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1.
Intern Med ; 61(11): 1789-1793, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951851

ABSTRACT

Secondary cold agglutinin syndrome (CAS) is autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to infections and lymphoid disorder. We here report the first Asian case of CAS secondary to novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A 72-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 2-week history of dyspnea and cough, and laboratory data revealed severe hemolytic anemia with a hemoglobin level of 4.7 g/dL. She was diagnosed with COVID-19, CAS, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). The anemia responded to corticosteroids administered for COVID-19 and required maintenance therapy. Although corticosteroids are not a standard therapy for CAS, they might be effective for CAS secondary to COVID-19 complicated with MGUS.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , COVID-19 , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/complications , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Cryoglobulins , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/complications , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/diagnosis , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/drug therapy
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(6)2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891769

ABSTRACT

A man in his late 50s presented with unilateral pain and discolouration of his fourth and fifth toes suggestive of digital ischaemia. He had a medical history of two unprovoked venous thromboembolisms in the preceding 18 months and a history of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). A CT scan showed evidence of large vessels vasculitis in the absence of circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Biopsy of the toes showed evidence of light chain and immunoglobulin deposition on immunofluorescence suggesting vasculitis secondary to his haematological diagnosis of MGUS. The patient was treated with high dose glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive treatment with a significant improvement in his symptoms and features of digital ischaemia.


Subject(s)
Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance , Vasculitis , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Ischemia/drug therapy , Male , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/complications , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/diagnosis , Vasculitis/diagnosis , Vasculitis/drug therapy , Vasculitis/etiology
3.
Clin Chim Acta ; 511: 342-345, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907178

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease caused by a coronavirus named as SARS-CoV-2. It has become pandemic due to its contagious nature. Majority of the patients are asymptomatic or having mild flu like symptoms. Few need hospitalisation due to severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). Co-morbidity like diabetes, hypertension, renal failure etc. are associated with severe COVID-19 that often causes death. There have been only two published case reports of monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) in patients with COVID-19 disease. Cytokine storm is often observed in severe COVID-19 and various cytokines including IL-6 that activates plasma cells are increased in blood in this condition. Here we present a case of severe COVID-19 patient with bioclonal gammopathy. He was known diabetic and hypertensive on treatment. He developed SARI, cytokines storm and septicaemia, treated with antibiotics, enoxaparin, hydroxychloroquine, insulin, anti-hypertensives, put on ventilator, subsequently developed septicaemia, multi-organ failure and died. Two M-bands on serum capillary electrophoresis with presence IgG-κ on both the M-bands indicates a biclonal gammopathy of unknown significance in this patient. We conclude that like MGUS, early stage biclonal gammopathy, although rare, gets manifested with M-bands on plasma protein electrophoresis. It is probably due to high level of IL-6 associated with cytokine storm in severe COVID-19 that stimulate early stage dyscratic plasma cells. Such biclonal gammopathy might be a risk factor for severe COVID-19 and associated mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/blood , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/complications
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