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1.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1153136, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243494

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to explore potential healthcare workers' (HCWs) concerns about the monkeypox virus in order to create practical solutions to manage this disease. Methods: Online cross-sectional research was conducted in 11 Arabic countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Syria, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Iraq, Palestine, Jordan, and Sudan) from 2 August 2022 to 28 December 2022. Results: Approximately 82% of respondents felt the need to acquire further information. The acceptability of the vaccine against monkeypox has been indicated by more than half of the participants (54.5%). Furthermore, we state that 45% of the participants are knowledgeable about the monkeypox virus, and 53.1% of the participants have never been affected with COVID-19 before are more worried about COVID-19 than about monkeypox. Participants diagnosed with COVID-19 were 0.63 times less likely to worry about monkeypox than those who were not diagnosed with COVID-19. A greater willingness to get the monkeypox vaccination was seen among the age group 21-30 years (42.4%) compared to the other age groups. Conclusion: Most healthcare professionals have a moderate knowledge of the monkeypox virus. Furthermore, they demonstrated a low willingness to get the vaccination against the monkeypox virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Health Personnel
2.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 53: 102574, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The re-emerging human monkeypox virus (MPXV) poses a global threat. The rising number of confirmed MPXV cases worldwide is a significant reason for concern. This study aims to investigate (1) hotel employees' knowledge in Egypt of MPXV source, signs/symptoms, transmission, prevention, and treatment, (2) the primary sources of their information about MPXV, (3) whether or not they received information about MPXV from their hotels, and (4) the differences of employees' knowledge in terms of gender, age, marital status, level of education, type of contract, professional category, hotel department, type of hotel, seniority in the hotel, and the number of hotel rooms. METHODS: Using a quantitative approach, we collected data from 453 employees in Egyptian hotels via a web-based questionnaire. The survey included questions regarding the MPXV source, signs/symptoms, transmission, prevention, and treatment, as well as its primary information sources. The questionnaire also included questions regarding participants' demographics and hotel characteristics. RESULTS: The findings indicated that more than half of hotel employees have inadequate knowledge of MPXV. Additionally, the majority of employees selected social media as their primary source of MPXV-related information. Surprisingly, most participants reported that their hotels neglected to provide them with the MPXV's information. Age, marital status, education, professional category, and tenure in the hotel all have a significant impact on their MPXV knowledge level. CONCLUSION: The current paper presents significant implications for both theory and practice. This study provides government agencies and hotels with guidelines for preventing the outbreak of MPXV. According to our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with hotel employees in the MPXV Egyptian context.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Egypt , Monkeypox virus , Disease Outbreaks
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 172, 2023 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303068

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox has been declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. There is an urgent need for efficient and safe vaccines against the monkeypox virus (MPXV) in response to the rapidly spreading monkeypox epidemic. In the age of COVID-19, mRNA vaccines have been highly successful and emerged as platforms enabling rapid development and large-scale preparation. Here, we develop two MPXV quadrivalent mRNA vaccines, named mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP, based on two intracellular mature virus specific proteins (A29L and M1R) and two extracellular enveloped virus specific proteins (A35R and B6R). By administering mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP intramuscularly twice, mice induce MPXV specific IgG antibodies and potent vaccinia virus (VACV) specific neutralizing antibodies. Further, it elicits efficient MPXV specific Th-1 biased cellular immunity, as well as durable effector memory T and germinal center B cell responses in mice. In addition, two doses of mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP are protective against the VACV challenge in mice. And, the passive transfer of sera from mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP-immunized mice protects nude mice against the VACV challenge. Overall, our results demonstrate that mRNA-A-LNP and mRNA-B-LNP appear to be safe and effective vaccine candidates against monkeypox epidemics, as well as against outbreaks caused by other orthopoxviruses, including the smallpox virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Animals , Mice , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Vaccines, Combined , Mice, Nude , Viral Proteins/genetics , Immunity
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1088471, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266235

ABSTRACT

The world is currently dealing with a second viral outbreak, monkeypox, which has the potential to become an epidemic after the COVID-19 pandemic. People who reside in or close to forest might be exposed indirectly or at a low level, resulting in subclinical disease. However, the disease has lately emerged in shipped African wild mice in the United States. Smallpox can cause similar signs and symptoms to monkeypox, such as malaise, fever, flu-like signs, headache, distinctive rash, and back pain. Because Smallpox has been eliminated, similar symptoms in a monkeypox endemic zone should be treated cautiously. Monkeypox is transmitted to humans primarily via interaction with diseased animals. Infection through inoculation via interaction with skin or scratches and mucosal lesions on the animals is conceivable significantly once the skin barrier is disrupted by scratches, bites, or other disturbances or trauma. Even though it is clinically unclear from other pox-like infections, laboratory diagnosis is essential. There is no approved treatment for human monkeypox virus infection, however, smallpox vaccination can defend counter to the disease. Human sensitivity to monkeypox virus infection has grown after mass vaccination was discontinued in the 1980s. Infection may be prevented by reducing interaction with sick patients or animals and reducing respiratory exposure among people who are infected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox , Humans , Animals , United States , Mice , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , COVID-19 Testing
5.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 17(2): 113-118, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is known to be linked to malfunctioning antiviral defense; however, its association with the severity of monkeypox is poorly understood. In this review, we discuss key immunological mechanisms in the antiviral response affected by poor glucose control that could impact the susceptibility and severity of monkeypox infection, leading to a heightened emphasis on the use of the available antidiabetic drugs. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google scholar for articles published from January 1985 to August 2022. No criteria for publication data were set, and all articles in English were included. RESULTS: Currently, there are no studies about the risk or consequences of monkeypox infection in the diabetic population. A high incidence of diabetes is reported in countries such as China, India, Pakistan, EUA, Indonesia, Brazil, Mexico, Bangladesh, Japan, and Egypt, where unfortunately imported cases of monkeypox have been reported and the infection continues to spread. CONCLUSIONS: High incidence of diabetes together with the cessation of smallpox vaccination has left large numbers of the human population unprotected against monkeypox. The best option for the population remains confined to the prevention of infection as well as the use of hypoglycemic agents that have also been shown to improve immune mechanisms associated with viral protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/drug therapy , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
6.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 64(1): e1-e5, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242036

ABSTRACT

The development of new zoonotic diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and monkeypox that can cause epidemics and high mortality rates have significantly threatened global health security. However, the increasing number of people with no immunity to poxvirus because of the end of the smallpox vaccination programme has created a vulnerable population for the monkeypox outbreak. On 23 July 2022, it was announced that the World Health Organization's director-general has determined that the multicountry outbreak of monkeypox constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The monkeypox virus is an orthopoxvirus that causes a disease with symptoms similar to smallpox but less severe. Many unanswered questions remain regarding monkeypox's pathogenesis, transmission and host reservoir. There is currently no evidence that transmission by individuals can sustain zoonotic infections during human-to-human transmissions; the continued emergence of these pathogens highlights the interconnectedness of animals and humans. The increasing number of monkeypox cases outside the endemic region has highlighted the need for effective global capacity building to prevent the spread of the disease and its impact on global health security. The priority now is to stop the spread of the disease and protect frontline healthcare workers and the most vulnerable individuals. This article aims to comprehensively analyse the various aspects of the transmission and epidemiology of monkeypox. It also explores possible diagnostic techniques, therapeutics and prevention strategies. A key recommendation is that primary care and public health professionals are expected to increase their efforts to be vigilant and contain any potential outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox , Variola virus , Animals , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Monkeypox virus , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1050309, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115026

ABSTRACT

Until May 2022, zoonotic infectious disease monkeypox (MPX) caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV) was one of the forgotten viruses considered to be geographically limited in African countries even though few cases outside of Africa were identified. Central and West African countries are known to be endemic for MPXV. However, since the number of human MPX cases has rapidly increased outside of Africa the global interest in this virus has markedly grown. The majority of infected people with MPXV have never been vaccinated against smallpox virus. Noteworthily, the MPXV spreads fast in men who have sex with men (MSM). Preventive measures against MPXV are essential to be taken, indeed, vaccination is the key. Due to the antigenic similarities, the smallpox vaccine is efficient against MPXV. Nevertheless, there is no specific MPXV vaccine until now. Nucleic acid vaccines deserve special attention since the emergency approval of two messenger RNA (mRNA)-based coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in 2020. This milestone in vaccinology has opened a new platform for developing more mRNA- or DNA-based vaccines. Certainly, this type of vaccine has a number of advantages including time- and cost-effectiveness over conventional vaccines. The platform of nucleic acid-based vaccines gives humankind a huge opportunity. Ultimately, there is a strong need for developing a universal vaccine against MPXV. This review will shed the light on the strategies for developing nucleic acid vaccines against MPXV in a timely manner. Consequently, developing nucleic acid-based vaccines may alleviate the global threat against MPXV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Smallpox Vaccine , Male , Humans , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Nucleic Acid-Based Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Monkeypox virus/genetics , RNA, Messenger
8.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110274

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of monkeypox, coupled with the onslaught of the COVID-19 pandemic is a critical communicable disease. This study aimed to systematically identify and review research done on preclinical studies focusing on the potential monkeypox treatment and immunization. The presented juxtaposition of efficacy of potential treatments and vaccination that had been tested in preclinical trials could serve as a useful primer of monkeypox virus. The literature identified using key terms such as monkeypox virus or management or vaccine stringed using Boolean operators was systematically reviewed. Pubmed, SCOPUS, Cochrane, and preprint databases were used, and screening was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. A total of 467 results from registered databases and 116 from grey literature databases were screened. Of these results, 72 studies from registered databases and three grey literature studies underwent full-text screening for eligibility. In this systematic review, a total of 27 articles were eligible according to the inclusion criteria and were used. Tecovirimat, known as TPOXX or ST-246, is an antiviral drug indicated for smallpox infection whereas brincidofovir inhibits the viral DNA polymerase after incorporation into viral DNA. The ability of tecovirimat in providing protection to poxvirus-challenged animals from death had been demonstrated in a number of animal studies. Non-inferior with regard to immunogenicity was reported for the live smallpox/monkeypox vaccine compared with a single dose of a licensed live smallpox vaccine. The trial involving the live vaccine showed a geometric mean titre of vaccinia-neutralizing antibodies post two weeks of the second dose of the live smallpox/monkeypox vaccine. Of note, up to the third generation of smallpox vaccines-particularly JYNNEOS and Lc16m8-have been developed as preventive measures for MPXV infection and these vaccines had been demonstrated to have improved safety compared to the earlier generations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Smallpox , Variola virus , Animals , Humans , Monkeypox/drug therapy , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Smallpox/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Monkeypox virus , Vaccinia virus , Vaccines, Attenuated
9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 373, 2022 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096666

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that was once endemic in west and central Africa caused by monkeypox virus. However, cases recently have been confirmed in many nonendemic countries outside of Africa. WHO declared the ongoing monkeypox outbreak to be a public health emergency of international concern on July 23, 2022, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The rapidly increasing number of confirmed cases could pose a threat to the international community. Here, we review the epidemiology of monkeypox, monkeypox virus reservoirs, novel transmission patterns, mutations and mechanisms of viral infection, clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis and treatment measures. In addition, strategies for the prevention, such as vaccination of smallpox vaccine, is also included. Current epidemiological data indicate that high frequency of human-to-human transmission could lead to further outbreaks, especially among men who have sex with men. The development of antiviral drugs and vaccines against monkeypox virus is urgently needed, despite some therapeutic effects of currently used drugs in the clinic. We provide useful information to improve the understanding of monkeypox virus and give guidance for the government and relative agency to prevent and control the further spread of monkeypox virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Pandemics , Monkeypox virus
10.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(10): 2061-2064, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081602

ABSTRACT

As the world is still under the grip of COVID-19, "WHO" has started alerting about the new global emergency due to a surge in cases of the Monkeypox virus (MPXV) disease (MPXD). MPXD is a rare viral zoonotic disease, caused by the monkeypox virus, which results in multiple centrifugal rashes similar to smallpox. The current unusual high frequency of transmission has lead to the WHO alert because, human-to-human transmission has been observed in Europe, without a history of travel to endemic areas. So, further spread of the virus can be anticipated through close contact, being a threat for its transmission. It is thus necessary for our government to prepare itself for handling this new situation which could spread fast due to globalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
11.
Br Dent J ; 233(7): 569-574, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077034

ABSTRACT

Infection control is critical for the safe delivery of dental care. Infection control practices must be responsive to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and outbreaks, as was clearly seen during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. An emerging global outbreak of the monkeypox virus has again raised potential challenges for infection control in dentistry. Monkeypox is an infectious disease, characterised by a rash affecting the skin and soft tissues, including the oral cavity. Previously, cases were mostly seen following contact with infected animals in Central and West Africa, with limited human-to-human transmission within and outside of these areas. However, since May 2022, sustained human-to-human transmission has occurred globally. Monkeypox can be transmitted via close contact with an infected person, contaminated objects and surfaces, or by droplets and possibly aerosols, which is therefore of potential importance to dental settings. This article discusses the relevance of monkeypox to dental professionals, the typical presentation of the disease, its potential impact on infection prevention and control practices and the delivery of dental services. The current monkeypox outbreak highlights the need for a more sustained programme of research into dental infection control that can provide a solid evidence base to underpin preparedness planning for future outbreaks and pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dentists , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Monkeypox virus , Pandemics
12.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(11): 1425-1433, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051012

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The reemergence of monkeypox virus in the twenty-first century, calls for an urgency in its control and preventive measures. There is a long-standing concern that the reemergence of monkeypox across countries could lead to another epidemic like the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the disease ecology, preventing its transmission could help curbing its spread. The established treatment protocols along with development of new antiviral agents and vaccines could play a pivotal role in controlling its transmission. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we summarize the different modes of transmission of this disease, the associated symptoms, the standard protocol of treatment, the available vaccines and use of alternative treatments. We have collated recent research on novel entities that could potentially treat monkeypox infection. EXPERT OPINION: The One Health approach fostered by the World Health Organization (WHO) for emergent and reemerging zoonotic diseases has to be implemented with a view to curb their transmission. The growing global population and increased inter-country travel has led to rapid spread of transmissible pathogens. Stigmatization, associated with lack of knowledge can be prevented by enhancing awareness campaigns. Vaccines need to be administered to high-risk individuals, and drug discovery efforts need to be intensified to combat such diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/drug therapy , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Monkeypox virus , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(12): e349-e358, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031764

ABSTRACT

The largest outbreak of monkeypox in history began in May, 2022, and has rapidly spread across the globe ever since. The purpose of this Review is to briefly describe human immune responses to orthopoxviruses; provide an overview of the vaccines available to combat this outbreak; and discuss the various clinical data and animal studies evaluating protective immunity to monkeypox elicited by vaccinia virus-based smallpox vaccines, address ongoing concerns regarding the outbreak, and provide suggestions for the appropriate use of vaccines as an outbreak control measure. Data showing clinical effectiveness (~85%) of smallpox vaccines against monkeypox come from surveillance studies conducted in central Africa in the 1980s and later during outbreaks in the same area. These data are supported by a large number of animal studies (primarily in non-human primates) with live virus challenge by various inoculation routes. These studies uniformly showed a high degree of protection and immunity against monkeypox virus following vaccination with various smallpox vaccines. Smallpox vaccines represent an effective countermeasure that can be used to control monkeypox outbreaks. However, smallpox vaccines do cause side-effects and the replication-competent, second-generation vaccines have contraindications. Third-generation vaccines, although safer for use in immunocompromised populations, require two doses, which is an impediment to rapid outbreak response. Lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic should be used to inform our collective response to this monkeypox outbreak and to future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Smallpox , Animals , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Smallpox/prevention & control , Pandemics
15.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 50: 102441, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008150

ABSTRACT

Re-emerging of monkeypox virus (MPXV), a neglected viral zoonotic disease, is a potential global threat. In the current COVID-19 pandemic status, the increasing reporting of positive cases of human MPXV in most countries of the world is a major reason for concern. This paper aims to describe the insights and lessons from COVID-19 pandemic in preventing the impending danger MPXV. In order to prevent further outbreak of disease, identify and control of MPXV transmission routes is necessary. Public health authorities should be vigilant and applied of effective strategies to mitigate the potential spread of MPXV. To address research gaps related to MPX outbreaks, national, regional, and international collaborations are required in time. Finally, the lessons and insights put forward point to the fact that, like the COVID-19 pandemic, people's health by and large depends on the decisions of government officials and people must continue to adhere to health principles. Hence, governments and policymakers must take appropriate precautionary measures to prevent similar crises like COVID-19 in the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Monkeypox virus , Public Health
16.
Cell ; 185(18): 3279-3281, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000321

ABSTRACT

Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, we now face another public health emergency in the form of monkeypox virus. As of August 1, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report over 23,000 cases in 80 countries. An inclusive and global collaborative effort to understand the biology, evolution, and spread of the virus as well as commitment to vaccine equity will be critical toward containing this outbreak. We share the voices of leading experts in this space on what they see as the most pressing questions and directions for the community.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Monkeypox virus , Pandemics/prevention & control
18.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(29): e239, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963383

ABSTRACT

In June 2022, the first monkeypox case was reported as imported into Korea. The general public asked whether they should get vaccinated against monkeypox because of the recent COVID-19 vaccination experience. As of the current monkeypox outbreak situation, a ring vaccination strategy for the high-risk group is more appropriate than the mass population vaccination with smallpox vaccines. Therefore, identifying the proper target group by available vaccines based on the risk and benefit analysis is a key issue of the vaccination program. In addition, the target group should be reviewed by the epidemiological situation of the jurisdiction along with the updated evidence of the monkeypox virus on transmission dynamics, severity, and fatality.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Monkeypox virus
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