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1.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28763, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234552

ABSTRACT

People are expected to have been previously vaccinated with a Vaccinia-based vaccine, as until 1980 smallpox vaccination was a standard protocol in China. It is unclear whether people with smallpox vaccine still have antibody against vaccinia virus (VACV) and cross-antibody against monkeypox virus (MPXV). Herein, we assessed the binding antibodies with antigen of VACV-A33 and MPXV-A35 in the general population and HIV-1 infected patients. Firstly, we detected VACV antibody with A33 protein to evaluate the efficiency of smallpox vaccination. The result show that 29% (23 of 79) of hospital staff (age ≥ 42 years) and 63% (60 of 95) of HIV-positive patients (age ≥ 42 years) from Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital were able to bind A33. However, among the subjects below 42 years of age, 1.5% (3/198) of the hospital volunteer samples and 1% (1/104) of the samples from HIV patients were positive for antibodies against A33 antigen. Then, we assessed the specific cross-reactive antibodies against MPXV A35 protein. 24% (19 of 79) hospital staff (age〉 = 42 years) and 44% (42 of 95) of HIV-positive patients (age〉 = 42 years) were positive. 98% (194/198) of the hospital staff and 99% (103/104) of the HIV patients had no A35-binding antibodies. Further, we found significant sex differences for the reactivity to A35 antigen were observed in HIV population, but no significant sex differences in hospital staff. Further, we analyzed the positivity rate of anti-A35 antibody of men who have sex with men (MSM) and non-MSM in HIV patients (age〉 = 42years). We found that 47% of no-MSM population and 40% of MSM population were positive for A35 antigen, with no significant difference. Lastly, we found only 59 samples were positive for anti-A33 IgG and anti-A35 IgG in all participants. Together, we demonstrated A33 and A35 antigens binding antibodies were detected in HIV patients and general population who were older than 42 years, and cohort studies only provided data of serological detection to support early response to monkeypox outbreak.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Smallpox Vaccine , Smallpox , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Antigens, Viral , Homosexuality, Male , Immunoglobulin G , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Vaccinia virus , Viral Proteins
2.
Allergy ; 78(3): 639-662, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233683

ABSTRACT

The current monkeypox disease (MPX) outbreak constitutes a new threat and challenge for our society. With more than 55,000 confirmed cases in 103 countries, World Health Organization declared the ongoing MPX outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on July 23, 2022. The current MPX outbreak is the largest, most widespread, and most serious since the diagnosis of the first case of MPX in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), a country where MPX is an endemic disease. Throughout history, there have only been sporadic and self-limiting outbreaks of MPX outside Africa, with a total of 58 cases described from 2003 to 2021. This figure contrasts with the current outbreak of 2022, in which more than 55,000 cases have been confirmed in just 4 months. MPX is, in most cases, self-limiting; however, severe clinical manifestations and complications have been reported. Complications are usually related to the extent of virus exposure and patient health status, generally affecting children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised patients. The expansive nature of the current outbreak leaves many questions that the scientific community should investigate and answer in order to understand this phenomenon better and prevent new threats in the future. In this review, 50 questions regarding monkeypox virus (MPXV) and the current MPX outbreak were answered in order to provide the most updated scientific information and to explore the potential causes and consequences of this new health threat.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Disease Outbreaks , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology
3.
Lancet ; 401(10390): 1822-1824, 2023 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231783

ABSTRACT

Mpox (formerly known as monkeypox) is a zoonotic viral disease endemic in parts of Africa. In May, 2022, the world was alerted to circulation of monkeypox virus in many high-income countries outside of Africa. Continued spread resulted in a WHO declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Although there has been much attention on the global outbreak, most of the focus has been on high-income countries outside of Africa, despite the fact that monkeypox virus has been causing disease in parts of Africa for at least 50 years. Furthermore, the long-term consequences of this event, especially the risk that mpox fills the niche vacated through smallpox eradication, have not been sufficiently considered. The heart of the problem is the historical neglect of mpox in Africa where the disease is endemic, and the actual and potential consequences if this neglect is left uncorrected.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Smallpox , Humans , Animals , Smallpox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Zoonoses , Africa/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Monkeypox virus
4.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1153136, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243494

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to explore potential healthcare workers' (HCWs) concerns about the monkeypox virus in order to create practical solutions to manage this disease. Methods: Online cross-sectional research was conducted in 11 Arabic countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Syria, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Iraq, Palestine, Jordan, and Sudan) from 2 August 2022 to 28 December 2022. Results: Approximately 82% of respondents felt the need to acquire further information. The acceptability of the vaccine against monkeypox has been indicated by more than half of the participants (54.5%). Furthermore, we state that 45% of the participants are knowledgeable about the monkeypox virus, and 53.1% of the participants have never been affected with COVID-19 before are more worried about COVID-19 than about monkeypox. Participants diagnosed with COVID-19 were 0.63 times less likely to worry about monkeypox than those who were not diagnosed with COVID-19. A greater willingness to get the monkeypox vaccination was seen among the age group 21-30 years (42.4%) compared to the other age groups. Conclusion: Most healthcare professionals have a moderate knowledge of the monkeypox virus. Furthermore, they demonstrated a low willingness to get the vaccination against the monkeypox virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Health Personnel
5.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 53: 102574, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The re-emerging human monkeypox virus (MPXV) poses a global threat. The rising number of confirmed MPXV cases worldwide is a significant reason for concern. This study aims to investigate (1) hotel employees' knowledge in Egypt of MPXV source, signs/symptoms, transmission, prevention, and treatment, (2) the primary sources of their information about MPXV, (3) whether or not they received information about MPXV from their hotels, and (4) the differences of employees' knowledge in terms of gender, age, marital status, level of education, type of contract, professional category, hotel department, type of hotel, seniority in the hotel, and the number of hotel rooms. METHODS: Using a quantitative approach, we collected data from 453 employees in Egyptian hotels via a web-based questionnaire. The survey included questions regarding the MPXV source, signs/symptoms, transmission, prevention, and treatment, as well as its primary information sources. The questionnaire also included questions regarding participants' demographics and hotel characteristics. RESULTS: The findings indicated that more than half of hotel employees have inadequate knowledge of MPXV. Additionally, the majority of employees selected social media as their primary source of MPXV-related information. Surprisingly, most participants reported that their hotels neglected to provide them with the MPXV's information. Age, marital status, education, professional category, and tenure in the hotel all have a significant impact on their MPXV knowledge level. CONCLUSION: The current paper presents significant implications for both theory and practice. This study provides government agencies and hotels with guidelines for preventing the outbreak of MPXV. According to our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with hotel employees in the MPXV Egyptian context.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Egypt , Monkeypox virus , Disease Outbreaks
6.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1174223, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327003

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox virus (MPXV) cases have increased dramatically worldwide since May 2022. The Atlanta Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta CDC) had reported a total of 85,922 cases as of February 20th, 2023. During the COVID-19 pandemic, MPXV has emerged as a potential public threat. MPXV transmission and prevalence must be closely monitored. In this comprehensive review, we explained the basic characteristics and transmission routes of MPXV, individuals susceptible to it, as well as highlight the impact of the behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) and airline traveling on recent outbreaks of MPXV. We also describe the clinical implications, the prevention of MPXV, and clinical measures of viral detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(5): 1687-1697, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323440

ABSTRACT

After the global COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an alarming concern with the monkeypox (mpox) outbreak, which has affected more than 110 countries worldwide. Monkeypox virus is a doublestranded DNA virus of the genus Orthopox of the Poxviridae family, which causes this zoonotic disease. Recently, the mpox outbreak was declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). Monkeypox patients can present with ophthalmic manifestation and ophthalmologists have a role to play in managing this rare entity. Apart from causing systemic involvement such as skin lesions, respiratory infection and involvement of body fluids, Monkeypox related ophthalmic disease (MPXROD) causes varied ocular manifestations such as lid and adnexal involvement, periorbital and lid lesion, periorbital rash, conjunctivitis, blepharocounctivitis and keratitis. A detailed literature review shows few reports on MPXROD infections with limited overview on management strategies. The current review article is aimed to provide the ophthalmologist with an overview of the disease with a spotlight on ophthalmic features. We briefly discuss the morphology of the MPX, various modes of transmission, an infectious pathway of the virus, and the host immune response. A brief overview of the systemic manifestations and complications has also been elucidated. We especially highlight the detailed ophthalmic manifestations of mpox, their management, and prevention of vision threatening sequelae.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Pandemics , Eye
8.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(8): 1149-1157, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The end of smallpox in 1980 and the subsequent stopping of vaccination against smallpox was followed by the emergence of monkeypox (mpox), a viral disease of animal origin, meaning that it is transmitted from animal to human. The symptoms of mpox are similar to smallpox, except that they are less severe in terms of clinical features. In the case of public health, the mpox virus is one of the most important orthopoxviruses (such as variola, cowpox, and vaccinia) that come from the family Poxviridae. Mpox occurs mostly in central Africa and sometimes in tropical rainforests or some urban areas. Also, there are threats other than COVID-19, that must be addressed and prevented from spreading, as there has been an outbreak of mpox cases since May 7, 2022, throughout the USA, Europe, Australia, and part of Africa. OBJECTIVES: In this review, we will discuss mpox between the past, the present and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, it offers an updated summary of the taxonomy, etiology, transmission, and epidemiology of mpox illness. In addition, the current review aims to highlight the importance of emerging pandemics in the same era such as mpox and COVID-19. METHODS: A literature search was done for the study using online sources like PubMed and Google Scholar. Publications in English were included. Data for study variables were extracted. After the duplicate articles were eliminated, full-text screening was performed on the papers' titles and abstracts. RESULTS: The evaluation included a series documenting mpox virus outbreaks, and both prospective and retrospectiveinvestigations. CONCLUSIONS: monkeypox is a viral disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), which is primarily found in central and western Africa. The disease is transmitted from animals to humans and presents symptoms similar to those of smallpox, including fever, headache, muscle aches, and a rash. Monkeypox can lead to complications such as secondary integument infection, bronchopneumonia, sepsis, and encephalitis, as well as corneal infection that can result in blindness. There is no specific clinically proven treatment for monkeypox, and treatment is primarily supportive. However, antiviral drugs and vaccines are available for cross-protection against the virus, and strict infection control measures and vaccination of close contacts of affected individuals can help prevent and control outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox , Animals , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
9.
Public Health ; 218: 114-120, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291388

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Mpox has been declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization on July 23, 2022. Since early May 2022, Mpox has been continuously reported in several endemic countries with alarming death rates. This led to several discussions and deliberations on the Mpox virus among the general public through social media and platforms such as health forums. This study proposes natural language processing techniques such as topic modeling to unearth the general public's perspectives and sentiments on growing Mpox cases worldwide. STUDY DESIGN: This was a detailed qualitative study using natural language processing on the user-generated comments from social media. METHODS: A detailed analysis using topic modeling and sentiment analysis on Reddit comments (n = 289,073) that were posted between June 1 and August 5, 2022, was conducted. While the topic modeling was used to infer major themes related to the health emergency and user concerns, the sentiment analysis was conducted to see how the general public responded to different aspects of the outbreak. RESULTS: The results revealed several interesting and useful themes, such as Mpox symptoms, Mpox transmission, international travel, government interventions, and homophobia from the user-generated contents. The results further confirm that there are many stigmas and fear of the unknown nature of the Mpox virus, which is prevalent in almost all topics and themes unearthed. CONCLUSIONS: Analyzing public discourse and sentiments toward health emergencies and disease outbreaks is highly important. The insights that could be leveraged from the user-generated comments from public forums such as social media may be important for community health intervention programs and infodemiology researchers. The findings from this study effectively analyzed the public perceptions that may enable quantifying the effectiveness of measures imposed by governmental administrations. The themes unearthed may also benefit health policy researchers and decision-makers to make informed and data-driven decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Social Media , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Natural Language Processing , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Attitude
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(4): e0011246, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In addition to the COVID-19 waves, the globe is recently facing global monkeypox (MPX) outbreak. As the daily confirmed cases of MPX infection across epidemic and nonepidemic countries are increasing, taking measures to control global pandemic remains crucial. Therefore, this review aimed to provide fundamental knowledge for the prevention and control of future outbreaks of this emerging epidemic. METHODS: The review was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar databases; the search terms used were "monkeypox," "MPX tropism," "replication signaling of MPX," "biology and pathogenicity of MPX," "diagnosis of MPX," "treatment of MPX," "prevention of MPX," etc. The update epidemic data were collected from the websites of the World Health Organization (WHO), United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Africa Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ADCC). High-quality research results published in authoritative journals were summarized and preferred cited. Excluding all duplicates, non-English published references, and irrelevant literature, totally 1,436 articles were assessed for eligibility. RESULTS: It is still difficult to diagnose the patient as MPX simply based on clinical manifestations; therefore, under this situation, employing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology to provide confirmed evidence for the diagnosis of MPX seems to be the preferred and indispensable strategy. The treatment approach for MPX infection is mainly symptomatic and supportive; anti-smallpox virus drugs including tecovirimat, cidofovir, and brincidofovir can be employed in severe cases. Timely identification and isolation of confirmed cases, cutting off dissemination routes, and vaccination of close contacts are effective measures to control MPX. Also, smallpox vaccines (JYNNEOS, LC16m8, and ACAM2000) can be under consideration due to their immunological cross-protection among Orthopoxvirus. Nevertheless, given the low quality and scarcity of relevant evidence of current antiviral drugs and vaccines, deeply seeking for the MAPK/ERK, PAK-1, PI3K/Akt signaling, and other pathways involved in MPX invasion may provide potential targets for the treatment, prevention, and control of the epidemic. CONCLUSIONS: In response to the current MPX epidemic, the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs against MPX, as well as the rapid and precise diagnostic methods are still urgently needed. Sound monitoring and detection systems should be established to limit the rapid spread of MPX worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/drug therapy , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Africa , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Monkeypox virus
11.
Neural Netw ; 161: 757-775, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250991

ABSTRACT

The monkeypox virus poses a new pandemic threat while we are still recovering from COVID-19. Despite the fact that monkeypox is not as lethal and contagious as COVID-19, new patient cases are recorded every day. If preparations are not made, a global pandemic is likely. Deep learning (DL) techniques are now showing promise in medical imaging for figuring out what diseases a person has. The monkeypox virus-infected human skin and the region of the skin can be used to diagnose the monkeypox early because an image has been used to learn more about the disease. But there is still no reliable Monkeypox database that is available to the public that can be used to train and test DL models. As a result, it is essential to collect images of monkeypox patients. The "MSID" dataset, short form of "Monkeypox Skin Images Dataset", which was developed for this research, is free to use and can be downloaded from the Mendeley Data database by anyone who wants to use it. DL models can be built and used with more confidence using the images in this dataset. These images come from a variety of open-source and online sources and can be used for research purposes without any restrictions. Furthermore, we proposed and evaluated a modified DenseNet-201 deep learning-based CNN model named MonkeyNet. Using the original and augmented datasets, this study suggested a deep convolutional neural network that was able to correctly identify monkeypox disease with an accuracy of 93.19% and 98.91% respectively. This implementation also shows the Grad-CAM which indicates the level of the model's effectiveness and identifies the infected regions in each class image, which will help the clinicians. The proposed model will also help doctors make accurate early diagnoses of monkeypox disease and protect against the spread of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnostic imaging , Monkeypox/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Databases, Factual , Neural Networks, Computer , Pandemics
12.
J Med Virol ; 95(4): e28701, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248060

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox infection (Mpox) is caused by the Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) genus of the Poxviridae family, closely resembling its more famous sibling smallpox. Recently World Health Organization (WHO), have renamed monkeypox as Mpox citing racial concerns, so we will be referring to monkeypox as Mpox. There has been a recent outbreak in May 2022 when Mpox cases were identified in all six WHO regions. On July 23, 2022, WHO declared it a public health emergency. Before the current outbreak, Mpox had been reported in people from several parts of central and west African countries; and almost all Mpox cases in people outside of Africa were linked to international travel to countries where the disease commonly occurs or through imported animals. With the waning of smallpox vaccine-induced immunity, Mpox can spread in the global population. Though the virus generally does not cause high mortality in immunocompetent individuals, however, severe disease and mortality may result if the virus spreads to immunocompromised individuals, children, elderly individuals, pregnant women, and individuals living with comorbidities such as diabetes. The current transmission was suspected to have occurred through sexual activity in 95% of the persons with infection. It was found that 98% of the persons with infection were either gay or bisexual men, with 41% suffering from HIV infection. The reasons behind this current epidemiological behavior have to be studied further to formulate a hypothesis that, is it the homosexuals who need to be more concerned or is it a global concern, and is monkeypox changing its behaviour to a sexually transmitted infection? The rash, along with associated lymphadenopathy, is a clue toward Mpox infection, but polymerase chain reaction is needed for the confirmative diagnosis. With the discovery of a vaccine, repurposed antivirals, and precautionary steps to prevent the spread of infection, it might help in the containment of the virus. In addition, what we already know about Mpox has to be re-evaluated, because most of the information gathered is from low-resource settings in Africa. The world at large and health care agencies specifically needs to galvanize a well-funded global plan and research initiatives to contain the spread of Mpox. In this article, we have attempted to make the readers aware of the biology, etiopathogenesis including the changes at the cellular level the virus is causing, the changing trends of the virus transmission, and the clinical manifestations. We have also attempted to elaborate on the potential challenges and the need for early diagnosis and containment of this Mpox outbreak. This could be achieved by effectieve use of vaccination and taking social safety measures, especially by the communities at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Monkeypox , Female , Pregnancy , Animals , Male , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks
13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1088471, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266235

ABSTRACT

The world is currently dealing with a second viral outbreak, monkeypox, which has the potential to become an epidemic after the COVID-19 pandemic. People who reside in or close to forest might be exposed indirectly or at a low level, resulting in subclinical disease. However, the disease has lately emerged in shipped African wild mice in the United States. Smallpox can cause similar signs and symptoms to monkeypox, such as malaise, fever, flu-like signs, headache, distinctive rash, and back pain. Because Smallpox has been eliminated, similar symptoms in a monkeypox endemic zone should be treated cautiously. Monkeypox is transmitted to humans primarily via interaction with diseased animals. Infection through inoculation via interaction with skin or scratches and mucosal lesions on the animals is conceivable significantly once the skin barrier is disrupted by scratches, bites, or other disturbances or trauma. Even though it is clinically unclear from other pox-like infections, laboratory diagnosis is essential. There is no approved treatment for human monkeypox virus infection, however, smallpox vaccination can defend counter to the disease. Human sensitivity to monkeypox virus infection has grown after mass vaccination was discontinued in the 1980s. Infection may be prevented by reducing interaction with sick patients or animals and reducing respiratory exposure among people who are infected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox , Humans , Animals , United States , Mice , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , COVID-19 Testing
14.
Euro Surveill ; 27(32)2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263528

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 23 July 2022. Between 1 January and 23 July 2022, 16,016 laboratory confirmed cases of monkeypox and five deaths were reported to WHO from 75 countries on all continents. Public health authorities are proactively identifying cases and tracing their contacts to contain its spread. As with COVID-19, PCR is the only method capable of being deployed at sufficient speed to provide timely feedback on any public health interventions. However, at this point, there is little information on how those PCR assays are being standardised between laboratories. A likely reason is that testing is still limited on a global scale and that detection, not quantification, of monkeypox virus DNA is the main clinical requirement. Yet we should not be complacent about PCR performance. As testing requirements increase rapidly and specimens become more diverse, it would be prudent to ensure PCR accuracy from the outset to support harmonisation and ease regulatory conformance. Lessons from COVID-19 should aid implementation with appropriate material, documentary and methodological standards offering dynamic mechanisms to ensure testing that most accurately guides public health decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , World Health Organization
16.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 17(2): 113-118, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is known to be linked to malfunctioning antiviral defense; however, its association with the severity of monkeypox is poorly understood. In this review, we discuss key immunological mechanisms in the antiviral response affected by poor glucose control that could impact the susceptibility and severity of monkeypox infection, leading to a heightened emphasis on the use of the available antidiabetic drugs. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google scholar for articles published from January 1985 to August 2022. No criteria for publication data were set, and all articles in English were included. RESULTS: Currently, there are no studies about the risk or consequences of monkeypox infection in the diabetic population. A high incidence of diabetes is reported in countries such as China, India, Pakistan, EUA, Indonesia, Brazil, Mexico, Bangladesh, Japan, and Egypt, where unfortunately imported cases of monkeypox have been reported and the infection continues to spread. CONCLUSIONS: High incidence of diabetes together with the cessation of smallpox vaccination has left large numbers of the human population unprotected against monkeypox. The best option for the population remains confined to the prevention of infection as well as the use of hypoglycemic agents that have also been shown to improve immune mechanisms associated with viral protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/drug therapy , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1052946, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240858

ABSTRACT

Background: Ninety-eight percent of documented cases of the zoonotic disease human monkeypox (MPX) were reported after 2001, with especially dramatic global spread in 2022. This longitudinal study aimed to assess spatiotemporal risk factors of MPX infection and predict global epidemiological trends. Method: Twenty-one potential risk factors were evaluated by correlation-based network analysis and multivariate regression. Country-level risk was assessed using a modified Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) model and a risk-factor-driven k-means clustering analysis. Results: Between historical cases and the 2022 outbreak, MPX infection risk factors changed from relatively simple [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and population density] to multiple [human mobility, population of men who have sex with men, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, and socioeconomic factors], with human mobility in the context of COVID-19 being especially key. The 141 included countries classified into three risk clusters: 24 high-risk countries mainly in West Europe and Northern America, 70 medium-risk countries mainly in Latin America and Asia, and 47 low-risk countries mainly in Africa and South Asia. The modified SEIR model predicted declining transmission rates, with basic reproduction numbers ranging 1.61-7.84 in the early stage and 0.70-4.13 in the current stage. The estimated cumulative cases in Northern and Latin America may overtake the number in Europe in autumn 2022. Conclusions: In the current outbreak, risk factors for MPX infection have changed and expanded. Forecasts of epidemiological trends from our modified SEIR models suggest that Northern America and Latin America are at greater risk of MPX infection in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Pandemics , Homosexuality, Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks
18.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 52: 102540, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246394

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and now monkeypox, the UK Defence Medical Services have been required to provide rapid advice in the management of patients with airborne high consequence infectious diseases (A-HCID). The Defence Public Health Network (DPHN) cadre, consisting of closely aligned uniformed and civilian public health specialists have worked at pace to provide evidence-based recommendations on the clinical management, public health response and policy for monkeypox, with military medicine and pathology clinicians (primarily infectious disease physicians and medical microbiologists). Military environments can be complicated and nuanced requiring specialist input and advice to non-specialists as well as unit commanders both in the UK and overseas. DPHN and military infection clinicians have close links with the UK National Health Service (NHS) and the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA), allowing for a dynamic two-way relationship that encompasses patient management, public health response, research and development of both UK military and national guidelines. This is further demonstrated with the Royal Air Force (RAF) Air Transport Isolator (ATI) capability, provided by Defence to support the UK Government and UKHSA. Military infectious disease clinicians are also embedded within NHS A-HCID units. In this manuscript we provide examples of the close interdisciplinary working of the DPHN and Defence clinicians in managing military monkeypox patients, co-ordinating the public health response, advising the Command and developing monkeypox policy for Defence through cross-government partnership. We also highlight the co-operation between civilian and military medical authorities in managing the current outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Military Medicine , Military Personnel , Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , State Medicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology
19.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 64(1): e1-e5, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242036

ABSTRACT

The development of new zoonotic diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and monkeypox that can cause epidemics and high mortality rates have significantly threatened global health security. However, the increasing number of people with no immunity to poxvirus because of the end of the smallpox vaccination programme has created a vulnerable population for the monkeypox outbreak. On 23 July 2022, it was announced that the World Health Organization's director-general has determined that the multicountry outbreak of monkeypox constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The monkeypox virus is an orthopoxvirus that causes a disease with symptoms similar to smallpox but less severe. Many unanswered questions remain regarding monkeypox's pathogenesis, transmission and host reservoir. There is currently no evidence that transmission by individuals can sustain zoonotic infections during human-to-human transmissions; the continued emergence of these pathogens highlights the interconnectedness of animals and humans. The increasing number of monkeypox cases outside the endemic region has highlighted the need for effective global capacity building to prevent the spread of the disease and its impact on global health security. The priority now is to stop the spread of the disease and protect frontline healthcare workers and the most vulnerable individuals. This article aims to comprehensively analyse the various aspects of the transmission and epidemiology of monkeypox. It also explores possible diagnostic techniques, therapeutics and prevention strategies. A key recommendation is that primary care and public health professionals are expected to increase their efforts to be vigilant and contain any potential outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox , Variola virus , Animals , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Monkeypox virus , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
20.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1120470, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228555

ABSTRACT

Background: The reemergence of the monkeypox epidemic has aroused great concern internationally. Concurrently, the COVID-19 epidemic is still ongoing. It is essential to understand the temporal dynamics of the monkeypox epidemic in 2022 and its relationship with the dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic. In this study, we aimed to explore the temporal dynamic characteristics of the human monkeypox epidemic in 2022 and its relationship with those of the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: We used publicly available data of cumulative monkeypox cases and COVID-19 in 2022 and COVID-19 at the beginning of 2020 for model validation and further analyses. The time series data were fitted with a descriptive model using the sigmoid function. Two important indices (logistic growth rate and semi-saturation period) could be obtained from the model to evaluate the temporal characteristics of the epidemic. Results: As for the monkeypox epidemic, the growth rate of infection and semi-saturation period showed a negative correlation (r = 0.47, p = 0.034). The growth rate also showed a significant relationship with the locations of the country in which it occurs [latitude (r = -0.45, p = 0.038)]. The development of the monkeypox epidemic did not show significant correlation compared with the that of COVID-19 in 2020 and 2022. When comparing the COVID-19 epidemic with that of monkeypox, a significantly longer semi-saturation period was observed for monkeypox, while a significant larger growth rate was found in COVID-19 in 2020. Conclusions: This novel study investigates the temporal dynamics of the human monkeypox epidemic and its relationship with the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic, which could provide more appropriate guidance for local governments to plan and implement further fit-for-purpose epidemic prevention policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Longitudinal Studies , Policy
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