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2.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 1388-1394, 2021 Aug.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524928

ABSTRACT

The article provides information that allows you to form an idea of the health status of children of different age groups living in Moscow. The sources of information were data on the population size, federal statistical observation form No. 12 «Information on the number of diseases registered in patients living in the service area of a medical organization¼ for the period from 2016 to 2020. The morbidity analysis was carried out by age groups 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 0-14, 15-17 years per 100,000 of the corresponding population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 67(5): 20-28, 2021 10 06.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The association between vitamin D deficiency and the severity of COVID-19 is currently being actively discussed around the world. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and compare it with the incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 in eight Federal Districts of the Russian Federation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 304,564 patients (234,716 women; 77,1%) with serum 25(OH)D levels results performed September 2019 through October 2020. RESULTS: Only 112,877 people (37.1%) had a normal serum 25(OH)D level, others had a deficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was presented with the same frequency in women and men, and no differences were found depending on the geographical location and age in subjects from 18 to 74 years old. However, subjects over 75 years more often had vitamin D deficiency, while subjects under 18 years had normal levels in over 50% cases. In addition, 21,506 patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR with further comparison of results with serum 25(OH)D level. The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was detected in 3,193 subjects, negative in 18,313. There were no differences in the morbidity in a vitamin D deficiency and a normal level. Thus, 14.8% subjects had positive PCR rates among vitamin D deficiency patients (4,978 tests), 14.9% when 25(OD)D level was from 20 to 30 ng/ml (7,542 tests), 15.0% among those who had 25(OH)D 30- 50 ng/ml (6,622 tests), and 13.9% when vitamin D was more than 50 ng/ml (4,612 tests). CONCLUSION: There was no association between the COVID-19 incidence and vitamin D status in different regions of Russia. Although the nutrient deficiency persists in all regions and is most often diagnosed in people over 75 years old.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Young Adult
4.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(Supplement_4): iv27-iv30, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505840

ABSTRACT

Individuals with chronic diseases are more susceptible to its grave complications and negative outcomes if infected by COVID-19. Furthermore, mandatory isolation and cancellations of routine healthcare services led to the disruption of the screening and management plans for chronic diseases. Fear of attending health services as well as disruptions to public transport are other factors increasing health risks among persons with chronic conditions during the pandemic. Ensuring access to universal healthcare services, increasing use of digital services, targeted interventions to risk groups are examples of measures that need to be taken when reviewing health systems preparedness for future pandemics and other disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , Morbidity , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1980, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of SARS-CoV-2 tests conversely to other factors, such as age of population or comorbidities, influencing SARS-CoV-2 morbidity and fatality rates, can be increased or decreased by decision makers depending on the development of the pandemic, operational capacity, and financial restraints. The key objective of this study is to identify and describe, within the probabilistic approach, the relationships between SARS-CoV-2 test numbers and the mortality and morbidity rates. METHODS: The study is based on a statistical analysis of 1058 monthly observations relating to 107 countries, from six different continents, in an 11-month period from March 2020 to January 2021. The variable utilised can be defined as the number of tests performed in a given country in 1 month, to the number of cases reported in a prior month and morbidities and mortalities per 1 million population. The probabilities of different mortality and morbidity rates for different test numbers were determined by moving percentiles and fitted by the power law and by the three-segment piecewise-linear approximation based on Theil Sen trend lines. RESULTS: We have identified that for a given probability the dependence of mortality and morbidity rates on SARS-CoV-2 test rates follows a power law and it is well approximated by the three Theil Sen trend lines in the three test rate ranges. In all these ranges Spearman rho and Kendall tau-b rank correlation coefficients of test numbers and morbidity with fatality rates have values between - 0.5 and - 0.12 with p-values below 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: According to the ABC classification: the most important, moderately important, and relatively unimportant ranges of test numbers for managing and control have been indicated based on the value of the Theil Sen trend line slope in the three SARS-CoV-2 test rate ranges identified. Recommendations for SARS-CoV-2 testing strategy are provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Morbidity , Pandemics
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21568, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500503

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the associations of previous influenza/URI with the susceptibility of COVID-19 patients compared to that of non-COVID-19 participants. A nationwide COVID-19 cohort database was collected by the Korea National Health Insurance Corporation. A total of 8,070 COVID-19 patients (1 January 2020 through 4 June 2020) were matched with 32,280 control participants. Severe COVID-19 morbidity was defined based on the treatment histories of the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and death. The susceptibility/morbidity/mortality associated with prior histories of 1-14, 1-30, 1-90, 15-45, 15-90, and 31-90 days before COVID-19 onset were analyzed using conditional/unconditional logistic regression. Prior influenza infection was related to increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.07 [1.61-5.85] for 1-14 days and 1.91 [1.54-2.37] for 1-90 days). Prior URI was also associated with increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (6.95 [6.38-7.58] for 1-14 days, 4.99 [4.64-5.37] for 1-30 days, and 2.70 [2.55-2.86] for 1-90 days). COVID-19 morbidity was positively associated with influenza (3.64 [1.55-9.21] and 3.59 [1.42-9.05]) and URI (1.40 [1.11-1.78] and 1.28 [1.02-1.61]) at 1-14 days and 1-30 days, respectively. Overall, previous influenza/URI did not show an association with COVID-19 mortality. Previous influenza/URI histories were associated with increased COVID-19 susceptibility and morbidity. Our findings indicate why controlling influenza/URI is important during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Republic of Korea
7.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 12(3): 71-76, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497709

ABSTRACT

Problem: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic adversely affected the preparation of Malaysia's National Health and Morbidity Survey for 2020 because conducting it would expose data collectors and participants to an increased risk of infection. Context: The survey is nationally representative and community based and is conducted by the Institute for Public Health, part of the National Institutes of Health, to generate health-related evidence and to support the Malaysian Ministry of Health in policy-making. Its planned scope for 2020 was the seroprevalence of communicable diseases such as hepatitis B and C. Action: Additional components were added to the survey to increase its usefulness, including COVID-19 seroprevalence and facial anthropometric studies to ensure respirator fit. The survey's scale was reduced, and data collection was changed from including only face-to-face interviews to mainly self-administered and telephone interviews. The transmission risk to participants was reduced by screening data collectors before the survey and fortnightly thereafter, using standard droplet and contact precautions, ensuring proper training and monitoring of data collectors, and implementing other administrative infection prevention measures. Outcome: Data were collected from 7 August to 11 October 2020, with 5957 participants recruited. Only 4 out of 12 components of the survey were conducted via face-to-face interview. No COVID-19 cases were reported among data collectors and participants. All participants were given their hepatitis and COVID-19 laboratory test results; 73 participants with hepatitis B and 14 with hepatitis C who had been previously undiagnosed were referred for further case management. Discussion: Preparing and conducting the National Health and Morbidity Survey during the COVID-19 pandemic required careful consideration of the risks and benefits, multiple infection prevention measures, strong leadership and strong stakeholder support to ensure there were no adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Morbidity , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States
8.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 11(2): 127-135, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1498042

ABSTRACT

El SARS-CoV-2, causante de la infección viral y la enfermedad por coronavirus que ha provocado una pandemia, ha dejado, después de 18 meses, casi 230 mil muertes en México, el cuarto país más afectado en términos de mortalidad absoluta después de Estados Unidos, Brasil e India (1). A su vez, América Latina ha sido una región duramente golpeada, países como Brasil y México encabezan la lista en términos de mortalidad. El reporte de datos clínicos de estos países es aún incompleto. Por lo tanto, este ensayo tiene como objetivo presentar el impacto socioeconómico de la COVID-19 en el escenario mexicano. Los hallazgos demostraron que se requiere implementar modelos de interconexión para poder detectar vulnerabilidad y fuentes de resiliencia, un mecanismo que activaría la ayuda y las redes de apoyo. En ese sentido, es relevante desarrollar la capacidad para ver por los demás y la capacidad de ser solidarios. En conclusión, el resultado de las muertes en México no refleja solamente la acción del gobierno, la población o algún otro. Cada uno de los componentes que conforman el país son responsables de esta pandemia y cada quien deberá ejercer corresponsabilidad. Corregir, mejorar y ser solidario es el camino para superar la pandemia.


SARS-CoV-2 caused an emerging pandemic viral infection that after eighteen months has resulted in nearly 230,000 deaths caused by Covid 19 in Mexico, the fourth most affected country in terms of absolute mortality. While Latin America has been a hard-hit region, with Brazil and Mexico topping the list in terms of mortality, clinical data reporting from these countries is still incomplete. Therefore, this trial aimed to present the impact of coronavirus in the Mexican setting. Networking models need to be implemented to be able to detect vulnerability and sources of resilience in order to help each other. To develop the capacity to see for others and the capacity to be supportive. In conclusion, the result of the deaths in Mexico is not only because of the government, the population or someone else. Each one of the components that make up the country are responsible for this pandemic and each one should be responsible for what corresponds to them and assume their responsibility. Correcting, improving and showing solidarity is the way forward from the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Systems , Coronavirus , Morbidity , Mortality , Mexico
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470864

ABSTRACT

Adult cancer survivors have an increased prevalence of mental health comorbidities and other adverse late-effects interdependent with mental illness outcomes compared with the general population. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) heralds an era of renewed call for actions to identify sustainable modalities to facilitate the constructs of cancer survivorship care and health care delivery through physiological supportive domestic spaces. Building on the concept of therapeutic architecture, psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) indicators-with the central role in low-grade systemic inflammation-are associated with major psychiatric disorders and late effects of post-cancer treatment. Immune disturbances might mediate the effects of environmental determinants on behaviour and mental disorders. Whilst attention is paid to the non-objective measurements for examining the home environmental domains and mental health outcomes, little is gathered about the multidimensional effects on physiological responses. This exploratory review presents a first analysis of how addressing the PNI outcomes serves as a catalyst for therapeutic housing research. We argue the crucial component of housing in supporting the sustainable primary care and public health-based cancer survivorship care model, particularly in the psychopathology context. Ultimately, we illustrate a series of interventions aiming at how housing environmental attributes can trigger PNI profile changes and discuss the potential implications in the non-pharmacological treatment of cancer survivors and patients with mental morbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cancer Survivors , Neoplasms , Adult , Housing , Humans , Mental Health , Morbidity , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Psychoneuroimmunology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Acta Oncol ; 60(11): 1459-1465, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467204

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cancer patients are considered to have a higher risk of dying and developing severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). To date, there are few studies including co-morbidities and sociodemographic factors when investigating the outcome of COVID-19 in a cohort of cancer patients. In this study, we analyzed cancer patients that have been hospitalized due to COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic in Sweden to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on mortality and morbidity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on all patients with cancer that were hospitalized due to COVID-19-related symptoms at Uppsala University Hospital and Karolinska University Hospital between 1 March and 31 August 2020. The primary endpoint was COVID-19-related death and the secondary endpoint was to describe COVID-19 severity, defined as symptom severity (grades 0-4) and length of stay (LOS) at the university hospitals. RESULTS: In total, 193 patients were included among which 31% died due to COVID-19 and 8% died of other causes. In a multivariable analysis, older age >70 (OR 3.6; 95% CI [1.8-7.3], p < 0.001) and male gender (OR 2.8 [1.4-5.8], p = 0.005) were factors associated with higher likelihood of COVID-19-related death. Several comorbidities ≥2 (OR 5.4 [2.0-14.3], p = 0.001) was independently associated with COVID-19 severity. Treatment with chemotherapy within 90 days prior to COVID-19 diagnosis were not associated with COVID-19-related death or severity. CONCLUSION: Factors associated with higher likelihood of COVID-19-related death were older age and male gender. More severe COVID-19 symptoms were seen in patients with multiple comorbidities. We did not see any associations between COVID-19-related death or severity and recent treatment including chemotherapy. In summary, this supports a thorough assessment regarding potential risks with COVID-19 infection in patients with cancer, with a combination of individual risk factors in addition to cancer treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Morbidity , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 758347, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463526

ABSTRACT

Aim: The study aim was to assess the association of vitamin D supplementation before hospital admission and severe outcomes in subjects admitted for COVID-19. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of pseudonymised medical record data from subjects admitted to the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (Barcelona, Spain) for COVID-19 during March and April 2020. The composite primary study outcome was defined as death and/or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Association between risk factors and study outcomes was evaluated by bivariate analysis, followed by logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 1,267 persons were hospitalised during the observation period. Overall, 14.9% of the subjects were on active vitamin D supplementation treatment before admission. The subjects in the vitamin D group were significantly older than subjects without vitamin D supplementation. We observed higher rates of the primary outcome (death and/or IMV) among the persons with previous use of vitamin D (30.1 vs. 22.9% in those not receiving treatment). In the bivariate analysis, previous use of vitamin D was positively associated with death and/or IMV [odds ratio (OR): 1.45 95% CI: 1.03; 2.04]; however, after adjustment for other risk factors this association disappeared (OR: 1.09 95%CI: 0.65; 1.81). Conclusion: We did not find an association between vitamin D supplementation before hospital admission and death and/or IMV in subjects admitted for COVID-19. The age and the burden of age-associated comorbidities were independently associated with the in-hospital events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e047134, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) decreases the morbidity and mortality risk among patients with cardiac diseases; however, the impact of CR on patients with diabetes remains underexplored. This is a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis methodology to explore if the effect of CR on mortality and morbidity is the same in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with patients without diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Interventional and non-interventional studies comparing the effect of CR, for at least 1 month, on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes including fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, revascularisation and rehospitalisation in adults with cardiac diseases will be deemed eligible for inclusion. Studies published between 1990 and 2020 will be searched in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL, Scopus and in registries for randomised controlled trials. Eligible studies will be selected using the Covidence software, and their salient details regarding the design, population, tested interventions and outcomes of interest will be gathered. The quality of studies to be deemed eligible and reviewed will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's tools. The appraisal process will be based on the study design (interventional and non-interventional). In the meta-analysis step, the pooled effect of CR on the outcomes will be estimated. All meta-analyses will be done using the random-effects model approach (inverse-variance method). I 2 and p value of χ2 statistics will guide the heterogeneity assessment. Subgroup analyses will also be performed. The small study effect will be investigated by generating the funnel plots. The symmetry of the latter will be tested by performing Egger's test. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The systematic review will use data from published literature; hence, no ethical approval will be required. Findings of the systematic review and meta-analysis will be published in peer-reviewed international journals and will be disseminated in local and international scientific meetings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020148832.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Myocardial Infarction , Adult , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Morbidity , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic
13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(4): 611-620, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447566

ABSTRACT

The reproductive number, or reproduction number, is a valuable metric in understanding infectious disease dynamics. There is a large body of literature related to its use and estimation. In the last 15 years, there has been tremendous progress in statistically estimating this number using case notification data. These approaches are appealing because they are relevant in an ongoing outbreak (e.g., for assessing the effectiveness of interventions) and do not require substantial modeling expertise to be implemented. In this article, we describe these methods and the extensions that have been developed. We provide insight into the distinct interpretations of the estimators proposed and provide real data examples to illustrate how they are implemented. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of available software and opportunities for future development.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Infections/epidemiology , Basic Reproduction Number , Global Health , Humans , Morbidity/trends , Software
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has caused a high mortality in institutionalised individuals. There are very few studies on the involvement and the real impact of COVID-19 in nursing homes. This study analysed factors related to morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in institutionalised elderly people. METHODS: This cohort study included 842 individuals from 12 nursing homes in Sant Cugat del Vallès (Spain) from 15 March to 15 May 2020. We evaluated individual factors (demographic, dependence, clinical, and therapeutic) and those related to the nursing homes (size and staff) associated with infection and mortality by SARS-CoV-2. Infection was diagnosed by molecular biology test. RESULTS: Of the 842 residents included in the analysis, 784 underwent a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test; 74.2% were women, the mean age was 87.1 years, and 11.1% died. The PCR test was positive in 44%. A total of 33.4% of the residents presented symptoms compatible with COVID-19 and of these, 80.9% were PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2. Infection by SARS-CoV-2 among residents was associated with the rate of staff infected in the homes. Mortality by SARS-CoV-2 was related to male sex and a greater grade of dependence measured with the Barthel index. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-Cov-2 infection in institutionalised people is associated with the infection rate in nursing home workers and mortality by SARS-Cov-2 with sex and greater dependency according to the Barthel index. Adequate management of nursing home staff and special attention to measures of infection control, especially of individuals with greater dependence, are keys for successful management of future pandemic situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Morbidity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Blood Adv ; 5(18): 3690-3693, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440897

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted racial health disparities within the United States. Although social determinants of health are the most likely drivers of this disparity, it is possible that genetic traits enriched in the black population like sickle cell trait (SCT) could worsen the morbidity and mortality of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2 infection who identified as black or African American were included in the study (n = 166). Blood remnants were tested for SCT, and clinical data were abstracted from the chart. There was no difference in mortality between those with SCT and those without. There was no difference in respiratory complications between groups, but those without SCT had a much higher burden of chronic lung disease (P = .004). Those with SCT had higher creatinine on admission (P = .004), but no difference in in-hospital renal complications (P = .532). Notably, 12% of the cohort had SCT, which is higher than the expected 7.31% (P = .025). Our study did not show any evidence of increased end organ damage, morbidity, or mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients with SCT but did show differences in admission creatinine and preexisting lung disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sickle Cell Trait , Humans , Morbidity , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
16.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(10): 929-936, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415873

ABSTRACT

Informal (unpaid) carers are an integral part of all societies and the health and social care systems in the UK depend on them. Despite the valuable contributions and key worker status of informal carers, their lived experiences, wellbeing, and needs have been neglected during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this Health Policy, we bring together a broad range of clinicians, researchers, and people with lived experience as informal carers to share their thoughts on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on UK carers, many of whom have felt abandoned as services closed. We focus on the carers of children and young people and adults and older adults with mental health diagnoses, and carers of people with intellectual disability or neurodevelopmental conditions across different care settings over the lifespan. We provide policy recommendations with the aim of improving outcomes for all carers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Services Needs and Demand/legislation & jurisprudence , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Caregivers/economics , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/psychology , Life Change Events , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Morbidity/trends , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Social Support , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 107, 2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, the pandemic disease caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, may take highly variable clinical courses, ranging from symptom-free and pauci-symptomatic to fatal disease. The goal of the current study was to assess the association of COVID-19 clinical courses controlled by patients' adaptive immune responses without progression to severe disease with patients' Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genetics, AB0 blood group antigens, and the presence or absence of near-loss-of-function delta 32 deletion mutant of the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5). PATIENT AND METHODS: An exploratory observational study including 157 adult COVID-19 convalescent patients was performed with a median follow-up of 250 days. The impact of different HLA genotypes, AB0 blood group antigens, and the CCR5 mutant CD195 were investigated for their role in the clinical course of COVID-19. In addition, this study addressed levels of severity and morbidity of COVID-19. The association of the immunogenetic background parameters were further related to patients' humoral antiviral immune response patterns by longitudinal observation. RESULTS: Univariate HLA analyses identified putatively protective HLA alleles (HLA class II DRB1*01:01 and HLA class I B*35:01, with a trend for DRB1*03:01). They were associated with reduced durations of disease instead decreased (rather than increased) total anti-S IgG levels. They had a higher virus neutralizing capacity compared to non-carriers. Conversely, analyses also identified HLA alleles (HLA class II DQB1*03:02 und HLA class I B*15:01) not associated with such benefit in the patient cohort of this study. Hierarchical testing by Cox regression analyses confirmed the significance of the protective effect of the HLA alleles identified (when assessed in composite) in terms of disease duration, whereas AB0 blood group antigen heterozygosity was found to be significantly associated with disease severity (rather than duration) in our cohort. A suggestive association of a heterozygous CCR5 delta 32 mutation status with prolonged disease duration was implied by univariate analyses but could not be confirmed by hierarchical multivariate testing. CONCLUSION: The current study shows that the presence of HLA class II DRB1*01:01 and HLA class I B*35:01 is of even stronger association with reduced disease duration in mild and moderate COVID-19 than age or any other potential risk factor assessed. Prospective studies in larger patient populations also including novel SARS-CoV-2 variants will be required to assess the impact of HLA genetics on the capacity of mounting protective vaccination responses in the future.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , COVID-19/etiology , HLA Antigens/genetics , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Mutation , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403602

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality among family and friends on vaccination preferences is not well explored. A valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online via mTurk to recruit a national random sample of adult Americans to understand COVID-19 vaccination preferences and its relationship with COVID-19 infection in social networks. A total of 1602 individuals participated in the study where the majority had taken at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (79%) and almost a tenth were planning to do so (10%) or did not want to take the vaccine (11%). Compared to those who knew family members or friends affected by COVID-19, those who did not know anyone infected with (AOR = 3.20), hospitalized for (AOR = 3.60), or died of COVID-19 (AOR = 2.97) had statistically significantly higher odds of refusing the vaccines. Most strategies for reducing COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy focus on highlighting the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines. We suggest that the dangers of not getting the vaccine should also be emphasized as many people who do not know someone who was affected with COVID-19 are also hesitant towards vaccination. These individuals may not fully appreciate the morbidity and mortality impact of COVID-19 infections and the messaging can be tailored to highlight the risk of not having vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Networking , Vaccination
20.
Virology ; 563: 98-106, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386714

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has paralyzed the global economy and resulted in millions of deaths globally. People with co-morbidities like obesity, diabetes and hypertension are at an increased risk for severe COVID-19 illness. This is of overwhelming concern because 42% of Americans are obese, 30% are pre-diabetic and 9.4% have clinical diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of obesity on disease severity following SARS-CoV-2 infection using a well-established mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Diet-induced obese and lean control C57BL/6 N mice, transduced for ACE2 expression using replication-defective adenovirus, were infected with SARS-CoV-2, and monitored for lung pathology, viral titers, and cytokine expression. No significant differences in tissue pathology or viral replication was observed between AdV transduced lean and obese groups, infected with SARS-CoV-2, but certain cytokines were expressed more significantly in infected obese mice compared to the lean ones. Notably, significant weight loss was observed in obese mice treated with the adenovirus vector, independent of SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting an obesity-dependent morbidity induced by the vector. These data indicate that the adenovirus-transduced mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as described here and elsewhere, may be inappropriate for nutrition studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Models, Animal , Obesity/epidemiology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Comorbidity , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Morbidity , Vero Cells
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