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3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(6): 1743-1749, 2023 Jun.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243912

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had a powerful impact on society with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The use of an epidemiological indicator that estimates the burden of a disease by aggregating early mortality and non-fatal cases in a single measure has the potential to assist in the planning of more appropriate actions at different levels of health care. The scope of this article is to estimate the burden of disease due to COVID-19 in Florianópolis/SC from April 2020 through March 2021. An ecological study was carried out with data from notification and deaths by COVID-19 in the period of 12 months. The burden indicator called Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) was used, obtained by adding the Years of Life Lost (YLL) to the Years of healthy life lost due to disability (YLD). A total of 78,907 confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. Of these, 763 died during the period under study. Overall, 4,496.9 DALYs were estimated, namely a rate of 883.8 DALYs per 100,000 inhabitants. In males, there were 2,693.1 DALYs, a rate of 1,098.0 DALYs per 100,000 males. In women, there were 1,803.8 DALYs, a rate of 684.4 DALYs per100,000 women. The age group most affected in both sexes was 60 to 69 years. The burden of COVID-19 was high in the city studied. The highest rates were in females and in the 60-69 age group.


A COVID-19 gerou impacto na sociedade com elevados índices de morbidade e mortalidade. A utilização de indicador epidemiológico que estime a carga de doença, agregando em uma medida a mortalidade precoce e os casos não fatais, tem potencial de auxiliar no planejamento de ações adequadas em diferentes níveis de atenção à saúde. O objetivo deste artigo é estimar a carga de doença por COVID-19 em Florianópolis/SC de abril de 2020 a março de 2021. Foi realizado um estudo ecológico com dados de notificação e óbitos por COVID-19 no período de 12 meses. Utilizou-se o indicador de carga denominado Anos de Vida Perdidos Ajustados por Incapacidade (DALY), obtido pela soma dos Anos de Vida Perdidos (YLL) com os Anos Vividos com Incapacidade (YLD). Foram incluídos 78.907 casos de COVID-19 confirmados. Desses, 763 evoluíram a óbito no período estudado. No total, foram estimados 4.496,6 DALYs, taxa de 883,8 DALYs/100.000 habitantes. No sexo masculino, foram 2.693,1 DALYs, taxa de 1.098,0 DALYs/100.000 homens. Em mulheres, foram 1.803,8 DALYs, taxa de 684,4 DALYs/100.000 mulheres. A faixa etária mais acometida em ambos os sexos foi de 60 a 69 anos. Foi alta a carga de COVID-19 na cidade estudada. As maiores taxas foram encontradas no sexo feminino e na faixa-etária de 60-69 anos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Morbidity , Health Status , Cost of Illness , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
4.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28794, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325166

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak spread, evidence has emerged that gender and race would bear a disproportionate impact on the morbimortality of COVID-19. Here, we conducted a retrospective observational study using the TabNet/Departamento de informática do sistema único de saúde platform of the city of São Paulo. COVID-19 records from March 2020 through December 2021 were included, and we evaluated the temporal trends of confirmed cases and case fatality rate by gender and ethnicity. Statistical analysis was performed using the R-software and BioEstat-software, considering p < 0.05 significant. From March/2020 to December/2021, 1 315 160 COVID-19 confirmed cases were recorded (57.1% females), and 2973 deaths were due to COVID-19. Males presented higher median mortality (0.44% vs. 0.23%; p < 0.05) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission rates (0.34% vs. 0.20%; p < 0.05). Men were also associated with a higher risk of death (risk ratio [RR] = 1.28; p < 0.05) and a higher chance of requiring ICU care (RR = 1.29; p < 0.05). Black ethnicity was associated with a higher risk of death (RR = 1.19; p < 0.05). White patients were more likely to require ICU admission (RR = 1.13; p < 0.05), whereas Browns were associated with a protective effect (RR = 0.86; p < 0.05). Furthermore, men presented a higher chance of death than women across the three major ethnic groups: Whites (RR = 1.33; p < 0.05), Blacks (RR = 1.24; p < 0.05), and Browns (RR = 1.35; p < 0.05). In this study of COVID-19 in São Paulo, men were associated with worse outcomes, including in the three major ethnicities in the population. Blacks exhibited a higher risk of death, Whites were more likely to require intensive care, and Browns were at protection from ICU hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Brazil/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Morbidity , Hospitalization
5.
Z Gastroenterol ; 61(4): 375-380, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Continuation of standard management of Gaucher disease (GD) has been challenging during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in infrequent/missed infusions and follow-up appointments. Little data are available on the consequences of these changes and on the SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in German GD patients. METHODS: A survey with 22 questions about GD management during the pandemic was sent to 19 German Gaucher centres. It was answered by 11/19 centres caring for 257 GD patients (almost ¾ of the German GD population); 245 patients had type 1 and 12 had type 3 GD; 240 were ≥ 18 years old. RESULTS: Monitoring intervals were prolonged in 8/11 centres from a median of 9 to 12 months. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was changed to home ERT in 4 patients and substituted by oral substrate reduction therapy (SRT) in 6 patients. From March 2020 to October 2021, no serious complications of GD were documented. Only 4 SARS-CoV-2 infections were reported (1.6%). Two infections were asymptomatic and two mild; all occurred in adult type 1, non-splenectomized patients on ERT. Vaccination rate in adult GD was 79.5% (95.3% mRNA vaccines). Serious vaccination complications were not reported. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has lowered the threshold for switching from practice- or hospital-based ERT to home therapy or to SRT. No major GD complication was documented during the pandemic. Infection rate with SARS-CoV-2 in GD may rather be lower than expected, and its severity is mild. Vaccination rates are high in GD patients and vaccination was well tolerated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gaucher Disease , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Gaucher Disease/complications , Gaucher Disease/drug therapy , Glucosylceramidase/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Morbidity
6.
Leuk Res ; 130: 107307, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311743

ABSTRACT

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is the development of a certain cell lineage which is the cornerstone of hematologic malignancy especially myeloid neoplasms, however, can also be found in old age (6th-7th decade). CH is caused by many different somatic mutations most commonly in DNMT3A, TET2, ASXL1, SF3B1 and TP53. It is detected by different sequencing methods, the most commonly used ones are next generation sequencing (NGS) which can be whole exome, whole genome sequencing or a panel for certain genes. CH is divided into multiple categories depending on the clinical picture associated with it into: clonal monocytosis of undetermined significance (CMUS), clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate significance (CHIP), clonal cytopenia and monocytosis of undetermined significance (CCMUS) and clonal cytopenia of undetermined significance (CCUS). In order to diagose CH, first other hematologic malignancies must be ruled out CH is also associated with many different entities including lung cancer and some studies have shown that COVID-19 infections are affected by CH. Certain traits and infections are associated with CH including smoking, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. A minority of patients with CH progress to a malignant process (between 0.5 %-2 %) which do not require treatment, however, any patient with CH should be kept under surveillance in order to detect any malignancy early and be treated accordingly. SIMPLE SUMMARY: Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is considered to be the predisposing factor for development of different hematologic neoplasms. With the help of NGS, patients with CH can be monitored more closely. Several studies have shown that these patients might develop hematologic neoplasms in their lifetime. It has been subdivided into multiple groups according to the clinical picture and/or blood counts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Neoplasms , Humans , Clonal Hematopoiesis/genetics , Mutation , Hematopoiesis/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Morbidity , Transcription Factors/genetics
7.
Saudi Med J ; 44(1): 67-73, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on clinical outcomes of patients admitted with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We carried out a single center, observational, retrospective study. We included adult patients with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from April 2020 to December 2020. Electronic medical records were reviewed for demographics, clinical status, hospital course, and outcome; and they were compared between the patients with or without DM. RESULTS: Out of 198 patients included in the study, 86 (43.4%) were diabetic and 112 (56.5%) were non-diabetic. Majority of the patients were males 139 (70.2%) with a mean age of 54.14±14.89 years. In-hospital mortality rate was higher in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients (40 vs. 32; p=0.011). The most common comorbidity was hypertension (n=95, 48%) followed by ischemic heart disease (n=35, 17.7%), chronic kidney disease (n=17, 9.6%), and bronchial asthma (n=10, 5.1%). CONCLUSION: The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection is higher among diabetic patients; particularly, those with preexisting co-morbidities or geriatric patients. Diabetic patients are prone to a severe clinical course of COVID-19 and a significantly higher mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Morbidity , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(7): e222-e228, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has impacted the world differentially with the highest mortality and morbidity rate burden in Europe and the USA and the lowest mortality and morbidity burden in Africa. This study aims to investigate the possible reasons why Africa recorded the lowest COVID-19 mortality and morbidity. METHODS: The following search terms were used PubMed database: ["mortalit*" (tw) OR "morbidit*" (tw) AND "COVID-19" (tw) AND "Africa" (tw)]. Studies that discuss a factor for the low COVID-19 burden in Africa have a defined methodology, discuss its research question and mention its limitations are selected for review. Data from the final articles were extracted using a data collection tool. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies were used in this integrative review. Results were grouped into 10 themes, which are younger African population, lower health capacity, weather, vaccines and drugs, effective pandemic response, lower population density and mobility, African socioeconomic status, lower prevalence of comorbidities, genetic difference and previous infection exposure. The low COVID-19 mortality and morbidity in Africa is largely a result of a combined effect of the younger African population and underreporting of COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to strengthen the health capacities of African countries. Moreover, African countries that have other health problem priorities may use a tailored approach to vaccinating the elderly. More definitive studies are needed to know the role of BCG vaccination, weather, genetic makeup and prior infection exposure in the differential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Africa/epidemiology , Morbidity , Prevalence
9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 121, 2023 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Paralysis of medical systems has emerged as a major problem not only in Korea but also globally because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, early identification and treatment of COVID-19 are crucial. This study aims to develop a machine-learning algorithm based on bio-signals that predicts the infection three days in advance before it progresses from mild to severe, which may necessitate high-flow oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation. METHODS: The study included 2758 hospitalized patients with mild severity COVID-19 between July 2020 and October 2021. Bio-signals, clinical information, and laboratory findings were retrospectively collected from the electronic medical records of patients. Machine learning methods included random forest, random forest ranger, gradient boosting machine, and support vector machine (SVM). RESULTS: SVM showed the best performance in terms of accuracy, kappa, sensitivity, detection rate, balanced accuracy, and run-time; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was also quite high at 0.96. Body temperature and SpO2 three and four days before discharge or exacerbation were ranked high among SVM features. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed algorithm can predict the exacerbation of severity three days in advance in patients with mild COVID-19. This prediction can help effectively manage the reallocation of appropriate medical resources in clinical settings. Therefore, this algorithm can facilitate adequate oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilator preparation, thereby improving patient prognosis, increasing the efficiency of medical systems, and mitigating the damage caused by a global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Morbidity , Machine Learning , Algorithms , Oxygen
10.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1151038, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305534

ABSTRACT

Background: In the early stage of COVID-19 epidemic, the Chinese mainland once effectively controlled the epidemic, but COVID-19 eventually spread faster and faster in the world. The purpose of this study is to clarify the differences in the epidemic data of COVID-19 in different areas and phases in Chinese mainland in 2020, and to analyze the possible factors affecting the occurrence and development of the epidemic. Methods: We divided the Chinese mainland into areas I, I and III, and divided the epidemic process into phases I to IV: limited cases, accelerated increase, decelerated increase and containment phases. We also combined phases II and III as outbreak phase. The epidemic data included the duration of different phases, the numbers of confirmed cases, asymptomatic infections, and the proportion of imported cases from abroad. Results: In area I, II and III, only area I has a Phase I, and the Phase II and III of area I are longer. In Phase IV, there is a 17-day case clearing period in area I, while that in area II and III are 2 and 0 days, respectively. In phase III or the whole outbreak phase, the average daily increase of confirmed cases in area I was higher than that in areas II and III (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001 in phase III; P = 0.034 and P = 0.002 in the whole outbreak phase), and the average daily in-hospital cases were most in area I and least in area III (P = 0.000, P = 0.000, and P = 0.000 in phase III; P = 0.000, P = 0.000, and P = 0.009 in the whole outbreak phase). The average number of daily in-hospital COVID-19 cases in phase III was more than that in phase II in each area (P = 0.000, P = 0.000, and P = 0.001). In phase IV, from March 18, 2020 to January 1, 2021, the increase of confirmed cases in area III was higher than areas I and II (both P = 0.000), and the imported cases from abroad in Chinese mainland accounted for more than 55-61%. From June 16 to July 2, 2020, the number of new asymptomatic infections in area III was higher than that in area II (P = 0.000), while there was zero in area I. From July 3, 2020 to January 1, 2021, the increased COVID-19 cases in area III were 3534, while only 14 and 0, respectively, in areas I and II. Conclusions: The worst epidemic areas in Chinese mainland before March 18, 2020 and after June 15, 2020 were area I and area III, respectively, and area III had become the main battlefield for Chinese mainland to fight against imported epidemic since March 18, 2020. In Wuhan, human COVID-19 infection might occur before December 8, 2019, while the outbreak might occur before January 16 or even 10, 2020. Insufficient understanding of COVID-19 hindered the implementation of early effective isolation measures, leading to COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, and strict isolation measures were effective in controlling the epidemic. The import of foreign COVID-19 cases has made it difficult to control the epidemic of area III. When humans are once again faced with potentially infectious new diseases, it is appropriate to first and foremost take strict quarantine measures as soon as possible, and mutual cooperation between regions should be explored to combat the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Morbidity , Epidemics/prevention & control , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods
11.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305322

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in patients with COVID-19 and Influenza, with only small number of studies comparing these two viral illnesses in the setting of ARDS. Given the pathogenic differences in the two viruses, this study shows trends in national hospitalization and outcomes associated with COVID-19- and Influenza-related ARDS. To evaluate and compare the risk factors and rates of the adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 associated ARDS (C-ARDS) relative to Influenza-related ARDS (I-ARDS), we utilized the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database 2020. Our sample includes 106,720 patients hospitalized with either C-ARDS or I-ARDS between January and December 2020, of which 103,845 (97.3%) had C-ARDS and 2875 (2.7%) had I-ARDS. Propensity-matched analysis demonstrated a significantly higher in-hospital mortality (aOR 3.2, 95% CI 2.5-4.2, p < 0.001), longer mean length of stay (18.7 days vs. 14.5 days, p < 0.001), higher likelihood of requiring vasopressors (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 2.5-4.2) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.1) in C-ARDS patients. Our study shows that COVID-19-related ARDS patients had a higher rate of complications, including higher in-hospital mortality and a higher need for vasopressors and invasive mechanical ventilation relative to Influenza-related ARDS; however, it also showed an increased utilization of mechanical circulatory support and non-invasive ventilation in Influenza-related ARDS. It emphasizes the need for early detection and management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Morbidity
12.
Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) ; 22(2): 198-204, 2020 03 01.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2020 the WHO declared the state of pandemic by COVID-19. As of July 29, 2020, 17 106 007 cases and 668 910 deaths have been reported globally. The region of the Americas has reported 9 152 173 cases (53%) and 351 121 deaths (52,2%), so the aggregate analysis of the data in countries in this region is of interest. Argentina, Chile and Colombia, due to their demographic and economic characteristics, are countries that can be studied. OBJETIVE: Analyze variables related to health systems and epidemiological data of SARS-CoV-2 virus disease in Argentina, Chile and Colombia. METHODS: A descriptive study of variables reported by the official organisms of each state was used. RESULTS: There is an important difference in active cases and mortality among the three countries; the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires has the highest number of active cases as of July 2020. Colombia has the highest numbers of deaths confirmed by COVID-19 in the months of February to July 2020. We suggest the unification of an information system for Latin America that allows a comprehensive monitoring of variables, improves the qua-lity of data and unifies the technical language.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Americas , Morbidity , Argentina/epidemiology
13.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(3): 266-273, jun. 2020. graf, tab.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2274670

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Antecedentes: la pandemia de COVID-19 ha introducido cambios drásticos en el sistema de salud. Las cirugías electivas son una de las actividades quirúrgicas que más han descendido durante la pandemia. Objetivo: analizar el impacto de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la cirugía pancreática en una institución pública y otra privada. Se comparó, en cada institución, con el número de cirugías en el mismo período del año pasado. Material y métodos: se revisaron en una base prospectiva los pacientes que recibieron una cirugía pancreática en las dos instituciones entre el 10/3/20 y el 24/6/20. Se determinaron los datos epide miológicos, el tipo de resección pancreática, el diagnóstico anatomopatológico, la morbilidad y la mor talidad. Se compararon con los pacientes en ambas instituciones que recibieron cirugía pancreática durante el período 10/3/19 al 24/6/19. Resultados: durante la pandemia se realizaron 23 resecciones pancreáticas (13 duodenopancreatec tomías cefálicas, 9 pancreatectomías izquierdas y 1 pancreatectomía total). El 70% (16/23) fueron adenocarcinomas. La morbilidad alcanzó el 34,7% y no se registró mortalidad. Ningún paciente ni miembro del equipo quirúrgico se infectó con coronavirus. La pandemia no tuvo impacto en el núme ro de cirugías en el centro privado (22 vs. 20, p = 0,88), mientras que en el centro público hubo una reducción significativa en el número de cirugías (14 vs. 3, p = 0,009). Conclusión: la cirugía pancreática se puede hacer con seguridad durante la pandemia. En el centro privado se mantuvo el número de cirugías pancreáticas. En el centro público, con máxima prioridad para pacientes con COVID-19, hubo un descenso significativo.


ABSTRACT Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced dramatic changes in the health system. Elective surgeries are the surgical activities with greater decline during the pandemic. Objective: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in pancreatic sur gery in a public and a private institution. The number of surgeries performed in each institution was compared with those performed in same period of the previous year. Material and methods: Data from a prospective database of all the patients who underwent pancrea tic surgery between March 10, 2020, and June 3, 2020, were analyzed. The epidemiological data, type of pancreatic resection, pathology diagnosis, morbidity and mortality were determined in each insti tution and compared with patients who underwent pancreatic surgery in both institutions between March 3, 2019, and June 24, 2019. Results: 23 pancreatic resections were performed during the pandemic (13 cephalic pancreaticoduo denectomies, 9 left pancreatectomies and 1 total pancreatectomy); 70% (16/23) were adenocarcino mas. There were 34.7% complications and no deaths were reported. None of the patients was infected with coronavirus. The pandemic had no impact on the number of pancreatic resections in the private institution (22 vs. 20, p = 0.88), while the number of pancreatic surgeries was significantly lower in the public center (14 vs. 3, p = 0.009). Conclusion: Pancreatic surgery can be safely performed during the pandemic. The number of pancrea tic surgeries did not decline during the pandemic. The priority for treating patients with COVID-19 at the public center resulted in a significant decrease in pancreatic surgeries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pancreatectomy/statistics & numerical data , Morbidity , COVID-19 , Pancreas , Pancreatectomy/mortality , Surgery Department, Hospital , Hospitals, Private , Hospitals, Public
14.
Br J Surg ; 109(12): 1300-1311, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The accuracy with which healthcare professionals (HCPs) and risk prediction tools predict outcomes after major lower limb amputation (MLLA) is uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of predicting short-term (30 days after MLLA) mortality, morbidity, and revisional surgery. METHODS: The PERCEIVE (PrEdiction of Risk and Communication of outcomE following major lower limb amputation: a collaboratIVE) study was launched on 1 October 2020. It was an international multicentre study, including adults undergoing MLLA for complications of peripheral arterial disease and/or diabetes. Preoperative predictions of 30-day mortality, morbidity, and MLLA revision by surgeons and anaesthetists were recorded. Probabilities from relevant risk prediction tools were calculated. Evaluation of accuracy included measures of discrimination, calibration, and overall performance. RESULTS: Some 537 patients were included. HCPs had acceptable discrimination in predicting mortality (931 predictions; C-statistic 0.758) and MLLA revision (565 predictions; C-statistic 0.756), but were poor at predicting morbidity (980 predictions; C-statistic 0.616). They overpredicted the risk of all outcomes. All except three risk prediction tools had worse discrimination than HCPs for predicting mortality (C-statistics 0.789, 0.774, and 0.773); two of these significantly overestimated the risk compared with HCPs. SORT version 2 (the only tool incorporating HCP predictions) demonstrated better calibration and overall performance (Brier score 0.082) than HCPs. Tools predicting morbidity and MLLA revision had poor discrimination (C-statistics 0.520 and 0.679). CONCLUSION: Clinicians predicted mortality and MLLA revision well, but predicted morbidity poorly. They overestimated the risk of mortality, morbidity, and MLLA revision. Most short-term risk prediction tools had poorer discrimination or calibration than HCPs. The best method of predicting mortality was a statistical tool that incorporated HCP estimation.


Subject(s)
Amputation, Surgical , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Adult , Humans , Morbidity , Lower Extremity/surgery , Risk Assessment
15.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 36(4): 101662, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258651

ABSTRACT

In this narrative review we provide an overview of the current literature on male hypogonadism and related comorbidities, also depicting the role of testosterone therapy (TTh) in the various settings. Male hypogonadism has been associated with major comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and cardiovascular diseases, promoting a vicious cycle that may lead to further hypogonadism. The biological underpinnings of this association are currently under investigations, but clearly emerges the relevance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Hypogonadism has also been associated with increased risk of mortality. As such, TTh has the potential to oppose these patterns and improve cardiovascular and metabolic health in hypogonadal men. Clinical and observational data suggest that in males with hypogonadism, TTh, together with lifestyle changes and diabetes medications, may improve glycemia, reduce risk of progression to diabetes and provides positive effects on cardiovascular risk. Conversely, available data does not fully support any increased risk of prostate cancer in men under TTh. Of clinical relevance, a possible harmful role of hypogonadal status in men with COVID-19 eventually emerged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypogonadism , Androgens/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypogonadism/complications , Hypogonadism/drug therapy , Hypogonadism/epidemiology , Male , Morbidity , Testosterone/therapeutic use
16.
Pol Przegl Chir ; 95(4): 1-5, 2022 Aug 22.
Article in Polish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of abdominal pain requiring surgical intervention. This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the morbidity, therapeutic management, and course of acute appendicitis. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed patients hospitalized at a general surgery department between 1 January 2019 and 19 March 2020 and compared them to patients hospitalized between 20 March 2020 (global pandemic declaration date) and 6 June 2021. Therefore, our analysis encompassed the period 443 days preceding the pandemic and 443 days after the start thereof. Other factors evaluated herein included sex, length of hospital stay, time from symptom onset, type of surgery, laboratory test results, histopathological diagnosis, and polymerase chain reaction test results for SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Statistical analysis was conducted using statistical software IBM SPSS version 27. Significant differences in length of hospital stay, time from symptom onset to hospital admission, number of leukocytes, and type of surgical procedure were observed between groups of patients treated before and after the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Acute appendicitis remained one of the most commonly encountered diseases requiring surgical intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, significant differences were observed between patients treated before and after COVID-19 had been declared a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Appendicitis/surgery , Pandemics , Morbidity , Appendectomy/methods , Acute Disease
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278452

ABSTRACT

Adults with comorbidities have faced a high risk from COVID-19 infection. However, Western Australia experienced relatively few infections and deaths from 2020 until early 2022 compared with other OECD countries, as hard border policies allowed for wide-scale vaccination before mass infections began. This research investigated the thoughts, feelings, risk perceptions, and practices of Western Australian adults with comorbidities aged 18-60 years in regard to COVID-19 disease and COVID-19 vaccines. We conducted 14 in-depth qualitative interviews between January and April 2022, just as the disease was starting to circulate. We coded results inductively and deductively, combining the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) and vaccine belief models. Non-hesitant participants believed COVID-19 vaccines were safe and effective at mitigating COVID-19's threat and subsequently got vaccinated. Vaccine hesitant participants were less convinced the disease was severe or that they were susceptible to it; they also did not consider the vaccines to be sufficiently safe. Yet, for some hesitant participants, the exogenous force of mandates prompted vaccination. This work is important to understand how people's thoughts and feelings about their comorbidities and risks from COVID-19 influence vaccine uptake and how mandatory policies can affect uptake in this cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Australia , Vaccination , Morbidity
19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 117: 109950, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284730

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis (HD) are considered particularly susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV2 on the basis of the immunodeficiency associated with advanced age, comorbidity burden, medication use, and need for frequent visits to dialysis clinics. In prior studies, thymalfasin (thymosin alpha 1, Ta1) has been shown to enhance antibody response to influenza vaccine and reduce influenza infection in geriatric populations, including hemodialysis patients, when used as an adjunct to influenza vaccine. Early in the COVID-19 pandemic we speculated that administration of Ta1 to HD patients would result in reduced rate and severity of COVID-19 infection. We also hypothesized that HD patients treated with Ta1 who did become infected with COVID-19 would have a milder course of infection in terms of hospitalization rates, requirement for and length of ICU stays, requirement for mechanical ventilation, and survival. Further, we proposed that patients who avoided COVID-19 infection during the study would have decreased non-COVID-19 infections and hospitalizations compared to controls. PROCEDURES: The study launched in January 2021 and, as of July 1, 2022, 254 ESRD/ HD patients from five dialysis centers in Kansas City, MO have been screened. Of these, 194 patients have been randomized 1:1 to either Group A (1.6 mg Ta1 given subcutaneously twice weekly for 8 weeks), or Group B (control group not receiving Ta1). After the 8-week treatment period, subjects were followed for an additional 4 months and monitored for safety and efficacy. A data safely monitoring board reviewed all reported adverse effects and commented on study progress. RESULTS: To date, only 3 deaths have occurred in subjects treated with Ta1 (Group A), compared to 7 in the control (Group B). There have been 12 COVID-19 related serious adverse effects (SAEs; 5 in Group A, and 7 in Group B). The majority of patients have received a COVID-19 vaccine (91 patients in group A, and 76 patients in Group B) at various times throughout the study. Nearing completion of the study, blood samples have been collected and antibody responses to COVID-19 will be analyzed along with safety and efficacy endpoints when all subjects have completed the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Thymalfasin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral , Pilot Projects , Renal Dialysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Morbidity
20.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0263991, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252455

ABSTRACT

The 2019 newfound Coronavirus (COVID-19) still remains as a threatening disease of which new cases are being reported daily from all over the world. The present study aimed at estimating the related rates of morbidity, growth, and mortality for COVID-19 over a three-month period starting from Feb, 19, 2020 to May 18, 2020 in Iran. In addition, it revealed the effect of the mean age, changes in weather temperature and country's executive policies including social distancing, restrictions on travel, closing public places, shops and educational centers. We have developed a combined neural network to estimate basic reproduction number, growth, and mortality rates of COVID-19. Required data was obtained from daily reports of World Health Organization (WHO), Iran Meteorological Organization (IRIMO) and the Statistics Center of Iran. The technique used in the study encompassed the use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) combined with Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Bus Transportation Algorithms (BTA). The results of the present study showed that the related mortality rate of COVID-19 is in the range of [0.1], and the point 0.275 as the mortality rate provided the best results in terms of the total training and test squared errors of the network. Furthermore, the value of basic reproduction number for ANN-BTA and ANN-PSO was 1.045 and 1.065, respectively. In the present study, regarding the closest number to the regression line (0.275), the number of patients was equal to 2566200 cases (with and without clinical symptoms) and the growth rate based on arithmetic means was estimated to be 1.0411 and 1.06911, respectively. Reviewing the growth and mortality rates over the course of 90 days, after 45 days of first case detection, the highest increase in mortality rate was reported 158 cases. Also, the highest growth rate was related to the eighth and the eighteenth days after the first case report (2.33). In the present study, the weather variant in relationship to the basic reproduction number and mortality rate was estimated ineffective. In addition, the role of quarantine policies implemented by the Iranian government was estimated to be insignificant concerning the mortality rate. However, the age range was an ifluential factor in mortality rate. Finally, the method proposed in the present study cofirmed the role of the mean age of the country in the mortality rate related to COVID-19 patients at the time of research conduction. The results indicated that if sever quarantine restrictions are not applied and Iranian government does not impose effective interventions, about 60% to 70% of the population (it means around 49 to 58 million people) would be afflicted by COVID-19 during June to September 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Iran/epidemiology , Quarantine , Morbidity
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