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1.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 102, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655635

ABSTRACT

Emerging studies suggest that monocytes can be trained by bacterial endotoxin to adopt distinct memory states ranging from low-grade inflammation to immune exhaustion. While low-grade inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases, exhausted monocytes with pathogenic and immune-suppressive characteristics may underlie the pathogenesis of polymicrobial sepsis including COVID-19. However, detailed processes by which the dynamic adaption of monocytes occur remain poorly understood. Here we exposed murine bone-marrow derived monocytes to chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation at low-dose or high-dose, as well as a PBS control. The cells were profiled for genome-wide H3K27ac modification and gene expression. The gene expression of TRAM-deficient and IRAK-M-deficient monocytes with LPS exposure was also analyzed. We discover that low-grade inflammation preferentially utilizes the TRAM-dependent pathway of TLR4 signaling, and induces the expression of interferon response genes. In contrast, high dose LPS uniquely upregulates exhaustion signatures with metabolic and proliferative pathways. The extensive differences in the epigenomic landscape between low-dose and high-dose conditions suggest the importance of epigenetic regulations in driving differential responses. Our data provide potential targets for future mechanistic or therapeutic studies.


Subject(s)
Epigenomics , Inflammation/genetics , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Monocytes/drug effects , Transcriptome , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Inflammation/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/administration & dosage , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
EBioMedicine ; 73: 103672, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Phospho-Akt1 (pAkt1) undergoes prolyl hydroxylation at Pro125 and Pro313 by the prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD2) in a reaction decarboxylating α-ketoglutarate (αKG). We investigated whether the αKG supplementation could inhibit Akt-mediated activation of platelets and monocytes, in vitro as well as in vivo, by augmenting PHD2 activity. METHODS: We treated platelets or monocytes isolated from healthy individuals with αKG in presence of agonists in vitro and assessed the signalling molecules including pAkt1. We supplemented mice with dietary αKG and estimated the functional responses of platelets and monocytes ex vivo. Further, we investigated the impact of dietary αKG on inflammation and thrombosis in lungs of mice either treated with thrombosis-inducing agent carrageenan or infected with SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: Octyl αKG supplementation to platelets promoted PHD2 activity through elevated intracellular αKG to succinate ratio, and reduced aggregation in vitro by suppressing pAkt1(Thr308). Augmented PHD2 activity was confirmed by increased hydroxylated-proline and enhanced binding of PHD2 to pAkt in αKG-treated platelets. Contrastingly, inhibitors of PHD2 significantly increased pAkt1 in platelets. Octyl-αKG followed similar mechanism in monocytes to inhibit cytokine secretion in vitro. Our data also describe a suppressed pAkt1 and reduced activation of platelets and leukocytes ex vivo from mice supplemented with dietary αKG, unaccompanied by alteration in their number. Dietary αKG significantly reduced clot formation and leukocyte accumulation in various organs including lungs of mice treated with thrombosis-inducing agent carrageenan. Importantly, in SARS-CoV-2 infected hamsters, we observed a significant rescue effect of dietary αKG on inflamed lungs with significantly reduced leukocyte accumulation, clot formation and viral load alongside down-modulation of pAkt in the lung of the infected animals. INTERPRETATION: Our study suggests that dietary αKG supplementation prevents Akt-driven maladies such as thrombosis and inflammation and rescues pathology of COVID19-infected lungs. FUNDING: Study was funded by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Govt. of India (grants: BT/PR22881 and BT/PR22985); and the Science and Engineering Research Board, Govt. of India (CRG/000092).


Subject(s)
Ketoglutaric Acids/therapeutic use , Prolyl Hydroxylases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Animals , Blood Platelets/cytology , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Dietary Supplements , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Ketoglutaric Acids/pharmacology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Monocytes/cytology , Monocytes/drug effects , Monocytes/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/veterinary
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 733921, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551500

ABSTRACT

A hallmark of COVID-19 is a hyperinflammatory state associated with severity. Monocytes undergo metabolic reprogramming and produce inflammatory cytokines when stimulated with SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesized that binding by the viral spike protein mediates this effect, and that drugs which regulate immunometabolism could inhibit the inflammatory response. Monocytes stimulated with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein subunit 1 showed a dose-dependent increase in glycolytic metabolism associated with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This response was dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, as chetomin inhibited glycolysis and cytokine production. Inhibition of glycolytic metabolism by 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) or glucose deprivation also inhibited the glycolytic response, and 2-DG strongly suppressed cytokine production. Glucose-deprived monocytes rescued cytokine production by upregulating oxidative phosphorylation, an effect which was not present in 2-DG-treated monocytes due to the known effect of 2-DG on suppressing mitochondrial metabolism. Finally, pre-treatment of monocytes with metformin strongly suppressed spike protein-mediated cytokine production and metabolic reprogramming. Likewise, metformin pre-treatment blocked cytokine induction by SARS-CoV-2 strain WA1/2020 in direct infection experiments. In summary, the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein induces a pro-inflammatory immunometabolic response in monocytes that can be suppressed by metformin, and metformin likewise suppresses inflammatory responses to live SARS-CoV-2. This has potential implications for the treatment of hyperinflammation during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Metformin/pharmacology , Monocytes/drug effects , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Humans
4.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 141, 2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herbal remedies of Echinacea purpurea tinctures are widely used today to reduce common cold respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Transcriptome, epigenome and kinome profiling allowed a systems biology level characterisation of genomewide immunomodulatory effects of a standardized Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench extract in THP1 monocytes. RESULTS: Gene expression and DNA methylation analysis revealed that Echinaforce® treatment triggers antiviral innate immunity pathways, involving tonic IFN signaling, activation of pattern recognition receptors, chemotaxis and immunometabolism. Furthermore, phosphopeptide based kinome activity profiling and pharmacological inhibitor experiments with filgotinib confirm a key role for Janus Kinase (JAK)-1 dependent gene expression changes in innate immune signaling. Finally, Echinaforce® treatment induces DNA hypermethylation at intergenic CpG, long/short interspersed nuclear DNA repeat elements (LINE, SINE) or long termininal DNA repeats (LTR). This changes transcription of flanking endogenous retroviral sequences (HERVs), involved in an evolutionary conserved (epi) genomic protective response against viral infections. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results suggest that Echinaforce® phytochemicals strengthen antiviral innate immunity through tonic IFN regulation of pattern recognition and chemokine gene expression and DNA repeat hypermethylated silencing of HERVs in monocytes. These results suggest that immunomodulation by Echinaforce® treatment holds promise to reduce symptoms and duration of infection episodes of common cold corona viruses (CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV, and new occurring strains such as SARS-CoV-2, with strongly impaired interferon (IFN) response and weak innate antiviral defense.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Echinacea , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Monocytes/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferons/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
5.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175186

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has disrupted the global economy and strained healthcare systems to their limits. After the virus first emerged in late 2019, the first intervention that demonstrated significant reductions in mortality for severe COVID-19 in large-scale trials was corticosteroids. Additional options that may reduce the burden on the healthcare system by reducing the number of patients requiring intensive care unit support are desperately needed, yet no therapy has conclusively established benefit in randomized studies for the management of moderate or mild cases of disease. Severe COVID-19 disease is characterized by a respiratory distress syndrome accompanied by elevated levels of several systemic cytokines, in a profile that shares several features with known inflammatory pathologies such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and cytokine release syndrome secondary to chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy. Based on these observations, modulation of inflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin (IL)-6, was proposed as a strategy to mitigate severe disease. Despite encouraging recoveries with anti-IL-6 agents, especially tocilizumab from single-arm studies, early randomized trials returned mixed results in terms of clinical benefit with these interventions. Later, larger trials such as RECOVERY and REMAP-CAP, however, are establishing anti-IL-6 in combination with steroids as a potential option for hypoxic patients with evidence of hyperinflammation. We propose that a positive feedback loop primarily mediated by macrophages and monocytes initiates the inflammatory cascade in severe COVID-19, and thus optimal benefit with anti-IL-6 therapies may require intervention during a finite window of opportunity at the outset of hyperinflammation but before fulminant disease causes irreversible tissue damage-as defined clinically by C reactive protein levels higher than 75 mg/L.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Monocytes/drug effects , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7132, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159001

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of ivermectin for the treatment of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a type 2 family RNA coronavirus similar to SARS-CoV-2. Female BALB/cJ mice were infected with 6,000 PFU of MHV-A59 (group infected, n = 20) or infected and then immediately treated with a single dose of 500 µg/kg ivermectin (group infected + IVM, n = 20) or were not infected and treated with PBS (control group, n = 16). Five days after infection/treatment, the mice were euthanized and the tissues were sampled to assess their general health status and infection levels. Overall, the results demonstrated that viral infection induced typical MHV-caused disease, with the livers showing severe hepatocellular necrosis surrounded by a severe lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltration associated with a high hepatic viral load (52,158 AU), while mice treated with ivermectin showed a better health status with a lower viral load (23,192 AU; p < 0.05), with only a few having histopathological liver damage (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the group infected + IVM and control group mice (P = NS). Furthermore, serum transaminase levels (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) were significantly lower in the treated mice than in the infected animals. In conclusion, ivermectin diminished the MHV viral load and disease in the mice, being a useful model for further understanding this therapy against coronavirus diseases.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Body Weight/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Monocytes/drug effects , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , Neutrophils/drug effects , Proteins/metabolism , Transaminases/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Viral Load/drug effects
7.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 23(1): 149-155, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074429

ABSTRACT

An array of infections, including the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), trigger macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and subsequently hypercytokinemia, commonly referred to as a cytokine storm (CS). It is postulated that CS is mainly responsible for critical COVID-19 cases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recognizing the therapeutic potential of Spirulina blue-green algae (Arthrospira platensis), in this in vitro stimulation study, LPS-activated macrophages and monocytes were treated with aqueous extracts of Spirulina, cultivated in either natural or controlled light conditions. We report that an extract of photosynthetically controlled Spirulina (LED Spirulina), at a concentration of 0.1 µg/mL, decreases macrophage and monocyte-induced TNF-α secretion levels by over 70% and 40%, respectively. We propose prompt in vivo studies in animal models and human subjects to determine the putative effectiveness of a natural, algae-based treatment for viral CS and ARDS, and explore the potential of a novel anti-TNF-α therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Extracts/pharmacology , Cell Extracts/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Macrophages/drug effects , Monocytes/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Spirulina/chemistry
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110622, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996661

ABSTRACT

Propolis, a resinous material produced by honey bees from plant exudates, has long been used in traditional herbal medicine and is widely consumed as a health aid and immune system booster. The COVID-19 pandemic has renewed interest in propolis products worldwide; fortunately, various aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanism are potential targets for propolis compounds. SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells is characterized by viral spike protein interaction with cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and serine protease TMPRSS2. This mechanism involves PAK1 overexpression, which is a kinase that mediates coronavirus-induced lung inflammation, fibrosis, and immune system suppression. Propolis components have inhibitory effects on the ACE2, TMPRSS2 and PAK1 signaling pathways; in addition, antiviral activity has been proven in vitro and in vivo. In pre-clinical studies, propolis promoted immunoregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including reduction in IL-6, IL-1 beta and TNF-α. This immunoregulation involves monocytes and macrophages, as well as Jak2/STAT3, NF-kB, and inflammasome pathways, reducing the risk of cytokine storm syndrome, a major mortality factor in advanced COVID-19 disease. Propolis has also shown promise as an aid in the treatment of various of the comorbidities that are particularly dangerous in COVID-19 patients, including respiratory diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. Standardized propolis products with consistent bioactive properties are now available. Given the current emergency caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and limited therapeutic options, propolis is presented as a promising and relevant therapeutic option that is safe, easy to administrate orally and is readily available as a natural supplement and functional food.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Propolis/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dietary Supplements , Functional Food , Humans , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Monocytes/drug effects , Monocytes/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Propolis/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Microbes Infect ; 22(9): 403-404, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618770

Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Eosinophils/drug effects , Eosinophils/immunology , Eosinophils/pathology , Eosinophils/virology , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Monocytes/drug effects , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/pathology , Monocytes/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects
10.
Clin Chim Acta ; 508: 98-102, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) has been spreading worldwide, and tracking laboratory indexes during the diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe COVID-19 can provide a reference for patients in other countries and regions. METHODS: We closely tracked the epidemiological history, diagnosis and treatment process, as well as dynamic changes in routine blood indicators, of a severe COVID-19 patient who was hospitalized for 26 days. RESULTS: Our study found that the patient's condition worsened in the first week after admission, white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelets (PLT) and platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) decreased. On the 7th day of admission, the levels of these cells decreased to their lowest values, though the red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level remained at high values. From 8 to 14 days of admission, the patient's condition improved, hypoxemia was corrected, and mechanical ventilation was discontinued. The number of WBCs, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and lymphocytes increased gradually, and the erythrocyte parameters stopped declining and stabilized in a certain range; CRP decreased rapidly. On the 20th day of admission, the nucleic acid test was negative, WBC, neutrophil, CRP, NLR and PLR decreased gradually, and monocyte, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts increased. Although RBCs and hemoglobin (Hb) levels continued to decrease, RDW gradually increased, indicating the recovery of hematopoiesis. In addition, it should be noted that monocytes and eosinophils were at extremely low levels within 10 days after admission; the recovery time of eosinophils was approximately 12 days after admission, which was earlier than other parameters, which might be of great value in judging the progress of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic changes in routine blood parameters might be helpful for the prognosis of COVID-19 patients and evaluation of the treatment effect.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cell Count , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Erythrocytes/pathology , Erythrocytes/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Monocytes/drug effects , Monocytes/pathology , Monocytes/virology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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