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1.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 20(9): 507-508, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016737
2.
Euro Surveill ; 27(32)2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993732

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 23 July 2022. Between 1 January and 23 July 2022, 16,016 laboratory confirmed cases of monkeypox and five deaths were reported to WHO from 75 countries on all continents. Public health authorities are proactively identifying cases and tracing their contacts to contain its spread. As with COVID-19, PCR is the only method capable of being deployed at sufficient speed to provide timely feedback on any public health interventions. However, at this point, there is little information on how those PCR assays are being standardised between laboratories. A likely reason is that testing is still limited on a global scale and that detection, not quantification, of monkeypox virus DNA is the main clinical requirement. Yet we should not be complacent about PCR performance. As testing requirements increase rapidly and specimens become more diverse, it would be prudent to ensure PCR accuracy from the outset to support harmonisation and ease regulatory conformance. Lessons from COVID-19 should aid implementation with appropriate material, documentary and methodological standards offering dynamic mechanisms to ensure testing that most accurately guides public health decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Animals , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , World Health Organization
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(29): e239, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963383

ABSTRACT

In June 2022, the first monkeypox case was reported as imported into Korea. The general public asked whether they should get vaccinated against monkeypox because of the recent COVID-19 vaccination experience. As of the current monkeypox outbreak situation, a ring vaccination strategy for the high-risk group is more appropriate than the mass population vaccination with smallpox vaccines. Therefore, identifying the proper target group by available vaccines based on the risk and benefit analysis is a key issue of the vaccination program. In addition, the target group should be reviewed by the epidemiological situation of the jurisdiction along with the updated evidence of the monkeypox virus on transmission dynamics, severity, and fatality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Monkeypox virus , Vaccination
4.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911627

ABSTRACT

Several neglected infectious pathogens, such as the monkeypox virus (MPXV), have re-emerged in the last few decades, becoming a global health burden. Despite the incipient vaccine against MPXV infection, the global incidence of travel-related outbreaks continues to rise. About 472 confirmed cases have been reported in 27 countries as of 31 May 2022, the largest recorded number of cases outside Africa since the disease was discovered in the early 1970s.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Pandemics/prevention & control , Travel , Travel-Related Illness
5.
J Autoimmun ; 131: 102855, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907255

ABSTRACT

Following two reports of monkeypox virus infection in individuals who returned from Nigeria to the USA, one who returned to Texas (July 2021) and the other to the Washington, DC area (November 2021), the number of monkeypox infection have dramatically increased. This sounded an alarm of potential for spreading of the virus throughout the USA. During 2022, there was a report of monkeypox virus infection (May 6, 2022) in a British national following a visit to Nigeria who developed readily recognizable signs and symptoms of monkeypox virus infection. Soon following this report, case numbers climbed. By June 10, 2022, more than 1,500 cases were reported in 43 countries, including Europe and North America. While the prevalence of the monkeypox virus is well known in central and western Africa, its presence in the developed world has raised disturbing signs for worldwide spread. While infection was reported during the past half-century, starting in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1970, in the United States, only sporadic monkeypox cases have been reported. All cases have been linked to international travel or through African animal imports. The monkeypox virus is transmitted through contact with infected skin, body fluids, or respiratory droplets. The virus spreads from oral and nasopharyngeal fluid exchanges or by intradermal injection; then rapidly replicates at the inoculation site with spreads to adjacent lymph nodes. Monkeypox disease begins with constitutional symptoms that include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, backache, and fatigue. Phylogenetically the virus has two clades. One clade emerged from West Africa and the other in the Congo Basin of Central Africa. During the most recent outbreak, the identity of the reservoir host or the primary carriage remains unknown. African rodents are the suspected intermediate hosts. At the same time, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) affirmed that there are no specific treatments for the 2022 monkeypox virus infection; existing antivirals shown to be effective against smallpox may slow monkeypox spread. A smallpox vaccine JYNNEOS (Imvamune or Imvanex) may also be used to prevent infection. The World Health Organization (WHO), has warned that the world could be facing a formidable infectious disease challenge in light of the current status of worldwide affairs. These affairs include the SARS-COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukraine-Russia war. In addition, the recent rise in case of numbers worldwide could continue to pose an international threat. With this in mind, strategies to mitigate the spread of monkeypox virus are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Pandemics
6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(7): 913, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900325
12.
Euro Surveill ; 26(32)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357496

ABSTRACT

Most reported cases of human monkeypox occur in Central and West Africa, where the causing virus is endemic. We describe the identification and public health response to an imported case of West African monkeypox from Nigeria to the United Kingdom (UK) in May 2021. Secondary transmission from the index case occurred within the family to another adult and a toddler. Concurrent COVID-19-related control measures upon arrival and at the hospital, facilitated detection and limited the number of potential contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Adult , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Nigeria , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
mSphere ; 6(1)2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063056

ABSTRACT

Smallpox, caused by Variola virus (VARV), was eradicated in 1980; however, VARV bioterrorist threats still exist, necessitating readily available therapeutics. Current preparedness activities recognize the importance of oral antivirals and recommend therapeutics with different mechanisms of action. Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is closely related to VARV, causing a highly similar clinical human disease, and can be used as a surrogate for smallpox antiviral testing. The prairie dog MPXV model has been characterized and used to study the efficacy of antipoxvirus therapeutics, including recently approved TPOXX (tecovirimat). Brincidofovir (BCV; CMX001) has shown antiviral activity against double-stranded DNA viruses, including poxviruses. To determine the exposure of BCV following oral administration to prairie dogs, a pharmacokinetics (PK) study was performed. Analysis of BCV plasma concentrations indicated variability, conceivably due to the outbred nature of the animals. To determine BCV efficacy in the MPXV prairie dog model, groups of animals were intranasally challenged with 9 × 105 plaque-forming units (PFU; 90% lethal dose [LD90]) of MPXV on inoculation day 0 (ID0). Animals were divided into groups based on the first day of BCV treatment relative to inoculation day (ID-1, ID0, or ID1). A trend in efficacy was noted dependent upon treatment initiation (57% on ID-1, 43% on ID0, and 29% on ID1) but was lower than demonstrated in other animal models. Analysis of the PK data indicated that BCV plasma exposure (maximum concentration [C max]) and the time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUClast) were lower than in other animal models administered the same doses, indicating that suboptimal BCV exposure may explain the lower protective effect on survival.IMPORTANCE Preparedness activities against highly transmissible viruses with high mortality rates have been highlighted during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Smallpox, caused by variola virus (VARV) infection, is highly transmissible, with an estimated 30% mortality. Through an intensive vaccination campaign, smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980, and routine smallpox vaccination of individuals ceased. Today's current population has little/no immunity against VARV. If smallpox were to reemerge, the worldwide results would be devastating. Recent FDA approval of one smallpox antiviral (tecovirimat) was a successful step in biothreat preparedness; however, orthopoxviruses can become resistant to treatment, suggesting the need for multiple therapeutics. Our paper details the efficacy of the investigational smallpox drug brincidofovir in a monkeypox virus (MPXV) animal model. Since brincidofovir has not been tested in vivo against smallpox, studies with the related virus MPXV are critical in understanding whether it would be protective in the event of a smallpox outbreak.


Subject(s)
Cytosine/analogs & derivatives , Monkeypox virus/drug effects , Organophosphonates/pharmacology , Organophosphonates/pharmacokinetics , Smallpox/drug therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzamides/pharmacokinetics , Benzamides/pharmacology , Cytosine/pharmacokinetics , Cytosine/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Female , Isoindoles/pharmacokinetics , Isoindoles/pharmacology , Male , Variola virus/drug effects
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