis of proteins E3 and CrmB revealed potential disruption of stability due to certain mutations. While this study identified a large number of mutations within the new outbreak clade, it also reflected that we need to move fast with the genomic analysis of newly detected strains from around the world to develop better prevention and treatment methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Phylogeny , Pandemics , Mutation
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(4): e0011246, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In addition to the COVID-19 waves, the globe is recently facing global monkeypox (MPX) outbreak. As the daily confirmed cases of MPX infection across epidemic and nonepidemic countries are increasing, taking measures to control global pandemic remains crucial. Therefore, this review aimed to provide fundamental knowledge for the prevention and control of future outbreaks of this emerging epidemic. METHODS: The review was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar databases; the search terms used were "monkeypox," "MPX tropism," "replication signaling of MPX," "biology and pathogenicity of MPX," "diagnosis of MPX," "treatment of MPX," "prevention of MPX," etc. The update epidemic data were collected from the websites of the World Health Organization (WHO), United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Africa Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ADCC). High-quality research results published in authoritative journals were summarized and preferred cited. Excluding all duplicates, non-English published references, and irrelevant literature, totally 1,436 articles were assessed for eligibility. RESULTS: It is still difficult to diagnose the patient as MPX simply based on clinical manifestations; therefore, under this situation, employing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology to provide confirmed evidence for the diagnosis of MPX seems to be the preferred and indispensable strategy. The treatment approach for MPX infection is mainly symptomatic and supportive; anti-smallpox virus drugs including tecovirimat, cidofovir, and brincidofovir can be employed in severe cases. Timely identification and isolation of confirmed cases, cutting off dissemination routes, and vaccination of close contacts are effective measures to control MPX. Also, smallpox vaccines (JYNNEOS, LC16m8, and ACAM2000) can be under consideration due to their immunological cross-protection among Orthopoxvirus. Nevertheless, given the low quality and scarcity of relevant evidence of current antiviral drugs and vaccines, deeply seeking for the MAPK/ERK, PAK-1, PI3K/Akt signaling, and other pathways involved in MPX invasion may provide potential targets for the treatment, prevention, and control of the epidemic. CONCLUSIONS: In response to the current MPX epidemic, the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs against MPX, as well as the rapid and precise diagnostic methods are still urgently needed. Sound monitoring and detection systems should be established to limit the rapid spread of MPX worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/drug therapy , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Africa , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Monkeypox virus
13.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0285203, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In May 2022, the monkeypox virus (MPXV) spread into non-endemic countries and the global community was quick to test the lessons learned from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Due to its symptomatic resemblance to other diseases, like the non-pox virus varicella zoster (chickenpox), polymerase chain reaction methods play an important role in correctly diagnosing the rash-causing pathogen. INSTAND quickly established a new external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for MPXV and orthopoxvirus (OPXV) DNA detection to assess the current performance quality of the laboratory tests. METHODS: We analyzed quantitative and qualitative data of the first German EQA for MPXV and OPXV DNA detection. The survey included one negative and three MPXV-positive samples with different MPX viral loads. The threshold cycle (Ct) or other measures defining the quantification cycle (Cq) were analyzed in an assay-specific manner. A Passing Bablok fit was used to investigate the performance at laboratory level. RESULTS: 141 qualitative datasets were reported by 131 laboratories for MPXV detection and 68 qualitative datasets by 65 laboratories for OPXV detection. More than 96% of the results were correctly identified as negative and more than 97% correctly identified as positive. An analysis of the reported Ct/Cq values showed a large spread of these values of up to 12 Ct/Cq. Nevertheless, there is a good correlation of results for the different MPXV concentrations at laboratory level. Only a few quantitative results in copies/mL were reported (MPXV: N = 5; OPXV: N = 2), but the results correlated well with the concentration differences between the EQA samples, which were to a power of ten each. CONCLUSION: The EQA results show that laboratories performed well in detecting both MPXV and OPXV. However, Ct/Cq values should be interpreted with caution when conclusions are drawn about the viral load as long as metrological traceability is not granted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Orthopoxvirus , Humans , Monkeypox virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2259, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303778

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox is a disease with pandemic potential. It is caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), a double-stranded DNA virus from the Poxviridae family, that replicates in the cytoplasm and must encode for its own RNA processing machinery including the capping machinery. Here, we present crystal structures of its 2'-O-RNA methyltransferase (MTase) VP39 in complex with the pan-MTase inhibitor sinefungin and a series of inhibitors that were discovered based on it. A comparison of this 2'-O-RNA MTase with enzymes from unrelated single-stranded RNA viruses (SARS-CoV-2 and Zika) reveals a conserved sinefungin binding mode, implicating that a single inhibitor could be used against unrelated viral families. Indeed, several of our inhibitors such as TO507 also inhibit the coronaviral nsp14 MTase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , Methyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Monkeypox virus/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , RNA , Zika Virus/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics
15.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 53: 102577, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303717

ABSTRACT

The Monkeypox virus, declared a global emergency outbreak, has garnered increasing response globally. The African healthcare community has not translated urgency in its response to the increasing outbreak. The multisectoral influence of COVID-19 has ensured that response patterns to the emerging outbreak must hold ground for proactiveness. The push for stronger health systems reiterated with the COVID-19 pandemic ensures that a successful response requires awareness of knowledge management, multisectoral and international collaboration and strengthening of systems capacity. The intricacies of the infection transmission ensure that interventions must promote equity and justice as well as financial protection of the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox virus , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Africa/epidemiology
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 172, 2023 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303068

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox has been declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. There is an urgent need for efficient and safe vaccines against the monkeypox virus (MPXV) in response to the rapidly spreading monkeypox epidemic. In the age of COVID-19, mRNA vaccines have been highly successful and emerged as platforms enabling rapid development and large-scale preparation. Here, we develop two MPXV quadrivalent mRNA vaccines, named mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP, based on two intracellular mature virus specific proteins (A29L and M1R) and two extracellular enveloped virus specific proteins (A35R and B6R). By administering mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP intramuscularly twice, mice induce MPXV specific IgG antibodies and potent vaccinia virus (VACV) specific neutralizing antibodies. Further, it elicits efficient MPXV specific Th-1 biased cellular immunity, as well as durable effector memory T and germinal center B cell responses in mice. In addition, two doses of mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP are protective against the VACV challenge in mice. And, the passive transfer of sera from mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP-immunized mice protects nude mice against the VACV challenge. Overall, our results demonstrate that mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP appear to be safe and effective vaccine candidates against monkeypox epidemics, as well as against outbreaks caused by other orthopoxviruses, including the smallpox virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Animals , Mice , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Vaccines, Combined , Mice, Nude , Viral Proteins/genetics , Immunity
17.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0281815, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302012

ABSTRACT

We have recently been witnessing that our society is starting to heal from the impacts of COVID-19. The economic, social and cultural impacts of a pandemic cannot be ignored and we should be properly equipped to deal with similar situations in future. Recently, Monkeypox has been concerning the international health community with its lethal impacts for a probable pandemic. In such situations, having appropriate protocols and methodologies to deal with the outbreak efficiently is of paramount interest to the world. Early diagnosis and treatment stand as the only viable option to tackle such problems. To this end, in this paper, we propose an ensemble learning-based framework to detect the presence of the Monkeypox virus from skin lesion images. We first consider three pre-trained base learners, namely Inception V3, Xception and DenseNet169 to fine-tune on a target Monkeypox dataset. Further, we extract probabilities from these deep models to feed into the ensemble framework. To combine the outcomes, we propose a Beta function-based normalization scheme of probabilities to learn an efficient aggregation of complementary information obtained from the base learners followed by the sum rule-based ensemble. The framework is extensively evaluated on a publicly available Monkeypox skin lesion dataset using a five-fold cross-validation setup to evaluate its effectiveness. The model achieves an average of 93.39%, 88.91%, 96.78% and 92.35% accuracy, precision, recall and F1 scores, respectively. The supporting source codes are presented in https://github.com/BihanBanerjee/MonkeyPox.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Skin Diseases , Humans , Monkeypox virus , Disease Outbreaks , Hydrolases
18.
Euro Surveill ; 27(32)2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263528

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 23 July 2022. Between 1 January and 23 July 2022, 16,016 laboratory confirmed cases of monkeypox and five deaths were reported to WHO from 75 countries on all continents. Public health authorities are proactively identifying cases and tracing their contacts to contain its spread. As with COVID-19, PCR is the only method capable of being deployed at sufficient speed to provide timely feedback on any public health interventions. However, at this point, there is little information on how those PCR assays are being standardised between laboratories. A likely reason is that testing is still limited on a global scale and that detection, not quantification, of monkeypox virus DNA is the main clinical requirement. Yet we should not be complacent about PCR performance. As testing requirements increase rapidly and specimens become more diverse, it would be prudent to ensure PCR accuracy from the outset to support harmonisation and ease regulatory conformance. Lessons from COVID-19 should aid implementation with appropriate material, documentary and methodological standards offering dynamic mechanisms to ensure testing that most accurately guides public health decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , World Health Organization
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249271

ABSTRACT

When a viral outbreak occurs, governments are obligated to protect their citizens from the diverse adverse effects of the disease. Health policymakers often have several interventions to consider based on the health of the population, as well as the cascading social and economic consequences of the possible mitigation strategies. The current outbreak of the monkeypox virus has elicited debate on the best mitigation strategy, especially given that most world economies are still recovering from the harsh economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper sought to analyze the costs and benefits of three possible strategies and determine which option has the best health outcomes and positive economic effects. A case study of Jeddah was performed, whereby a model was simulated to determine the number of infections over 28 days based on one case of the monkeypox virus. Findings reveal that the vaccination provides the best intervention, as it effectively reduces the transmission rate and prevents loss of lives in the city. From the model, only three people were infected over the research period, while no deaths were reported. Although vaccination incurs a huge direct cost at the beginning, in the long run, it saves the economy from the disease's financial burden in terms of productivity loss from work absenteeism and premature deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox virus , Humans , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
20.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 14(13): 3230-3235, 2023 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280490

ABSTRACT

The spread of the monkeypox virus has surged during the unchecked COVID-19 epidemic. The most crucial target is the viral envelope protein, p37. However, lacking p37's crystal structure is a significant hurdle to rapid therapeutic discovery and mechanism elucidation. Structural modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) of the enzyme with inhibitors reveal a cryptic pocket occluded in the unbound structure. For the first time, the inhibitor's dynamic flip from the active to the cryptic site enlightens p37's allosteric site, which squeezes the active site, impairing its function. A large force is needed for inhibitor dissociation from the allosteric site, ushering in its biological importance. In addition, hot spot residues identified at both locations and discovered drugs more potent than tecovirimat may enable even more robust inhibitor designs against p37 and accelerate the development of monkeypox therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Humans , Allosteric Site , Catalytic Domain , Monkeypox virus , Protein Binding , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL