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1.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 64(1): E13-E26, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237293

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Monkeypox is a currently re-emerging disease in the world and several cases have been detected in Lebanon. For this reason, an assessment of the knowledge and attitude of the Lebanese population towards monkeypox and smallpox or monkeypox vaccines had to be done. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire developed from previous literature among a sample of Lebanese residents. It recorded the sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities of the participants and analyzed the patterns of knowledge and attitudes in Lebanon. Results: Among 493 participants, it was found that there is a generally low knowledge of and an average attitude toward monkeypox. However, knowledge is better with higher educational levels, COVID-19 vaccination, and residency in the south of Lebanon and poorer with marriage and residency in Beirut. Attitude is better in females but poorer with higher educational levels. Several other effectors have been devised too. As for vaccination, taking the smallpox vaccine as a proactive measure is predicted with previous COVID-19 vaccination and better attitude but not in the residents of the north of Lebanon and married Lebanese residents. Higher educational levels and a better attitude were positive predictions of taking the monkeypox vaccine whenever it is developed. Conclusion: This study revealed low level of knowledge and attitude towards monkeypox and its vaccines, which can be a rich resource when proactive measures are developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Vaccines , Female , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Attitude
2.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286322, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mpox (monkeypox) infection has become a global concern for healthcare authorities after spreading in multiple non-endemic countries. Following the sudden multi-country outbreak of Mpox, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a public health emergency of international concern. We do not have any vaccines approved for the prevention of Mpox infection. Therefore, international healthcare authorities endorsed smallpox vaccines for the prevention of Mpox disease. Here we intended to perform this cross-sectional study among the adult males in Bangladesh to assess the Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention. METHODS: We conducted this web-based survey among the adult males in Bangladesh from September 1, 2022, to November 30, 2022, using Google Forms. We assessed the Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention. We performed a chi-square test to compare vaccine perception and vaccination intention levels. Also, we performed multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between the study parameters and the sociodemographic profile of the participants. RESULTS: According to the present study, the Mpox vaccine perception was high among 60.54% of the respondents. Also, 60.05% of respondents showed medium vaccination intention. Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention were strongly associated with the sociodemographic profiles of the participants. Furthermore, we discovered a significant association between the level of education and vaccination intention among the respondents. Also, age and marital status played a role in the Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed a significant association between sociodemographic characteristics and the Mpox vaccine perception/vaccination intention. Along with the country's long experience in mass immunization, campaigns about Covid-19 vaccines and high vaccination rates might play a role in Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention. We recommend more social awareness and educational communications or seminars for the target population to bring more positive changes in their attitude towards Mpox prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Vaccines , Male , Adult , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Intention , Bangladesh , Vaccination , Perception
3.
Virus Genes ; 59(3): 343-350, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235973

ABSTRACT

The recent widespread emergence of monkeypox (mpox), a rare and endemic zoonotic disease by monkeypox virus (MPXV), has made global headlines. While transmissibility (R0 ≈ 0.58) and fatality rate (0-3%) are low, as it causes prolonged morbidity, the World Health Organization has declared monkeypox as a public health emergency of international concern. Thus, effective containment and disease management require quick and efficient detection of MPXV. In this bioinformatic overview, we summarize the numerous molecular tests available for MPXV, and discuss the diversity of genes and primers used in the polymerase chain reaction-based detection. Over 90 primer/probe sets are used for the detection of poxviruses. While hemagglutinin and A-type inclusion protein are the most common target genes, tumor necrosis factor receptor and complement binding protein genes are frequently used for distinguishing Clade I and Clade II of MPXV. Problems and possibilities in the detection of MPXV have been discussed.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/pathology , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Viral/genetics , Public Health
4.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 53: 102574, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The re-emerging human monkeypox virus (MPXV) poses a global threat. The rising number of confirmed MPXV cases worldwide is a significant reason for concern. This study aims to investigate (1) hotel employees' knowledge in Egypt of MPXV source, signs/symptoms, transmission, prevention, and treatment, (2) the primary sources of their information about MPXV, (3) whether or not they received information about MPXV from their hotels, and (4) the differences of employees' knowledge in terms of gender, age, marital status, level of education, type of contract, professional category, hotel department, type of hotel, seniority in the hotel, and the number of hotel rooms. METHODS: Using a quantitative approach, we collected data from 453 employees in Egyptian hotels via a web-based questionnaire. The survey included questions regarding the MPXV source, signs/symptoms, transmission, prevention, and treatment, as well as its primary information sources. The questionnaire also included questions regarding participants' demographics and hotel characteristics. RESULTS: The findings indicated that more than half of hotel employees have inadequate knowledge of MPXV. Additionally, the majority of employees selected social media as their primary source of MPXV-related information. Surprisingly, most participants reported that their hotels neglected to provide them with the MPXV's information. Age, marital status, education, professional category, and tenure in the hotel all have a significant impact on their MPXV knowledge level. CONCLUSION: The current paper presents significant implications for both theory and practice. This study provides government agencies and hotels with guidelines for preventing the outbreak of MPXV. According to our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with hotel employees in the MPXV Egyptian context.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Egypt , Monkeypox virus , Disease Outbreaks
5.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28763, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234552

ABSTRACT

People are expected to have been previously vaccinated with a Vaccinia-based vaccine, as until 1980 smallpox vaccination was a standard protocol in China. It is unclear whether people with smallpox vaccine still have antibody against vaccinia virus (VACV) and cross-antibody against monkeypox virus (MPXV). Herein, we assessed the binding antibodies with antigen of VACV-A33 and MPXV-A35 in the general population and HIV-1 infected patients. Firstly, we detected VACV antibody with A33 protein to evaluate the efficiency of smallpox vaccination. The result show that 29% (23 of 79) of hospital staff (age ≥ 42 years) and 63% (60 of 95) of HIV-positive patients (age ≥ 42 years) from Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital were able to bind A33. However, among the subjects below 42 years of age, 1.5% (3/198) of the hospital volunteer samples and 1% (1/104) of the samples from HIV patients were positive for antibodies against A33 antigen. Then, we assessed the specific cross-reactive antibodies against MPXV A35 protein. 24% (19 of 79) hospital staff (age〉 = 42 years) and 44% (42 of 95) of HIV-positive patients (age〉 = 42 years) were positive. 98% (194/198) of the hospital staff and 99% (103/104) of the HIV patients had no A35-binding antibodies. Further, we found significant sex differences for the reactivity to A35 antigen were observed in HIV population, but no significant sex differences in hospital staff. Further, we analyzed the positivity rate of anti-A35 antibody of men who have sex with men (MSM) and non-MSM in HIV patients (age〉 = 42years). We found that 47% of no-MSM population and 40% of MSM population were positive for A35 antigen, with no significant difference. Lastly, we found only 59 samples were positive for anti-A33 IgG and anti-A35 IgG in all participants. Together, we demonstrated A33 and A35 antigens binding antibodies were detected in HIV patients and general population who were older than 42 years, and cohort studies only provided data of serological detection to support early response to monkeypox outbreak.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Smallpox Vaccine , Smallpox , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Antigens, Viral , Homosexuality, Male , Immunoglobulin G , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Vaccinia virus , Viral Proteins
6.
Vaccine ; 41(27): 4002-4008, 2023 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234502

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The 2022 global outbreak of Monkeypox virus (Mpox), which has primarily spread through the sexual networks of sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals, has introduced new public health challenges. While an efficacious Mpox vaccine is in active circulation, few Mpox vaccine studies have examined its uptake among SGM groups. The aims of this study were to investigate (a) the prevalence of Mpox vaccine uptake among SGM and (b) the contextual, Mpox-disease specific, and Mpox-vaccine specific factors associated with Mpox vaccine among SGM. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Illinois, USA in September 2022; 320 young SGM completed self-administered questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the contextual, Mpox-disease specific, and Mpox-vaccine specific factors associated with Mpox vaccine uptake. Adjusted Odds Ratios (aORs) and 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI) are reported. RESULTS: Approximately 50 % of the SGM participants included in this study had received at least their first dose of the Mpox vaccine. Multinomial regression analysis showed that individuals who had recently experienced food insecurity, had higher degrees of fear of social rejection due to Mpox acquisition, and were more Mpox-vaccine hesitant were more likely to be unvaccinated. Conversely, knowing people who have contracted Mpox, having higher formal educational attainment, having higher degrees of Mpox-related internalized heterosexism, and being more concerned about one's safety regarding Mpox morbidity were more likely to be double-dosers. CONCLUSION: Approximately 50 % of the SGMs included in this study received at least their first dose of the Mpox vaccine; however, only one-quarter of participants completed the recommended 2-dose Mpox regimen. Our findings indicate that socioeconomic stability, fear of social rejection due to disease acquisition, and Mpox-specific vaccine hesitancy may be important structural targets to consider when developing vaccine-uptake prevention and intervention strategies tailored to the needs of sexual and gender minorities.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Smallpox Vaccine , Humans , Young Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Illinois
7.
PLoS Biol ; 21(6): e3002151, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234054

ABSTRACT

The 2022 multicountry mpox outbreak concurrent with the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic further highlighted the need for genomic surveillance and rapid pathogen whole-genome sequencing. While metagenomic sequencing approaches have been used to sequence many of the early mpox infections, these methods are resource intensive and require samples with high viral DNA concentrations. Given the atypical clinical presentation of cases associated with the outbreak and uncertainty regarding viral load across both the course of infection and anatomical body sites, there was an urgent need for a more sensitive and broadly applicable sequencing approach. Highly multiplexed amplicon-based sequencing (PrimalSeq) was initially developed for sequencing of Zika virus, and later adapted as the main sequencing approach for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we used PrimalScheme to develop a primer scheme for human monkeypox virus that can be used with many sequencing and bioinformatics pipelines implemented in public health laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic. We sequenced clinical specimens that tested presumptively positive for human monkeypox virus with amplicon-based and metagenomic sequencing approaches. We found notably higher genome coverage across the virus genome, with minimal amplicon drop-outs, in using the amplicon-based sequencing approach, particularly in higher PCR cycle threshold (Ct) (lower DNA titer) samples. Further testing demonstrated that Ct value correlated with the number of sequencing reads and influenced the percent genome coverage. To maximize genome coverage when resources are limited, we recommend selecting samples with a PCR Ct below 31 Ct and generating 1 million sequencing reads per sample. To support national and international public health genomic surveillance efforts, we sent out primer pool aliquots to 10 laboratories across the United States, United Kingdom, Brazil, and Portugal. These public health laboratories successfully implemented the human monkeypox virus primer scheme in various amplicon sequencing workflows and with different sample types across a range of Ct values. Thus, we show that amplicon-based sequencing can provide a rapidly deployable, cost-effective, and flexible approach to pathogen whole-genome sequencing in response to newly emerging pathogens. Importantly, through the implementation of our primer scheme into existing SARS-CoV-2 workflows and across a range of sample types and sequencing platforms, we further demonstrate the potential of this approach for rapid outbreak response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genomics
8.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 24(1): 232, 2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent epidemic outbreaks such as the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the mpox outbreak in 2022 have demonstrated the value of genomic sequencing data for tracking the origin and spread of pathogens. Laboratories around the globe generated new sequences at unprecedented speed and volume and bioinformaticians developed new tools and dashboards to analyze this wealth of data. However, a major challenge that remains is the lack of simple and efficient approaches for accessing and processing sequencing data. RESULTS: The Lightweight API for Sequences (LAPIS) facilitates rapid retrieval and analysis of genomic sequencing data through a REST API. It supports complex mutation- and metadata-based queries and can perform aggregation operations on massive datasets. LAPIS is optimized for typical questions relevant to genomic epidemiology. Using a newly-developed in-memory database engine, it has a high speed and throughput: between 25 January and 4 February 2023, the SARS-CoV-2 instance of LAPIS, which contains 14.5 million sequences, processed over 20 million requests with a mean response time of 411 ms and a median response time of 1 ms. LAPIS is the core engine behind our dashboards on genspectrum.org and we currently maintain public LAPIS instances for SARS-CoV-2 and mpox. CONCLUSIONS: Powered by an optimized database engine and available through a web API, LAPIS enhances the accessibility of genomic sequencing data. It is designed to serve as a common backend for dashboards and analyses with the potential to be integrated into common database platforms such as GenBank.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genome , Genomics
9.
BMJ ; 381: 1190, 2023 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233808
10.
Allergy ; 78(3): 639-662, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233683

ABSTRACT

The current monkeypox disease (MPX) outbreak constitutes a new threat and challenge for our society. With more than 55,000 confirmed cases in 103 countries, World Health Organization declared the ongoing MPX outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on July 23, 2022. The current MPX outbreak is the largest, most widespread, and most serious since the diagnosis of the first case of MPX in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), a country where MPX is an endemic disease. Throughout history, there have only been sporadic and self-limiting outbreaks of MPX outside Africa, with a total of 58 cases described from 2003 to 2021. This figure contrasts with the current outbreak of 2022, in which more than 55,000 cases have been confirmed in just 4 months. MPX is, in most cases, self-limiting; however, severe clinical manifestations and complications have been reported. Complications are usually related to the extent of virus exposure and patient health status, generally affecting children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised patients. The expansive nature of the current outbreak leaves many questions that the scientific community should investigate and answer in order to understand this phenomenon better and prevent new threats in the future. In this review, 50 questions regarding monkeypox virus (MPXV) and the current MPX outbreak were answered in order to provide the most updated scientific information and to explore the potential causes and consequences of this new health threat.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Disease Outbreaks , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology
11.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0283571, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mpox (monkeypox) disease is a re-emerging viral zoonosis of international concern that is endemic in parts of Africa. The mpox virus (MPXV), which was hitherto largely limited to some Central and West African countries, was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the WHO on July 23, 2022 following the rapid spread of the virus to non-endemic countries. Globally, as of March 16, 2023, the WHO had reported 86,496 laboratory-confirmed cases of mpox and 111 deaths in 110 countries. Of the 1,420 cases of mpox reported in Africa as of March 16, 2023, Nigeria alone recorded 57.1% (812) of the confirmed cases and eight fatalities recorded in the continent. To help improve on the understanding of the current situation in Nigeria, the present study assessed the perception and knowledge of mpox among Nigerian healthcare workers, academics and tertiary students. The study also sought to highlight the global public health significance of the MPXV, and recommend a One Health approach to limit exporting of the virus beyond the borders of Nigeria. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted between 24 July 2022 and 12 August 2022 to evaluate the perception and knowledge of mpox among 1544 Nigerians, consisted of healthcare workers (n = 832), academics (n = 306) and tertiary students (n = 462). Data on the respondents' socio demographics and their information sources on mpox were also collected. Each correct response was allotted one point while an incorrect response was scored zero. The scores for perception and knowledge were dichotomized into positive (>5.5) and negative (≤5.5) and adequate (>5.8) and inadequate (≤5.8), respectively; using the average scores for perception and knowledge. The average score for perception and knowledge were summarised and presented as the mean and standard deviation (SD). Chi-square tests of association and binary logistic regression were carried out to determine factors associated with the outcome variables. RESULTS: Of the 1452 respondents that had heard of mpox, 878 (60.5%) and 419 (28.9%) had adequate knowledge and positive perception concerning MPXV infection respectively. Average perception score was 5.5. Mean perception and knowledge scores were 4.5(SD: 2.0) and 5.8 (SD: 1.9), respectively. Factors that were significantly associated with knowledge level were age (p = 0.020) educational qualification attained (p = 0.004), occupation (p<0.001), and geopolitical zone of residency (p = 0.001). There was a positive correlation between perception and knowledge scores (r = 0.4, p<0.001). Positive perceptions were likely among respondents who had tertiary education, and residing in North-west Nigeria. Likewise, adequate knowledge scores were likely among respondents under 30 years of age, with tertiary education or reside in North-west Nigeria. Sources of information were significantly associated with perception (p = 0.004) and knowledge (p<0.001) of the respondents. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that there is disparity in the knowledge and perception of mpox in the study population, and as a result, there is a need to intensify awareness about MPXV infection to enhance positive perception among the respondents. This has potential to safeguard public health and contain the disease thus preventing it from spreading to the global community. A One Health approach involving animal and human health workers is imperative for improved knowledge and a good perception towards the disease among respondents, and enhanced active surveillance and early detection of MPXV in reservoir hosts (rodents and non-human primates); to prevent reverse zoonotic transmission of the virus at the human-animal interface.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Public Health , Animals , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Lancet ; 401(10390): 1822-1824, 2023 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231783

ABSTRACT

Mpox (formerly known as monkeypox) is a zoonotic viral disease endemic in parts of Africa. In May, 2022, the world was alerted to circulation of monkeypox virus in many high-income countries outside of Africa. Continued spread resulted in a WHO declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Although there has been much attention on the global outbreak, most of the focus has been on high-income countries outside of Africa, despite the fact that monkeypox virus has been causing disease in parts of Africa for at least 50 years. Furthermore, the long-term consequences of this event, especially the risk that mpox fills the niche vacated through smallpox eradication, have not been sufficiently considered. The heart of the problem is the historical neglect of mpox in Africa where the disease is endemic, and the actual and potential consequences if this neglect is left uncorrected.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Smallpox , Humans , Animals , Smallpox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Zoonoses , Africa/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Monkeypox virus
13.
J Glob Health ; 13: 04033, 2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243915

ABSTRACT

Background: The latent monkeypox outbreak has become the most emergent public health challenge globally. This study was conducted to assess the acceptability, and willingness to take and pay for a hypothetical Monkeypox vaccine among the Vietnamese general public as well as investigate preference for individual vaccine attributes. Methods: An online cross-sectional study was conducted using snowball sampling among 842 respondents in Vietnam in 2022. A Discrete choice experiment (DCE) on preference for six major attributes of vaccine: effectiveness, immunity duration, side effects, mortality rate, restriction, and the cost was applied. Results: Fear of the impact of monkeypox on public health and the economy, vaccine service satisfaction and responsibility to the community were the most weighted factors in the decision to take a hypothetical monkeypox vaccine. Two-thirds of participants were willing to take the vaccine, while insufficient information on monkeypox and the vaccine were the main reasons for vaccine hesitancy. For vaccine attributes, the mortality rate after seven days of vaccination was the most weighted while cost was the least influential attribute. Factors associated with willingness to take and to pay for the monkeypox vaccine included knowledge of transmission, geographical location, service satisfaction, and risk of infection, while financial burden and fear of vaccine were major drivers of hesitancy. Conclusion: Our findings underline an urgent need for effective information dissemination through social media and counseling. The implementation of nationwide monkeypox vaccination requires prioritization and support for high-risk groups as well as consideration for the country's financial resources.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Vaccines , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Global Health
14.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1153136, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243494

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to explore potential healthcare workers' (HCWs) concerns about the monkeypox virus in order to create practical solutions to manage this disease. Methods: Online cross-sectional research was conducted in 11 Arabic countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Syria, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Iraq, Palestine, Jordan, and Sudan) from 2 August 2022 to 28 December 2022. Results: Approximately 82% of respondents felt the need to acquire further information. The acceptability of the vaccine against monkeypox has been indicated by more than half of the participants (54.5%). Furthermore, we state that 45% of the participants are knowledgeable about the monkeypox virus, and 53.1% of the participants have never been affected with COVID-19 before are more worried about COVID-19 than about monkeypox. Participants diagnosed with COVID-19 were 0.63 times less likely to worry about monkeypox than those who were not diagnosed with COVID-19. A greater willingness to get the monkeypox vaccination was seen among the age group 21-30 years (42.4%) compared to the other age groups. Conclusion: Most healthcare professionals have a moderate knowledge of the monkeypox virus. Furthermore, they demonstrated a low willingness to get the vaccination against the monkeypox virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Health Personnel
15.
Comput Biol Med ; 162: 107116, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230879

ABSTRACT

The re-emergence of monkeypox (MPX), in the era of COVID-19 pandemic is a new global menace. Regardless of its leniency, there are chances of MPX expediting severe health deterioration. The role of envelope protein, F13 as a critical component for production of extracellular viral particles makes it a crucial drug target. Polyphenols, exhibiting antiviral properties have been acclaimed as an effective alternative to the traditional treatment methods for management of viral diseases. To facilitate the development of potent MPX specific therapeutics, herein, we have employed state-of-the-art machine learning techniques to predict a highly accurate 3-dimensional structure of F13 as well as identify binding hotspots on the protein surface. Additionally, we have effectuated high-throughput virtual screening methodology on 57 potent natural polyphenols having antiviral activities followed by all-atoms molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to substantiate the mode of interaction of F13 protein and polyphenol complexes. The structure-based virtual screening based on Glide SP, XP and MM/GBSA scores enables the selection of six potent polyphenols having higher binding affinity towards F13. Non-bonded contact analysis, of pre- and post- MD complexes propound the critical role of Glu143, Asp134, Asn345, Ser321 and Tyr320 residues in polyphenol recognition, which is well supported by per-residue decomposition analysis. Close-observation of the structural ensembles from MD suggests that the binding groove of F13 is mostly hydrophobic in nature. Taken together, this structure-based analysis from our study provides a lead on Myricetin, and Demethoxycurcumin, which may act as potent inhibitors of F13. In conclusion, our study provides new insights into the molecular recognition and dynamics of F13-polyphenol bound states, offering new promises for development of antivirals to combat monkeypox. However, further in vitro and in vivo experiments are necessary to validate these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Polyphenols , Pandemics , Molecular Docking Simulation
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): 2204151, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328381

ABSTRACT

Current unprecedented mpox outbreaks in non-endemic regions represent a global public health concern. Although two live-attenuated vaccinia virus (VACV)-based vaccines have been urgently approved for people at high risk for mpox, a safer and more effective vaccine that can be available for the general public is desperately needed. By utilizing a simplified manufacturing strategy of mixing DNA plasmids before transcription, we developed two multi-antigen mRNA vaccine candidates, which encode four (M1, A29, B6, A35, termed as Rmix4) or six (M1, H3, A29, E8, B6, A35, termed as Rmix6) mpox virus antigens. We demonstrated that those mpox multi-antigen mRNA vaccine candidates elicited similar potent cross-neutralizing immune responses against VACV, and compared to Rmix4, Rmix6 elicited significantly stronger cellular immune responses. Moreover, immunization with both vaccine candidates protected mice from the lethal VACV challenge. Investigation of B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire elicited by mpox individual antigen demonstrated that the M1 antigen efficiently induced neutralizing antibody responses, and all neutralizing antibodies among the top 20 frequent antibodies appeared to target the same conformational epitope as 7D11, revealing potential vulnerability to viral immune evasion. Our findings suggest that Rmix4 and Rmix6 from a simplified manufacturing process are promising candidates to combat mpox.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Orthopoxvirus , Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Viral , Orthopoxvirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Vaccinia virus/genetics
17.
Vaccine ; 41(27): 3954-3959, 2023 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327891

ABSTRACT

This survey aimed to assess the prevalence of intention to receive smallpox vaccine against mpox and its relationship with sexual orientation in Japan. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in September-October 2022, with 12,900 assigned males and 13,413 assigned females participating. Modified Poisson regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between vaccine willingness and sexual orientation, adjusting for socioeconomics, trust in government, COVID-19 vaccination status, and frequency of brothel visits. Vaccine willingness was higher in homosexual respondents than heterosexual counterparts, with proportions of 23.1 % among assigned males and 13.4 % among assigned females. Homosexual orientation was significantly associated with vaccine willingness, with prevalence ratios of 1.37 (95 % CI: 1.23-1.54) among assigned males and 1.34 (95 % CI: 1.13-1.59) among assigned females. These findings highlight the need for targeted vaccine promotion campaigns and ongoing monitoring of attitudes towards mpox and vaccine compliance in high-risk groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Female , Humans , Male , Intention , Japan , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heterosexuality , Antigens, Viral , Vaccination
18.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1174223, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327003

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox virus (MPXV) cases have increased dramatically worldwide since May 2022. The Atlanta Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta CDC) had reported a total of 85,922 cases as of February 20th, 2023. During the COVID-19 pandemic, MPXV has emerged as a potential public threat. MPXV transmission and prevalence must be closely monitored. In this comprehensive review, we explained the basic characteristics and transmission routes of MPXV, individuals susceptible to it, as well as highlight the impact of the behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) and airline traveling on recent outbreaks of MPXV. We also describe the clinical implications, the prevention of MPXV, and clinical measures of viral detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
19.
J Med Virol ; 95(4): e28709, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326322

ABSTRACT

Since early May 2022, outbreaks of Monkeypox (Mpox) cases have emerged and become a global concern. Studies exploring the gastrointestinal symptoms and/or liver injury of Mpox are still very limited. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to summarize the gastrointestinal symptoms reported by Mpox patients. We searched for Mpox studies published until October 21, 2022, in MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and organization websites. Mpox studies were observational studies that reported at least one of either gastrointestinal symptoms and/or liver injury in Mpox patients. Meta-analysis was done to obtain the pooled prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in Mpox patients. Subgroup analyses were done based on the study location, age groups, and Mpox Clades. The quality of included studies was assessed using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool. Overall, 31 studies that reported gastrointestinal symptoms and/or liver injury in Mpox patients were included. The reported gastrointestinal symptoms were abdominal pain, anorexia, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. There is a lack of reporting for liver injury. The most prevalent gastrointestinal symptoms in Mpox patients were anorexia (47%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 41%-53%), followed by vomiting (12%; 95% CI 11%-13%), nausea (10%; 95% CI 9%-11%), abdominal pain (9%; 95% CI 8%-10%), and diarrhea (5%; 95% CI 4%-6%). Additionally, the prevalence of proctitis, rectal/anal pain, and rectal bleeding were 11% (95% CI 11%-12%), 25% (95% CI 24%-27%), and 12% (95% CI 11%-13%), respectively. Anorexia was the most frequently reported gastrointestinal symptom in Mpox patients, followed by vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Proctitis is a novel presentation of Mpox in the 2022 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Monkeypox , Proctitis , Humans , Anorexia , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Vomiting/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Nausea , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 890: 164289, 2023 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326226

ABSTRACT

Molecular methods have been used to detect human pathogens in wastewater with sampling typically performed at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and upstream locations within the sewer system. A wastewater-based surveillance (WBS) program was established at the University of Miami (UM) in 2020, which included measurements of SARS-CoV-2 levels in wastewater from its hospital and within the regional WWTP. In addition to the development of a SARS-CoV-2 quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay, qPCR assays to detect other human pathogens of interest were also developed at UM. Here we report on the use of a modified set of reagents published by the CDC to detect nucleic acids of Monkeypox virus (MPXV) which emerged during May of 2022 to become a concern worldwide. Samples collected from the University hospital and from the regional WWTP were processed through DNA and RNA workflows and analyzed by qPCR to detect a segment of the MPXV CrmB gene. Results show positive detections of MPXV nucleic acids in the hospital and wastewater treatment plant wastewater which coincided with clinical cases in the community and mirrored the overall trend of nationwide MPXV cases reported to the CDC. We recommend the expansion of current WBS programs' methods to detect a broader range of pathogens of concern in wastewater and present evidence that viral RNA in human cells infected by a DNA virus can be detected in wastewater.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Monkeypox virus , Wastewater , Workflow , SARS-CoV-2 , DNA , Hospitals, University , RNA, Viral
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