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1.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(23): 7905-7916, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103865

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been one of the most catastrophic diseases observed in recent years. It has reported nearly 550 million cases worldwide, with more than 6.35 million deaths. In Mexico, an increased incidence and mortality of this disease were observed, where the immune response has been involved in the magnitude and severity. A critical version of the disease is accompanied by hyperinflammatory responses, with cytokine and defective cellular responses. A detailed understanding of the role of molecules and cells in the immune response during COVID-19 disease may help to generate effective protection mechanisms, improving those we already have. Here we analyzed blood samples obtained from patients at the Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Ixtapaluca (HRAEI), Mexico, which were classified according to living guidance for clinical management of COVID-19 by the World Health Organization: asymptomatic, mild, severe, and critical disease. We observed increased interleukin (IL)-6 levels and a T-CD8+ and T-CD4+ cell reduction correlated with the critical disease version. Importantly, here, we described a significant reduction of CD11b+CD45highCD14low monocytes during severe disease, which displayed a non-classical profile, expressing IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)1 molecule. Moreover, CD11b+CD45highCD14low monocytes obtained from infected one-dose vaccinated patients (Pfizer® vaccine) who suffered minimal symptoms showed simultaneously a dual classical and no-classical profile expressing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. These results suggest that blood monocytes expressing a dual pro- and anti-inflammatory profile might be a predictive marker for protection in the Mexican population during COVID-19 disease. KEY POINTS : • Exacerbated immune response is associated with COVID-19 severe disease. • Dual monocyte activation profile is crucial for predicting protection during COVID-19. • Vaccination is crucial to induce the dual activation profile in monocytes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Monocytes/metabolism , Mexico , Cytokines/metabolism
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 953730, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065508

ABSTRACT

Adult onset Still disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by skin rash, spiking fever, arthritis, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. Although the etiology of this disease has not been fully clarified, both innate and acquired immune responses could contribute to its pathogenesis. Hyperactivation of macrophages and neutrophils along with low activation of natural killer (NK) cells in innate immunity, as well as hyperactivation of Th1 and Th17 cells, whereas low activation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in acquired immunity are involved in the pathogenic process of AOSD. In innate immunity, activation of monocytes/macrophages might play central roles in the development of AOSD and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), a severe life-threating complication of AOSD. Regarding the activation mechanisms of monocytes/macrophages in AOSD, in addition to type II interferon (IFN) stimulation, several pathways have recently been identified, such as the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)-pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) axis, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)-DNA. These stimulations on monocytes/macrophages cause activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat, and pyrin domain (NLRP) 3 inflammasomes, which trigger capase-1 activation, resulting in conversion of pro-IL-1ß and pro-IL-18 into mature forms. Thereafter, IL-1ß and IL-18 produced by activated monocytes/macrophages contribute to various clinical features in AOSD. We identified placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8) as a specifically increased molecule in monocytes of active AOSD, which correlated with serum levels of CRP, ferritin, IL-1ß, and IL-18. Interestingly, PLAC8 could suppress the synthesis of pro-IL-1ß and pro-IL-18 via enhanced autophagy; thus, PLAC8 seems to be a regulatory molecule in AOSD. These findings for the activation mechanisms of monocytes/macrophages could shed light on the pathogenesis and development of a novel therapeutic strategy for AOSD.


Subject(s)
Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset , Humans , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/metabolism , Macrophages , Monocytes/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism
3.
J Leukoc Biol ; 112(3): 569-576, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047706

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2), which causes the disease COVID-19, has caused an unprecedented global pandemic. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the major cellular receptor for SARS-CoV2 entry, which is facilitated by viral Spike priming by cellular TMPRSS2. Macrophages play an important role in innate viral defense and are also involved in aberrant immune activation that occurs in COVID-19, and thus direct macrophage infection might contribute to severity of SARS-CoV2 infection. Here, we demonstrate that monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) under in vitro conditions express low-to-undetectable levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and minimal coexpression. Expression of these receptors remained low in MDM induced to different subtypes such as unpolarized, M1 and M2 polarized. Untreated, unpolarized, M1 polarized, and M2 polarized MDM were all resistant to infection with SARS-CoV2 pseudotyped virions. These findings suggest that direct infection of myeloid cells is unlikely to be a major mechanism of SARS-CoV2 pathogenesis. Summary sentence: Monocytes and macrophages express minimal ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and resist SARS-CoV-2 Spike-mediated infection, suggesting direct myeloid cell infection is unlikely a major contributor to pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Macrophages , Monocytes , Serine Endopeptidases , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Resistance , Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043770

ABSTRACT

Although the COVID-19 disease has developed into a worldwide pandemic, its pathophysiology remains to be fully understood. Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a zinc-metalloprotease with a high affinity for insulin, has been found in the interactomes of multiple SARS-CoV-2 proteins. However, the relevance of IDE in the innate and adaptative immune responses elicited by circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells is unknown. Here, we show that IDE is highly expressed on the surface of circulating monocytes, T-cells (both CD4+ and CD4-), and, to a lower extent, in B-cells from healthy controls. Notably, IDE's surface expression was upregulated on monocytes from COVID-19 patients at diagnosis, and it was increased in more severe patients. However, IDE's surface expression was downregulated (relative to healthy controls) 3 months after hospital discharge in all the studied immune subsets, with this effect being more pronounced in males than in females, and thus it was sex-dependent. Additionally, IDE levels in monocytes, CD4+ T-cells, and CD4- T-cells were inversely correlated with circulating insulin levels in COVID-19 patients (both at diagnosis and after hospital discharge). Of note, high glucose and insulin levels downregulated IDE surface expression by ~30% in the monocytes isolated from healthy donors, without affecting its expression in CD4+ T-cells and CD4- T-cells. In conclusion, our studies reveal the sex- and metabolism-dependent regulation of IDE in monocytes, suggesting that its regulation might be important for the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, as well as for glucometabolic control, in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insulysin , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Glucose , Hospitals , Humans , Insulin/metabolism , Insulysin/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Monocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc
5.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 260, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021326

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Histone proteins are physiologically involved in DNA packaging and gene regulation but are extracellularly released by neutrophil/monocyte extracellular traps and mediate thrombo-inflammatory pathways, associated to the severity of many human pathologies, including bacterial/fungal sepsis and COVID-19. Prominent and promising laboratory features in classic and viral sepsis emphasize monocyte distribution width (MDW), due to its ability to distinguish and stratify patients at higher risk of critical conditions or death. No data are available on the roles of histones as MDW modifiers. DESIGN: Comparison of MDW index was undertaken by routine hematology analyzer on whole blood samples from patients with COVID-19 and Sepsis. The impact of histones on the MDW characteristics was assessed by the in vitro time-dependent treatment of healthy control whole blood with histones and histones plus lipopolysaccharide to simulate viral and classical sepsis, respectively. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We demonstrated the breadth of early, persistent, and significant increase of MDW index in whole blood from healthy subject treated in vitro with histones, highlighting changes similar to those found in vivo in classic and viral sepsis patients. These findings are mechanistically associated with the histone-induced modifications of cell volume, cytoplasmic granularity and vacuolization, and nuclear structure alterations of the circulating monocyte population. CONCLUSIONS: Histones may contribute to the pronounced and persistent monocyte alterations observed in both acute classical and viral sepsis. Assessment of the biological impact of circulating histone released during COVID-19 and sepsis on these blood cells should be considered as key factor modulating both thrombosis and inflammatory processes, as well as the importance of neutralization of their cytotoxic and procoagulant activities by several commercially available drugs (e.g., heparins and heparinoids).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Histones/metabolism , Histones/pharmacology , Humans , Monocytes/metabolism
6.
J Exp Med ; 219(2)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984990

ABSTRACT

In rare instances, pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a novel immunodysregulation syndrome termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We compared MIS-C immunopathology with severe COVID-19 in adults. MIS-C does not result in pneumocyte damage but is associated with vascular endotheliitis and gastrointestinal epithelial injury. In MIS-C, the cytokine release syndrome is characterized by IFNγ and not type I interferon. Persistence of patrolling monocytes differentiates MIS-C from severe COVID-19, which is dominated by HLA-DRlo classical monocytes. IFNγ levels correlate with granzyme B production in CD16+ NK cells and TIM3 expression on CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Single-cell TCR profiling reveals a skewed TCRß repertoire enriched for TRBV11-2 and a superantigenic signature in TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Using NicheNet, we confirm IFNγ as a central cytokine in the communication between TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells, CD16+ NK cells, and patrolling monocytes. Normalization of IFNγ, loss of TIM3, quiescence of CD16+ NK cells, and contraction of patrolling monocytes upon clinical resolution highlight their potential role in MIS-C immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Blood Vessels/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Child , Cohort Studies , Complement Activation , Cytokines/metabolism , Enterocytes/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Inflammation/pathology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interleukin-15/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Superantigens/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
7.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 9764002, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973966

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has several mechanisms that can lead to lymphocyte depletion/exhaustion. The checkpoint inhibitor molecule programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) and its programmed death-ligand 1 (PDL-1) play an important role in inhibiting cellular activity as well as the depletion of these cells. In this study, we evaluated PD-1 expression in TCD4+, TCD8+, and CD19+ lymphocytes from SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. A decreased frequency of total lymphocytes and an increased PD-1 expression in TCD4+ and CD19+ lymphocytes were verified in severe/critical COVID-19 patients. In addition, we found a decreased frequency of total monocytes with an increased PD-1 expression on CD14+ monocytes in severe/critical patients in association with the time of infection. Moreover, we observed an increase in sPD-L1 circulant levels associated with the severity of the disease. Overall, these data indicate an important role of the PD-1/PDL-1 axis in COVID-19 and may provide a severity-associated biomarker and therapeutic target during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen , COVID-19 , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Monocytes/metabolism , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/genetics , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Up-Regulation
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934078

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) initiates the cytokine/chemokine storm-mediated lung injury. The SARS-CoV unique domain (SUD) with three macrodomains (N, M, and C), showing the G-quadruplex binding activity, was examined the possible role in SARS pathogenesis in this study. The chemokine profile analysis indicated that SARS-CoV SUD significantly up-regulated the expression of CXCL10, CCL5 and interleukin (IL)-1ß in human lung epithelial cells and in the lung tissues of the mice intratracheally instilled with the recombinant plasmids. Among the SUD subdomains, SUD-MC substantially activated AP-1-mediated CXCL10 expression in vitro. In the wild type mice, SARS-CoV SUD-MC triggered the pulmonary infiltration of macrophages and monocytes, inducing CXCL10-mediated inflammatory responses and severe diffuse alveolar damage symptoms. Moreover, SUD-MC actuated NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-dependent pulmonary inflammation, as confirmed by the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor and the NLRP3-/- mouse model. This study demonstrated that SARS-CoV SUD modulated NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent CXCL10-mediated pulmonary inflammation, providing the potential therapeutic targets for developing the antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Cell Line , Chemokine CXCL10/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/deficiency , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Up-Regulation , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
9.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 80(2): 190-198, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928339

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Le niveau d'expression des molécules HLA-DR à la surface des monocytes (mHLA-DR) est un marqueur diagnostique utilisé pour évaluer l'immunité des patients en réanimation (choc septique, polytraumatisés, brulures, greffe et plus récemment Covid-19). Il est également utilisé comme un outil de stratification dans les essais cliniques utilisant des thérapies immunostimulantes chez ces patients. L'objectif de cette étude était d'évaluer les performances analytiques d'une méthode de cytométrie en flux pour mesurer mHLA-DR afin de répondre aux exigences de la norme NF EN ISO 15189 dans le cadre de l'accréditation des laboratoires de biologie médicale. Matériels et méthodes. L'évaluation (performances de la technique, étendue de la mesure, comparaison de méthode) a été menée en suivant le SH GTA 04, guide recommandé par le Comité français d'accréditation (COFRAC). En complément, certaines conditions pré analytiques ont été ré-évaluées. Résultats. L'ensemble des coefficients de variation évaluant les performances étaient inférieurs à 10 % (répétabilité, reproductibilité, variabilité interopérateur). Les limites de quantification et de linéarité étaient adaptées à l'utilisation clinique du paramètre. Les résultats étaient identiques quel que soit le type et le fournisseur de cytomètre en flux. Les contraintes de conservation pré-analytiques des échantillons ont été confirmées. CONCLUSION: Les résultats étaient conformes aux exigences de qualité recommandées par le COFRAC. Ils permettent l'accréditation de la mesure de mHLA-DR par cytométrie en flux et son utilisation en soins courants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HLA-DR Antigens , Monocytes , Flow Cytometry , HLA-DR Antigens/biosynthesis , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Humans , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism
10.
Nature ; 606(7914): 576-584, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921629

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 can cause acute respiratory distress and death in some patients1. Although severe COVID-19 is linked to substantial inflammation, how SARS-CoV-2 triggers inflammation is not clear2. Monocytes and macrophages are sentinel cells that sense invasive infection to form inflammasomes that activate caspase-1 and gasdermin D, leading to inflammatory death (pyroptosis) and the release of potent inflammatory mediators3. Here we show that about 6% of blood monocytes of patients with COVID-19 are infected with SARS-CoV-2. Monocyte infection depends on the uptake of antibody-opsonized virus by Fcγ receptors. The plasma of vaccine recipients does not promote antibody-dependent monocyte infection. SARS-CoV-2 begins to replicate in monocytes, but infection is aborted, and infectious virus is not detected in the supernatants of cultures of infected monocytes. Instead, infected cells undergo pyroptosis mediated by activation of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes, caspase-1 and gasdermin D. Moreover, tissue-resident macrophages, but not infected epithelial and endothelial cells, from lung autopsies from patients with COVID-19 have activated inflammasomes. Taken together, these findings suggest that antibody-mediated SARS-CoV-2 uptake by monocytes and macrophages triggers inflammatory cell death that aborts the production of infectious virus but causes systemic inflammation that contributes to COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation , Monocytes , Receptors, IgG , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Caspase 1/metabolism , DNA-Binding Proteins , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Phosphate-Binding Proteins , Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins , Receptors, IgG/metabolism
11.
Molecules ; 27(12)2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884287

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 virus, led to the unprecedented mobilization of scientists, resulting in the rapid development of vaccines and potential pharmaceuticals. Although COVID-19 symptoms are moderately severe in most people, in some cases the disease can result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure as well as can be fatal. The severe course of COVID-19 is associated with a hyperinflammatory state called a cytokine storm. One of the key cytokines creating a proinflammatory environment is IL-6, which is secreted mainly by monocytes and macrophages. Therefore, this cytokine has become a target for some therapies that inhibit its biological action; however, these therapies are expensive, and their availability is limited in poorer countries. Thus, new cheaper drugs that can overcome the severe infections of COVID-19 are needed. Here, we show that chlorpromazine inhibits the expression and secretion of IL-6 by monocytes activated by SARS-CoV-2 virus nucleocapsid protein and affects the activity of NF-κB and MEK/ERK signaling. Our results, including others, indicate that chlorpromazine, which has been used for several decades as a neuroleptic, exerts antiviral and immunomodulatory activity, is safe and inexpensive, and might be a desirable drug to support the therapy of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorpromazine/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Monocytes/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Pandemics
12.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 96, 2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793837

ABSTRACT

Genome-wide association studies have identified 3p21.31 as the main risk locus for severe COVID-19, although underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We perform an epigenomic dissection of 3p21.31, identifying a CTCF-dependent tissue-specific 3D regulatory chromatin hub that controls the activity of several chemokine receptor genes. Risk SNPs colocalize with regulatory elements and are linked to increased expression of CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 in monocytes and macrophages. As excessive organ infiltration of inflammatory monocytes and macrophages is a hallmark of severe COVID-19, our findings provide a rationale for the genetic association of 3p21.31 variants with elevated risk of hospitalization upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monocytes , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , Receptors, Chemokine/genetics , Receptors, Chemokine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792417

ABSTRACT

Monocytes play a role in viral biology, but little is known about the monocyte subpopulation in the course of COVID-19 disease. The aim of the study was the analysis of classical, intermediate and non-classical monocytes with expression of PD-L1 and CD62L, TIM-3 and CD86 molecules in peripheral blood (PB) to distinguish patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection from convalescent patients. The study group consisted of 55 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 51 convalescent patients. The cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The number and proportion of monocytes were lower in patients with COVID-19 than convalescent patients. We observed a lower proportion of non-classical monocytes in COVID-19 patients than convalescent ones. There was a higher proportion of PDL-1-positive intermediate monocytes in COVID-19 patients than convalescent ones. We noticed a higher geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GeoMean) of PD-L1 on intermediate monocytes in COVID-19 patients than convalescent patients, and a higher proportion of CD62L-positive monocytes in COVID-19 patients in comparison with convalescent ones. We found a higher GeoMean of CD62L on monocytes in COVID-19 patients than convalescent ones. Assessment of PD-L1- and CD62L-positive monocyte subsets may identify patients with a possible predisposition for rapid recovery. The monitoring of monocyte subsets in PB might be a useful test in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen , COVID-19 , L-Selectin , Monocytes , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Humans , L-Selectin/genetics , L-Selectin/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0264979, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789178

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has claimed the lives of more than 750,000 US citizens. Dysregulation of the immune system underlies the pathogenesis of COVID-19, with inflammation mediated tissue injury to the lung in the setting of suppressed systemic immune function. To define the molecular mechanisms of immune dysfunction in COVID-19 we utilized a systems immunology approach centered on the circulating leukocyte phosphoproteome measured by mass cytometry. We find that although COVID-19 is associated with wholesale activation of a broad set of signaling pathways across myeloid and lymphoid cell populations, STAT3 phosphorylation predominated in both monocytes and T cells. STAT3 phosphorylation was tightly correlated with circulating IL-6 levels and high levels of phospho-STAT3 was associated with decreased markers of myeloid cell maturation/activation and decreased ex-vivo T cell IFN-γ production, demonstrating that during COVID-19 dysregulated cellular activation is associated with suppression of immune effector cell function. Collectively, these data reconcile the systemic inflammatory response and functional immunosuppression induced by COVID-19 and suggest STAT3 signaling may be the central pathophysiologic mechanism driving immune dysfunction in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Monocytes/metabolism , Pandemics , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocytes
15.
Blood Adv ; 6(17): 5085-5099, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789100

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence into the pathogenesis of COVID-19 highlights a hypercoagulability state with high risk of life-threatening thromboembolic complications. However, the mechanisms of hypercoagulability and their link to hyperinflammation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate functions and mechanisms of platelet activation and platelet-monocyte interactions in inflammatory amplification during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We used a combination of immunophenotyping, single-cell analysis, functional assays, and pharmacological approaches to gain insights on mechanisms. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 exhibited increased platelet-monocyte aggregates formation. We identified a subset of inflammatory monocytes presenting high CD16 and low HLA-DR expression as the subset mainly interacting with platelets during severe COVID-19. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis indicated enhanced fibrinogen receptor Mac-1 in monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19. Monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19 displayed increased platelet binding and hyperresponsiveness to P-selectin and fibrinogen with respect to tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß secretion. Platelets were able to orchestrate monocyte responses driving tissue factor (TF) expression, inflammatory activation, and inflammatory cytokines secretion in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Platelet-monocyte interactions ex vivo and in SARS-CoV-2 infection model in vitro reciprocally activated monocytes and platelets, inducing the heightened secretion of a wide panel of inflammatory mediators. We identified platelet adhesion as a primary signaling mechanism inducing mediator secretion and TF expression, whereas TF signaling played major roles in amplifying inflammation by inducing proinflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß. Our data identify platelet-induced TF expression and activity at the crossroad of coagulation and inflammation in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboinflammation , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
16.
Circ Res ; 130(8): 1167-1186, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789063

ABSTRACT

Inflammation and immune mechanisms are crucially involved in the pathophysiology of the development, acute damage cascades, and chronic course after ischemic stroke. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and, in addition to classical risk factors, maladaptive immune mechanisms lead to an increased risk of stroke. Accordingly, individuals with signs of inflammation or corresponding biomarkers have an increased risk of stroke. Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as IL (interleukin)-1ß blockers, methotrexate, or colchicine, represent attractive treatment strategies to prevent vascular events and stroke. Lately, the COVID-19 pandemic shows a clear association between SARS-CoV2 infections and increased risk of cerebrovascular events. Furthermore, mechanisms of both innate and adaptive immune systems influence cerebral damage cascades after ischemic stroke. Neutrophils, monocytes, and microglia, as well as T and B lymphocytes each play complex interdependent roles that synergize to remove dead tissue but also can cause bystander injury to intact brain cells and generate maladaptive chronic inflammation. Chronic systemic inflammation and comorbid infections may unfavorably influence both outcome after stroke and recurrence risk for further stroke. In addition, stroke triggers specific immune depression, which in turn can promote infections. Recent research is now increasingly addressing the question of the extent to which immune mechanisms may influence long-term outcome after stroke and, in particular, cause specific complications such as poststroke dementia or even poststroke depression.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation , Monocytes/metabolism , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/etiology
17.
J Vet Sci ; 23(2): e27, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in a feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection is not completely understood. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the expression of TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon (IFN)-ß, and interleukin (IL)-10 upon an FIPV infection in Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells and feline monocytes. METHODS: CRFK cells and monocytes from feline coronavirus (FCoV)-seronegative cats and FCoV-seropositive cats were infected with type II FIPV-79-1146. At four, 12, and 24 hours post-infection (hpi), the expression of TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, TNF-α, IFN-ß, and IL-10, and the viral load were measured using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Viral protein production was confirmed using immunofluorescence. RESULTS: FIPV-infected CRFK showed the upregulation of TLR9, TNF-α, and IFN-ß expression between 4 and 24 hpi. Uninfected monocytes from FCoV-seropositive cats showed lower TLR3 and TLR9 expression but higher TLR7 expression compared to uninfected monocytes from FCoV-seronegative cats. FIPV-infected monocytes from FCoV-seropositive cats downregulated TLR7 and TNF-α expression between 4 and 24 hpi, and 4 and 12 hpi, respectively. IFN-ß was upregulated early in FIPV-infected monocytes from FCoV-seropositive cats, with a significant difference observed at 12 hpi compared to FCoV-seronegative cats. The viral load in the CRFK and FIPV-infected monocytes in both cohorts of cats was similar over time. CONCLUSION: TLR7 may be the key TLR involved in evading the innate response against inhibiting TNF-α production. Distinct TLR expression profiles between FCoV-seronegative and FCoV-seropositive cats were observed. The associated TLR that plays a role in the induction of IFN-ß needs to be explored further.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Coronavirus, Feline , Feline Infectious Peritonitis , Animals , Cats , Coronavirus, Feline/genetics , Coronavirus, Feline/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 3
18.
JCI Insight ; 7(9)2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775052

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease is associated with dysregulation of the myeloid compartment during acute infection. Survivors frequently experience long-lasting sequelae, but little is known about the eventual persistence of this immune alteration. Herein, we evaluated TLR-induced cytokine responses in a cohort of mild to critical patients during acute or convalescent phases (n = 97). In the acute phase, we observed impaired cytokine production by monocytes in the patients with the most severe COVID-19. This capacity was globally restored in convalescent patients. However, we observed increased responsiveness to TLR1/2 ligation in patients who recovered from severe disease, indicating that these cells display distinct functional properties at the different stages of the disease. In patients with acute severe COVID-19, we identified a specific transcriptomic and epigenomic state in monocytes that can account for their functional refractoriness. The molecular profile of monocytes from recovering patients was distinct and characterized by increased chromatin accessibility at activating protein 1 (AP1) and MAF loci. These results demonstrate that severe COVID-19 infection has a profound impact on the differentiation status and function of circulating monocytes, during both the acute and the convalescent phases, in a completely distinct manner. This could have important implications for our understanding of short- and long-term COVID-19-related morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Humans , Monocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 16, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the host genetic architecture and viral immunity contributes to the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Alterations of immune responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells play a crucial role in the detrimental progression of COVID-19. However, the effects of host genetic factors on immune responses for severe COVID-19 remain largely unknown. METHODS: We constructed a computational framework to characterize the host genetics that influence immune cell subpopulations for severe COVID-19 by integrating GWAS summary statistics (N = 969,689 samples) with four independent scRNA-seq datasets containing healthy controls and patients with mild, moderate, and severe symptom (N = 606,534 cells). We collected 10 predefined gene sets including inflammatory and cytokine genes to calculate cell state score for evaluating the immunological features of individual immune cells. RESULTS: We found that 34 risk genes were significantly associated with severe COVID-19, and the number of highly expressed genes increased with the severity of COVID-19. Three cell subtypes that are CD16+monocytes, megakaryocytes, and memory CD8+T cells were significantly enriched by COVID-19-related genetic association signals. Notably, three causal risk genes of CCR1, CXCR6, and ABO were highly expressed in these three cell types, respectively. CCR1+CD16+monocytes and ABO+ megakaryocytes with significantly up-regulated genes, including S100A12, S100A8, S100A9, and IFITM1, confer higher risk to the dysregulated immune response among severe patients. CXCR6+ memory CD8+ T cells exhibit a notable polyfunctionality including elevation of proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis. Moreover, we observed an increase in cell-cell interactions of both CCR1+ CD16+monocytes and CXCR6+ memory CD8+T cells in severe patients compared to normal controls among both PBMCs and lung tissues. The enhanced interactions of CXCR6+ memory CD8+T cells with epithelial cells facilitate the recruitment of this specific population of T cells to airways, promoting CD8+T cell-mediated immunity against COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: We uncover a major genetics-modulated immunological shift between mild and severe infection, including an elevated expression of genetics-risk genes, increase in inflammatory cytokines, and of functional immune cell subsets aggravating disease severity, which provides novel insights into parsing the host genetic determinants that influence peripheral immune cells in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Monocytes/virology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Computational Biology/methods , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Megakaryocyte Progenitor Cells/immunology , Megakaryocyte Progenitor Cells/virology , Monocytes/metabolism , Quantitative Trait Loci , Receptors, CCR1/immunology , Receptors, CCR1/metabolism , Receptors, CXCR6/immunology , Receptors, CXCR6/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Severity of Illness Index
20.
J Clin Invest ; 132(4)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685790

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, causes mild to moderate disease in most patients but carries a risk of morbidity and mortality. Seriously affected individuals manifest disorders of hemostasis and a cytokine storm, but it is not understood how these manifestations of severe COVID-19 are linked. Here, we showed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein engaged the CD42b receptor to activate platelets via 2 distinct signaling pathways and promoted platelet-monocyte communication through the engagement of P selectin/PGSL-1 and CD40L/CD40, which led to proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytes. These results explain why hypercoagulation, monocyte activation, and a cytokine storm are correlated in patients severely affected by COVID-19 and suggest a potential target for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/physiology , COVID-19/blood , Inflammation/blood , Monocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , CD40 Antigens/blood , CD40 Ligand/blood , Cell Communication , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , HEK293 Cells , Humans , P-Selectin/blood
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