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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 778736, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775985

ABSTRACT

A key component of integrated vector management strategies is the efficient implementation of mosquito traps for surveillance and control. Numerous trap types have been created with distinct designs and capture mechanisms, but identification of the most effective trap type is critical for effective implementation. For dengue vector surveillance, previous studies have demonstrated that active traps utilizing CO2 attractant are more effective than passive traps for capturing Aedes mosquitoes. However, maintaining CO2 supply in traps is so labor intensive as to be likely unfeasible in crowded residential areas, and it is unclear how much more effective active traps lacking attractants are than purely passive traps. In this study, we analyzed Aedes capture data collected in 2019 from six urban areas in Kaohsiung City to compare Aedes mosquito catch rates between (passive) gravitraps and (active) fan-traps. The average gravitrap index (GI) and fan-trap index (FI) values were 0.68 and 3.39 respectively at peak catch times from June to August 2019, with consistently higher FI values calculated in all areas studied. We compared trap indices to reported cases of dengue fever and correlated them with weekly fluctuations in temperature and rainfall. We found that FI trends aligned more closely with case numbers and rainfall than GI values, supporting the use of fan-traps for Aedes mosquito surveillance and control as part of broader vector management strategies. Furthermore, combining fan-trap catch data with rapid testing for dengue infections may improve the early identification and prevention of future disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Mosquito Control , Animals , Mosquito Vectors , Taiwan
2.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760782

ABSTRACT

Dengue is a neglected disease, present mainly in tropical countries, with more than 5.2 million cases reported in 2019. Vector control remains the most effective protective measure against dengue and other arboviruses. Synthetic insecticides based on organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, neonicotinoids and oxadiazines are unattractive due to their high degree of toxicity to humans, animals and the environment. Conversely, natural-product-based larvicides/insecticides, such as essential oils, present high efficiency, low environmental toxicity and can be easily scaled up for industrial processes. However, essential oils are highly complex and require modern analytical and computational approaches to streamline the identification of bioactive substances. This study combined the GC-MS spectral similarity network approach with larvicidal assays as a new strategy for the discovery of potential bioactive substances in complex biological samples, enabling the systematic and simultaneous annotation of substances in 20 essential oils through LC50 larvicidal assays. This strategy allowed rapid intuitive discovery of distribution patterns between families and metabolic classes in clusters, and the prediction of larvicidal properties of acyclic monoterpene derivatives, including citral, neral, citronellal and citronellol, and their acetate forms (LC50 < 50 µg/mL).


Subject(s)
Aedes , Insecticides , Oils, Volatile , Animals , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva , Mosquito Vectors , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760648

ABSTRACT

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, which causes diseases in humans and livestock. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) represent a superfamily of pattern recognition receptors that were reported to interact with diverse viruses and contribute to antiviral immune responses but may also act as attachment factors or entry receptors in diverse species. Human DC-SIGN and L-SIGN are known to interact with RVFV and to facilitate viral host cell entry, but the roles of further host and vector CLRs are still unknown. In this study, we present a CLR-Fc fusion protein library to screen RVFV-CLR interaction in a cross-species approach and identified novel murine, ovine, and Aedes aegypti RVFV candidate receptors. Furthermore, cross-species CLR binding studies enabled observations of the differences and similarities in binding preferences of RVFV between mammalian CLR homologues, as well as more distant vector/host CLRs.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Rift Valley Fever , Rift Valley fever virus , Animals , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/genetics , Mammals , Mice , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Sheep
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010282, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753213

ABSTRACT

Immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) can confer sterilizing protection against malaria, although the mechanisms behind this protection are incompletely understood. We performed a systems biology analysis of samples from the Immunization by Mosquito with Radiation Attenuated Sporozoites (IMRAS) trial, which comprised P. falciparum RAS-immunized (PfRAS), malaria-naive participants whose protection from malaria infection was subsequently assessed by controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). Blood samples collected after initial PfRAS immunization were analyzed to compare immune responses between protected and non-protected volunteers leveraging integrative analysis of whole blood RNA-seq, high parameter flow cytometry, and single cell CITEseq of PBMCs. This analysis revealed differences in early innate immune responses indicating divergent paths associated with protection. In particular, elevated levels of inflammatory responses early after the initial immunization were detrimental for the development of protective adaptive immunity. Specifically, non-classical monocytes and early type I interferon responses induced within 1 day of PfRAS vaccination correlated with impaired immunity. Non-protected individuals also showed an increase in Th2 polarized T cell responses whereas we observed a trend towards increased Th1 and T-bet+ CD8 T cell responses in protected individuals. Temporal differences in genes associated with natural killer cells suggest an important role in immune regulation by these cells. These findings give insight into the immune responses that confer protection against malaria and may guide further malaria vaccine development. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01994525.


Subject(s)
Immunity , Inflammation , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Sporozoites/immunology , Adult , Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Female , Humans , Immunization/methods , Insect Bites and Stings/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Male , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 388, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dengue is the major mosquito-borne disease in Sri Lanka. After its first detection in January 2020, COVID-19 has become the major health issue in Sri Lanka. The impact of public health measures, notably restrictions on movement of people to curb COVID-19 transmission, on the incidence of dengue during the period March 2020 to April 2021 was investigated. METHODS: The incidence of dengue and COVID-19, rainfall and the public movement restrictions implemented to contain COVID-19 transmission were obtained from Sri Lanka government sources. A Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model was used to predict the monthly dengue incidence from March 2020 to April 2021 for each of the country's 25 districts based on five years of pre-pandemic data, and compared with the actual recorded incidence of dengue during this period. Ovitrap collections of Aedes larvae were performed in Jaffna city in the Jaffna district from August 2020 to April 2021 and the findings compared with similar collections made in the pre-pandemic period from March 2019 to December 2019. RESULTS: The recorded numbers of dengue cases for every month from March 2020 to April 2021 in the whole country and for all 25 districts over the same period were lower than the numbers of dengue cases predicted from data for the five years (2015-2019) immediately preceding the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of dengue cases recorded nationwide represented a 74% reduction from the predicted number of dengue cases for the March 2020 to April 2021 period. The numbers of Aedes larvae collected from ovitraps per month were reduced by 88.6% with a lower proportion of Ae. aegypti than Ae. albopictus in Jaffna city from August 2020 until April 2021 compared with March 2019 to December 2019. CONCLUSION: Public health measures that restricted movement of people, closed schools, universities and offices to contain COVID-19 transmission unexpectedly led to a significant reduction in the reported numbers of dengue cases in Sri Lanka. This contrasts with findings reported from Singapore. The differences between the two tropical islands have significant implications for the epidemiology of dengue. Reduced access to blood meals and lower vector densities, particularly of Ae. aegypti, resulting from the restrictions on movement of people, are suggested to have contributed to the lower dengue incidence in Sri Lanka.


Subject(s)
Aedes , COVID-19 , Dengue , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence , Mosquito Vectors , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sri Lanka/epidemiology
6.
Phys Life Rev ; 40: 65-92, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683512

ABSTRACT

Mathematical models have a long history in epidemiological research, and as the COVID-19 pandemic progressed, research on mathematical modeling became imperative and very influential to understand the epidemiological dynamics of disease spreading. Mathematical models describing dengue fever epidemiological dynamics are found back from 1970. Dengue fever is a viral mosquito-borne infection caused by four antigenically related but distinct serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4). With 2.5 billion people at risk of acquiring the infection, it is a major international public health concern. Although most of the cases are asymptomatic or mild, the disease immunological response is complex, with severe disease linked to the antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) - a disease augmentation phenomenon where pre-existing antibodies to previous dengue infection do not neutralize but rather enhance the new infection. Here, we present a 10-year systematic review on mathematical models for dengue fever epidemiology. Specifically, we review multi-strain frameworks describing host-to-host and vector-host transmission models and within-host models describing viral replication and the respective immune response. Following a detailed literature search in standard scientific databases, different mathematical models in terms of their scope, analytical approach and structural form, including model validation and parameter estimation using empirical data, are described and analyzed. Aiming to identify a consensus on infectious diseases modeling aspects that can contribute to public health authorities for disease control, we revise the current understanding of epidemiological and immunological factors influencing the transmission dynamics of dengue. This review provide insights on general features to be considered to model aspects of real-world public health problems, such as the current epidemiological scenario we are living in.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Dengue/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Mosquito Vectors , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 23, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an arbovirus that, despite the existence of a safe and effective vaccine, continues to cause outbreaks of varying dimensions in the Americas and Africa. Between 2017 and 2019, Brazil registered un unprecedented sylvatic YFV outbreak whose severity was the result of its spread into zones of the Atlantic Forest with no signals of viral circulation for nearly 80 years. METHODS: To investigate the influence of climatic, environmental, and ecological factors governing the dispersion and force of infection of YFV in a naïve area such as the landscape mosaic of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), we combined the analyses of a large set of data including entomological sampling performed before and during the 2017-2019 outbreak, with the geolocation of human and nonhuman primates (NHP) and mosquito infections. RESULTS: A greater abundance of Haemagogus mosquitoes combined with lower richness and diversity of mosquito fauna increased the probability of finding a YFV-infected mosquito. Furthermore, the analysis of functional traits showed that certain functional groups, composed mainly of Aedini mosquitoes which includes Aedes and Haemagogus mosquitoes, are also more representative in areas where infected mosquitoes were found. Human and NHP infections were more common in two types of landscapes: large and continuous forest, capable of harboring many YFV hosts, and patches of small forest fragments, where environmental imbalance can lead to a greater density of the primary vectors and high human exposure. In both, we show that most human infections (~ 62%) occurred within an 11-km radius of the finding of an infected NHP, which is in line with the flight range of the primary vectors. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our data suggest that entomological data and landscape composition analyses may help to predict areas permissive to yellow fever outbreaks, allowing protective measures to be taken to avoid human cases.


Subject(s)
Brazil , Culicidae , Disease Outbreaks , Mosquito Vectors , Yellow Fever/transmission , Aedes/growth & development , Aedes/virology , Animals , Biodiversity , Brazil/epidemiology , Climate , Culicidae/growth & development , Culicidae/virology , Forests , Humans , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Mosquito Vectors/growth & development , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Risk Factors , Yellow Fever/epidemiology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625410

ABSTRACT

Climate change can have a complex impact that also influences human and animal health. For example, climate change alters the conditions for pathogens and vectors of zoonotic diseases. Signs of this are the increasing spread of the West Nile and Usutu viruses and the establishment of new vector species, such as specific mosquito and tick species, in Europe and other parts of the world. With these changes come new challenges for maintaining human and animal health. This paper reports on an analysis of the literature focused on a bibliometric analysis of the Scopus database and VOSviewer software for creating visualization maps which identifies the zoonotic health risks for humans and animals caused by climate change. The sources retained for the analysis totaled 428 and different thresholds (N) were established for each item varying from N 5 to 10. The main findings are as follows: First, published documents increased in 2009-2015 peaking in 2020. Second, the primary sources have changed since 2018, partly attributable to the increase in human health concerns due to human-to-human transmission. Third, the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia, Italy, and Germany perform most zoonosis research. For instance, sixty documents and only 17 countries analyzed for co-authorship analysis met the threshold led by the USA; the top four author keywords were "climate change", "zoonosis", "epidemiology", and "one health;" the USA, the UK, Germany, and Spain led the link strength (inter-collaboration); the author keywords showed that 37 out of the 1023 keywords met the threshold, and the authors' keyword's largest node of the bibliometric map contains the following: infectious diseases, emerging diseases, disease ecology, one health, surveillance, transmission, and wildlife. Finally, zoonotic diseases, which were documented in the literature in the past, have evolved, especially during the years 2010-2015, as evidenced by the sharp augmentation of publications addressing ad-hoc events and peaking in 2020 with the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Climate Change , Animals , Bibliometrics , Humans , Mosquito Vectors , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology
9.
J Theor Biol ; 535: 110987, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620894

ABSTRACT

The annual death statistics due to vector-borne diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes cause a still growing concern for the public health in the affected regions. An improved understanding of how climatic and population changes impact the spread of Aedes aegypti will help estimate the future populations exposure and vulnerability, and is essential to the improvement of public health preparedness. We apply an empirically well-investigated process-based mathematical model based on the life cycle of the mosquito to assess how climate scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP)) and population scenarios (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP)) will affect the growth and potential distribution of this mosquito in China. Our results show that the risk area is predicted to expand considerably, increasing up to 21.46% and 24.75% of China's land area in 2050 and 2070, respectively, and the new added area lies mainly in the east and center of China. The population in the risk area grows substantially up to 2050 and then drops down steadily. However, these predicted changes vary noticeably among different combinations between RCPs and SSPs with the RCP2.6*SSP4 yielding the most favorable scenario in 2070, representing approximately 14.11% of China's land area and 113 cities at risk, which is slightly lower compared to 2019. Our results further reveal that there is a significant trade-off between climatic and human population impacts on the spreading of Aedes aegypti, possibly leading to an overestimation (underestimation) in sparsely (densely) populated areas if the populations impact on the mosquito's life history is unaccounted for. These results suggest that both climate and population changes are crucial factors in the formation of the populations exposure to Aedes-borne virus transmission in China, however, a reduced population growth rate may slow down the spread of this mosquito by effectively counteracting the climate warming impacts.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Animals , Cities , Climate Change , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Mosquito Vectors
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 119, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547723

ABSTRACT

Long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LLIMNs) are needed for malaria vector control. However, their distribution is not yet optimal in sub-Saharan regions. According to projections, COVID-19 pandemic will further delay the distribution of LLIMNs. In Niger, a distribution campaign of LLIMNs with a multi-sectoral approach (state-partner-civil society) was organized in compliance with barrier measures for preventing transmission of COVID-19. A door-to-door strategy was chosen to implement this campaign, in order to avoid entry into confined spaces and to engage community. A total of 13,994,681 people received LLIMNs (reflecting a success rate of 101%) in six targeted regions. A collective effort is needed to sustain the fight against malaria in the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Insecticide-Treated Bednets/supply & distribution , Malaria/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mosquito Control , Mosquito Vectors , Niger
11.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(11): 900-909, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532426

ABSTRACT

Background: A wide range of insect-specific viruses (ISVs) have been reported worldwide. There are no studies from India that have reported ISVs. The current study describes the identification of Phasi Charoen-like virus (PCLV) from Aedes aegypti mosquito-pools from six districts of Karnataka state, India. Materials and Methods: During the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak in the Bangalore Urban district in 2019, using conventional PCR, it was found that both human and mosquito samples were positive for CHIKV. For retrieve the complete genome sequence, mosquito samples were subjected to next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and PCLV was also found. During 2019, as part of a vector-borne disease surveillance, we received 50 mosquito pool samples from 6 districts of the state, all of them were subjected to NGS to identify PCLV. Results: The A. aegypti mosquito-pools samples were subjected to the NGS platform that led to identification of an ISV, PCLV. PCLV was identified in 26 A. aegypti mosquito-pools collected from 6 districts. We also found mixed infection of PCLV with the Dengue virus (DENV; genotypes 1 and 3) and CHIKV from five pools. The nucleotide identity for the L gene of Indian PCLV sequences ranged between 97.1% and 98.3% in comparison with the Thailand sequences. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of PCLV dual infection with DENV and CHIKV in India. The present study confirms the presence of PCLV in A. aegypti mosquitoes from Karnataka state. The study adds India in the global geographical distribution of PCLV.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Chikungunya virus , RNA Viruses , Animals , Chikungunya virus/genetics , India/epidemiology , Mosquito Vectors
12.
Elife ; 102021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513052

ABSTRACT

Monitoring local mosquito populations for insecticide resistance is critical for effective vector-borne disease control. However, widely used phenotypic assays, which are designed to monitor the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance (technical resistance), do not translate well to the efficacy of vector control products to suppress mosquito numbers in the field (practical resistance). This is because standard testing conditions such as environmental conditions, exposure dose, and type of substrate differ dramatically from those experienced by mosquitoes under field conditions. In addition, field mosquitoes have considerably different physiological characteristics such as age and blood-feeding status. Beyond this, indirect impacts of insecticide resistance and/or exposure on mosquito longevity, pathogen development, host-seeking behavior, and blood-feeding success impact disease transmission. Given the limited number of active ingredients currently available and the observed discordance between resistance and disease transmission, we conclude that additional testing guidelines are needed to determine practical resistance-the efficacy of vector control tools under relevant local conditions- in order to obtain programmatic impact.


Subject(s)
Culicidae , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides , Mosquito Control , Mosquito Vectors , Vector Borne Diseases/prevention & control , Animals , Guidelines as Topic
13.
Virol J ; 18(1): 209, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine vesicular disease is caused by the Seneca Valley virus (SVV), it is a novel Picornaviridae, which is prevalent in several countries. However, the pathogenicity of SVV on 5-6 week old pigs and the transmission routes of SVV remain unknown. METHODS: This research mainly focuses on the pathogenicity of the CH-GX-01-2019 strain and the possible vector of SVV. In this study, 5-6 week old pigs infected with SVV (CH-GX-01-2019) and its clinical symptoms (including rectal temperatures and other clinical symptoms) were monitored, qRT-PCR were used to detect the viremia and virus distribution. Neutralization antibody assay was set up during this research. Mosquitoes and Culicoides were collected from pigsties after pigs challenge with SVV, and SVV detection within mosquitoes and Culicoides was done via RT-PCR. RESULTS: The challenged pigs presented with low fevers and mild lethargy on 5-8 days post infection. The viremia lasted more than 14 days. SVV was detected in almost all tissues on the 14th day following the challenge, and it was significantly higher in the hoofs (vesicles) and lymph nodes in comparison with other tissues. Neutralizing antibodies were also detected and could persist for more than 28 days, in addition neutralizing antibody titers ranged from 1:128 to 1:512. Mosquitoes and Culicoides were collected from the pigsty environments following SVV infection. Although SVV was not detected in the mosquitoes, it was present in the Culicoides, however SVV could not be isolated from the positive Culicoides. CONCLUSIONS: Our work has enriched the knowledge relating to SVV pathogenicity and possible transmission routes, which may lay the foundation for further research into the prevention and control of this virus.


Subject(s)
Ceratopogonidae , Picornaviridae Infections , Picornaviridae , Swine Diseases , Animals , Farms , Mosquito Vectors , Picornaviridae Infections/veterinary , Swine , Virulence
14.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480884

ABSTRACT

Mosquito-borne viruses including dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses, and parasites such as malaria and Onchocerca volvulus endanger health and economic security around the globe, and emerging mosquito-borne pathogens have pandemic potential. However, the rapid spread of insecticide resistance threatens our ability to control mosquito vectors. Larvae of Aedes aegypti were screened with the Medicines for Malaria Venture Pandemic Response Box, an open-source compound library, using INVAPP, an invertebrate automated phenotyping platform suited to high-throughput chemical screening of larval motility. We identified rubitecan (a synthetic derivative of camptothecin) as a hit compound that reduced A. aegypti larval motility. Both rubitecan and camptothecin displayed concentration dependent reduction in larval motility with estimated EC50 of 25.5 ± 5.0 µM and 22.3 ± 5.4 µM, respectively. We extended our investigation to adult mosquitoes and found that camptothecin increased lethality when delivered in a blood meal to A. aegypti adults at 100 µM and 10 µM, and completely blocked egg laying when fed at 100 µM. Camptothecin and its derivatives are inhibitors of topoisomerase I, have known activity against several agricultural pests, and are also approved for the treatment of several cancers. Crucially, they can inhibit Zika virus replication in human cells, so there is potential for dual targeting of both the vector and an important arbovirus that it carries.


Subject(s)
Aedes/drug effects , Aedes/virology , Camptothecin/analogs & derivatives , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Aedes/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Camptothecin/pharmacology , Drug Discovery , Female , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Insecticide Resistance , Larva/drug effects , Larva/physiology , Motor Activity/drug effects , Pandemics/prevention & control , Topoisomerase I Inhibitors/pharmacology , Vector Borne Diseases/epidemiology , Vector Borne Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Replication/drug effects , Zika Virus/drug effects
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008719, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388881

ABSTRACT

An estimated 105 million dengue infections occur per year across 120 countries, where traditional vector control is the primary control strategy to reduce contact between mosquito vectors and people. The ongoing sars-cov-2 pandemic has resulted in dramatic reductions in human mobility due to social distancing measures; the effects on vector-borne illnesses are not known. Here we examine the pre and post differences of dengue case counts in Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, and estimate the effects of social distancing as a treatment effect whilst adjusting for temporal confounders. We found that social distancing is expected to lead to 4.32 additional cases per 100,000 individuals in Thailand per month, which equates to 170 more cases per month in the Bangkok province (95% CI: 100-242) and 2008 cases in the country as a whole (95% CI: 1170-2846). Social distancing policy estimates for Thailand were also found to be robust to model misspecification, and variable addition and omission. Conversely, no significant impact on dengue transmission was found in Singapore or Malaysia. Across country disparities in social distancing policy effects on reported dengue cases are reasoned to be driven by differences in workplace-residence structure, with an increase in transmission risk of arboviruses from social distancing primarily through heightened exposure to vectors in elevated time spent at residences, demonstrating the need to understand the effects of location on dengue transmission risk under novel population mixing conditions such as those under social distancing policies.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dengue/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dengue/epidemiology , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Mosquito Vectors , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Thailand/epidemiology
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(1)2021 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389357

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases have caused some of the most feared plagues and greatly harmed human health. However, despite the qualitative understanding that the occurrence and diffusion of infectious disease is related to the environment, the quantitative relations are unknown for many diseases. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that poses a fatal threat and has spread explosively throughout the world, impacting human health. From a geographical perspective, this study aims to understand the global hotspots of ZIKV as well as the spatially heterogeneous relationship between ZIKV and environmental factors using exploratory special data analysis (ESDA) model. A geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was used to analyze the influence of the dominant environmental factors on the spread of ZIKV at the continental scale. The results indicated that ZIKV transmission had obvious regional and seasonal heterogeneity. Population density, GDP per capita, and landscape fragmentation were the dominant environmental factors affecting the spread of ZIKV, which indicates that social factors had a greater influence than natural factors on the spread of it. As SARS-CoV-2 is spreading globally, this study can provide methodological reference for fighting against the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Zika Virus Infection , Animals , Humans , Mosquito Vectors , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
17.
J Travel Med ; 28(8)2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In August 2020, in the context of COVID-19 pandemics, an autochthonous dengue outbreak was identified for the first time in Italy. METHODS: Following the reporting of the index case of autochthonous dengue, epidemiological investigation, vector control and substances of human origin safety measures were immediately activated, according to the national arbovirus surveillance plan. Dengue cases were followed-up with weekly visits and laboratory tests until recovery and clearance of viral RNA from blood. RESULTS: The primary dengue case was identified in a young woman, who developed fever after returning from Indonesia to northern Italy, on 27 July 2020. She spent the mandatory quarantine for COVID-19 at home with relatives, six of whom developed dengue within two weeks. Epidemiological investigation identified further five autochthonous dengue cases among people who lived or stayed near the residence of the primary case. The last case of the outbreak developed fever on 29 September 2020. Dengue cases had a mild febrile illness, except one with persistent asthenia and myalgia. DENV-1 RNA was detected in blood and/or urine in all autochthonous cases, up to 35 days after fever onset. All cases developed IgM and IgG antibodies which cross-reacted with West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses. Sequencing of the full viral genome from blood samples showed over 99% nucleotide identity with DENV-1 strains isolated in China in 2014-2015; phylogenetic analysis classified the virus within Genotype I. Entomological site inspection identified a high density of Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, which conceivably sustained local DENV-1 transmission. Aedes koreicus mosquitoes were also collected in the site. CONCLUSIONS: Areas in Europe with high density of Aedes mosquitoes should be considered at risk for dengue transmission. The presence of endemic flaviviruses, such as WNV, might pose problems in the laboratory diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Aedes , COVID-19 , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Animals , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mosquito Vectors , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
18.
N Engl J Med ; 384(23): 2177-2186, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia pipientis are less susceptible than wild-type A. aegypti to dengue virus infection. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized trial involving releases of wMel-infected A. aegypti mosquitoes for the control of dengue in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. We randomly assigned 12 geographic clusters to receive deployments of wMel-infected A. aegypti (intervention clusters) and 12 clusters to receive no deployments (control clusters). All clusters practiced local mosquito-control measures as usual. A test-negative design was used to assess the efficacy of the intervention. Patients with acute undifferentiated fever who presented to local primary care clinics and were 3 to 45 years of age were recruited. Laboratory testing was used to identify participants who had virologically confirmed dengue (VCD) and those who were test-negative controls. The primary end point was symptomatic VCD of any severity caused by any dengue virus serotype. RESULTS: After successful introgression of wMel into the intervention clusters, 8144 participants were enrolled; 3721 lived in intervention clusters, and 4423 lived in control clusters. In the intention-to-treat analysis, VCD occurred in 67 of 2905 participants (2.3%) in the intervention clusters and in 318 of 3401 (9.4%) in the control clusters (aggregate odds ratio for VCD, 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.35; P = 0.004). The protective efficacy of the intervention was 77.1% (95% CI, 65.3 to 84.9) and was similar against the four dengue virus serotypes. The incidence of hospitalization for VCD was lower among participants who lived in intervention clusters (13 of 2905 participants [0.4%]) than among those who lived in control clusters (102 of 3401 [3.0%]) (protective efficacy, 86.2%; 95% CI, 66.2 to 94.3). CONCLUSIONS: Introgression of wMel into A. aegypti populations was effective in reducing the incidence of symptomatic dengue and resulted in fewer hospitalizations for dengue among the participants. (Funded by the Tahija Foundation and others; AWED ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03055585; Indonesia Registry number, INA-A7OB6TW.).


Subject(s)
Aedes/microbiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Dengue/transmission , Mosquito Vectors , Wolbachia , Adolescent , Adult , Aedes/virology , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Incidence , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mosquito Vectors/microbiology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Young Adult
19.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129686

ABSTRACT

The superfamily of nuclear receptors (NRs), composed of ligand-activated transcription factors, is responsible for gene expression as a reaction to physiological and environmental changes. Transcriptional machinery may require phase separation to fulfil its role. Although NRs have a similar canonical structure, their C-terminal domains (F domains) are considered the least conserved and known regions. This article focuses on the peculiar molecular properties of the intrinsically disordered F domain of the ecdysteroid receptor from the Aedes aegypti mosquito (AaFEcR), the vector of the world's most devastating human diseases such as dengue and Zika. The His-Pro-rich segment of AaFEcR was recently shown to form the unique poly-proline helix II (PPII) in the presence of Cu2+. Here, using widefield microscopy of fluorescently labeled AaFEcR, Zn2+- and Cu2+-induced liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) was observed for the first time for the members of NRs. The perspectives of this finding on future research on the F domain are discussed, especially in relation to other NR members.


Subject(s)
Ions/metabolism , Mosquito Vectors/pathogenicity , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/metabolism , Receptors, Steroid/metabolism , Aedes , Animals , Humans
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009259, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127761

ABSTRACT

Dengue, Zika and chikungunya are diseases of global health significance caused by arboviruses and transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, which is of worldwide circulation. The arrival of the Zika and chikungunya viruses to South America increased the complexity of transmission and morbidity caused by these viruses co-circulating in the same vector mosquito species. Here we present an integrated analysis of the reported arbovirus cases between 2007 and 2017 and local climate and socio-economic profiles of three distinct Colombian municipalities (Bello, Cúcuta and Moniquirá). These locations were confirmed as three different ecosystems given their contrasted geographic, climatic and socio-economic profiles. Correlational analyses were conducted with both generalised linear models and generalised additive models for the geographical data. Average temperature, minimum temperature and wind speed were strongly correlated with disease incidence. The transmission of Zika during the 2016 epidemic appeared to decrease circulation of dengue in Cúcuta, an area of sustained high incidence of dengue. Socio-economic factors such as barriers to health and childhood services, inadequate sanitation and poor water supply suggested an unfavourable impact on the transmission of dengue, Zika and chikungunya in all three ecosystems. Socio-demographic influencers were also discussed including the influx of people to Cúcuta, fleeing political and economic instability from neighbouring Venezuela. Aedes aegypti is expanding its range and increasing the global threat of these diseases. It is therefore vital that we learn from the epidemiology of these arboviruses and translate it into an actionable local knowledge base. This is even more acute given the recent historical high of dengue cases in the Americas in 2019, preceding the COVID-19 pandemic, which is itself hampering mosquito control efforts.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Aedes/physiology , Aedes/virology , Animals , Chikungunya Fever/economics , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Chikungunya virus/physiology , Climate , Colombia/epidemiology , Dengue/economics , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/physiology , Economic Factors , Ecosystem , Humans , Mosquito Vectors/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , South America , Temperature , Zika Virus/physiology , Zika Virus Infection/economics , Zika Virus Infection/virology
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