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1.
Lancet ; 398(10300): 608-620, 2021 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The educational attainment of parents, particularly mothers, has been associated with lower levels of child mortality, yet there is no consensus on the magnitude of this relationship globally. We aimed to estimate the total reductions in under-5 mortality that are associated with increased maternal and paternal education, during distinct age intervals. METHODS: This study is a comprehensive global systematic review and meta-analysis of all existing studies of the effects of parental education on neonatal, infant, and under-5 child mortality, combined with primary analyses of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data. The literature search of seven databases (CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) was done between Jan 23 and Feb 8, 2019, and updated on Jan 7, 2021, with no language or publication date restrictions. Teams of independent reviewers assessed each record for its inclusion of individual-level data on parental education and child mortality and excluded articles on the basis of study design and availability of relevant statistics. Full-text screening was done in 15 languages. Data extracted from these studies were combined with primary microdata from the DHS for meta-analyses relating maternal or paternal education with mortality at six age intervals: 0-27 days, 1-11 months, 1-4 years, 0-4 years, 0-11 months, and 1 month to 4 years. Novel mixed-effects meta-regression models were implemented to address heterogeneity in referent and exposure measures among the studies and to adjust for study-level covariates (wealth or income, partner's years of schooling, and sex of the child). This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020141731). FINDINGS: The systematic review returned 5339 unique records, yielding 186 included studies after exclusions. DHS data were compiled from 114 unique surveys, capturing 3 112 474 livebirths. Data extracted from the systematic review were synthesized together with primary DHS data, for meta-analysis on a total of 300 studies from 92 countries. Both increased maternal and paternal education showed a dose-response relationship linked to reduced under-5 mortality, with maternal education emerging as a stronger predictor. We observed a reduction in under-5 mortality of 31·0% (95% CI 29·0-32·6) for children born to mothers with 12 years of education (ie, completed secondary education) and 17·3% (15·0-18·8) for children born to fathers with 12 years of education, compared with those born to a parent with no education. We also showed that a single additional year of schooling was, on average, associated with a reduction in under-5 mortality of 3·04% (2·82-3·23) for maternal education and 1·57% (1·35-1·72) for paternal education. The association between higher parental education and lower child mortality was significant for both parents at all ages studied and was largest after the first month of life. The meta-analysis framework incorporated uncertainty associated with each individual effect size into the model fitting process, in an effort to decrease the risk of bias introduced by study design and quality. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this study is the first effort to systematically quantify the transgenerational importance of education for child survival at the global level. The results showed that lower maternal and paternal education are both risk factors for child mortality, even after controlling for other markers of family socioeconomic status. This study provides robust evidence for universal quality education as a mechanism to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal target 3.2 of reducing neonatal and child mortality. FUNDING: Research Council of Norway, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and Rockefeller Foundation-Boston University Commission on Social Determinants, Data, and Decision Making (3-D Commission).


Subject(s)
Child Mortality/trends , Educational Status , Global Health , Parents , Child, Preschool , Fathers/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Social Class
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2124273, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409779

ABSTRACT

Importance: Early evidence shows a decrease in the number of US births during the COVID-19 pandemic, yet few studies have examined individual-level factors associated with pregnancy intention changes, especially among diverse study populations or in areas highly affected by COVID-19 in the US. Objective: To study changes in pregnancy intention following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and identify factors possibly associated with these changes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted among women who were currently pregnant or had delivered a live infant and responded to a survey emailed to 2603 women (n = 1560). Women who were mothers of young children enrolled in the prospective New York University Children's Health and Environment Study birth cohort were included; women who were not currently pregnant or recently postpartum were excluded. Exposures: Demographic, COVID-19-related, stress-related, and financial/occupational factors were assessed via a survey administered from April 20 to August 31, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pregnancy intentions before the COVID-19 pandemic and change in pregnancy intentions following the outbreak. Results: Of the 2603 women who were sent the survey, 1560 (59.9%) who were currently pregnant or had delivered a live infant responded, and 1179 women (75.6%) answered the pregnancy intention questions. Mean (SD) age was 32.2 (5.6) years. Following the outbreak, 30 of 61 (49.2%) women who had been actively trying to become pregnant had ceased trying, 71 of 191 (37.2%) women who had been planning to become pregnant were no longer planning, and 42 of 927 (4.5%) women who were neither planning nor trying were newly considering pregnancy. Among those who ceased trying, fewer than half (13 [43.3%]) thought they would resume after the pandemic. Of those pre-COVID-19 planners/triers who stopped considering or attempting pregnancy, a greater proportion had lower educational levels, although the difference was not statistically significant on multivariable analysis (odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% CI, 0.92-4.96). The same was true for those with higher stress levels (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.99-1.20) and those with greater financial insecurity (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.97-1.92. Those who stopped considering or attempting pregnancy were more likely to respond to the questionnaire during the peak of the outbreak (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.01-4.11). Of those pre-COVID-19 nonplanners/nontriers who reported newly thinking about becoming pregnant, a smaller proportion responded during the peak, although the finding was not statistically significant on multivariable analysis (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26-1.03). Likewise, fewer respondents who were financially insecure reported newly considering pregnancy, although the finding was not statistically significant (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.46-1.03). They were significantly less likely to be of Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 0.27; 955 CI, 0.10-0.71) and more likely to have fewer children in the home (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.98) or self-report a COVID-19 diagnosis (OR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.31-5.55). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of 1179 women who were mothers of young children in New York City, increased stress and financial insecurity owing to the COVID-19 pandemic paralleled a reduction in pregnancy intention in the early months of the pandemic, potentially exacerbating long-term decreases in the fertility rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Intention , Mothers/psychology , Pregnancy/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , New York City , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(10): 1339-1349, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352053

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy seriously hinders herd immunity. We explored the determinants of parental hesitancy to vaccinate children against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China.A population-based self-administered online questionnaire evaluating parental hesitancy in vaccinating their children against COVID-19 was conducted in Taizhou, China. Of the 2463 parents who received the invitation, 1788 (72.6%) responded to the survey.Of the repondents, 52.5% were hesitant. Mothers exhibited a greater proportion of vaccine hesitancy than fathers did (57.5% vs. 41.7%, P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that parents with children under 18 years of age (OR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.90-0.99), lower knowledge scores about COVID-19 vaccination (Q1: OR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.37-2.69; Q2: OR = 1.51, 95%CI: 1.10-2.08), lower awareness of the permission of vaccinating children (OR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.36-2.23) and hesitancy to inoculate themselves (OR = 8.18, 95%CI: 6.48-10.33) were associated with parental hesitancy to inoculate their children. Results also revealed the disparity between fathers and mothers regarding associated factors.This study found that a substantial proportion of parents reported being hesitant to vaccinate children against COVID-19, implying the necessity of comprehensive assessment and health education programs for vaccination systems in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fathers/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Child , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fathers/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
6.
Soc Work Public Health ; 36(6): 638-646, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307459

ABSTRACT

In the study, it was aimed to evaluate the problems and care burden of mothers who have a handicapped child in the pandemic process. The population of the descriptive study consisted of the mothers of the children who came to the rehabilitation center (n = 230), and the sampling consisted of the mothers who wanted to participate in the study (n = 216). The research data were collected through social media and the data were analyzed using the mean, standard deviation, percentage and frequency measurements, independent sample t test, Oneway anova, Kruskal wallis tests in the SPSS program. In the study, Burden Interview Scale (BIS) scores of the mothers who stated that the educational status of their child was adversely affected in the pandemic, stated that they were worried that there would be someone to take care of my child if I died, stated that the child's health checks were interrupted, stated that they did not send their child to school due to the fear of COVID-19, and reported that they had a problem in reaching the health institution was determined were significantly higher than. Mothers with handicapped children stated that their children experienced difficulties in important situations such as health checks and educations during the pandemic period. In addition, it was found that the care burden of these mothers was higher. During the pandemic period, it is necessary to make and support new regulations in accordance with the disability of these special children with state policies as well as healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregiver Burden , Disabled Children , Mothers , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregiver Burden/epidemiology , Child , Disabled Children/psychology , Disabled Children/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Mothers/psychology , Mothers/statistics & numerical data
7.
Can J Public Health ; 112(4): 595-598, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289327

ABSTRACT

Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life has become the global standard of infant feeding for its extensive benefits to maternal and infant health. Public health programs, such as the Baby-Friendly Initiative, have helped increase the national breastfeeding initiation rate to 90%. However, initiation rates in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) continue to rank the lowest in the country at 70%, with a 6-month exclusivity rate of 16%. This commentary will discuss the influence of geographical location, societal norms, and accessibility to health care services on breastfeeding in rural and remote NL communities. While the SARS-CoV-2 virus itself does not impact the mother's ability to breastfeed, the indirect impacts of COVID-19 on health care services, social isolation, and economic burden challenge breastfeeding initiation and continuation. Priority solutions will draw on capacity building by emphasizing relationships within the community to deliver innovative and appropriate support programs. Continued education with health practitioners and further research into breastfeeding barriers in rural communities is critical moving forward.


RéSUMé: L'allaitement maternel exclusif pendant les six premiers mois de la vie est devenu la norme mondiale de l'alimentation du nourrisson en raison de ses nombreux avantages pour la santé maternelle et infantile. Les programmes de santé publique, tels que le Baby Friendly Initiative, ont contribué à porter le taux national d'initiation à l'allaitement maternel à 90 %. Cependant, le taux d'initiation à Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador, à 70 %, se classe parmi les plus bas du pays, avec un taux d'exclusivité de 6 mois de 16 %. Ce commentaire discutera l'influence de la localisation géographique, des normes sociétales et de l'accessibilité des services de soins de santé sur l'allaitement maternel dans les communautés rurales et éloignées de Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador. Bien que le virus SRAS-CoV-2 lui-même n'empêche pas l'allaitement, les impacts indirects du COVID-19 sur les services de santé, l'isolement social et le fardeau économique compliquent l'initiation et la poursuite de l'allaitement. Les solutions s'appuieront sur le renforcement des capacités en mettant l'accent sur les relations au sein de la communauté pour offrir des programmes de soutien innovants et appropriés. La formation continue des praticiens de la santé et des recherches supplémentaires sur les obstacles à l'allaitement dans les communautés rurales sont essentielles pour aller de l'avant.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mothers/psychology , Rural Health Services/organization & administration , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Newfoundland and Labrador/epidemiology
8.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(8): e1068-e1076, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health have been understudied among vulnerable populations, particularly in fragile and conflict-affected settings. We aimed to analyse how the pandemic is related to early changes in mental health and parenting stress among caregivers, many of whom are internally displaced persons (IDP), in a conflict-affected setting in Colombia. METHODS: For this cohort study, we used longitudinal data from a psychosocial support programme in which 1376 caregivers were randomly assigned across four sequential cohorts. Recruitment of participants took place in March, 2018, for cohort 1; July, 2018, for cohort 2; March, 2019, for cohort 3; and July, 2019, for cohort 4. Participants completed assessments at baseline, 1-month, and 8-month follow-ups. The 8-month assessment occurred before the COVID-19 pandemic for participants in cohorts 1 and 2 (n=573), whereas those in cohorts 3 and 4 (n=803) were assessed during the early stages of the pandemic, 2-5 weeks after the national lockdown began on March 25, 2020. Primary caregiver anxiety and depression were measured with a scale adapted from the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised and parenting stress was measured with the short form of the Parenting Stress Index. We estimated how mental health changed by comparing prepandemic and postpandemic 8-month outcomes using lagged-dependent variable models. FINDINGS: Results showed that the likelihood of reporting symptoms above the risk threshold increased by 14 percentage points for anxiety (95% CI 10-17), 5 percentage points for depression (0·5-9), and 10 percentage points for parental stress (5-15). The deterioration in mental health was stronger for IDP, participants with lower education or pre-existing mental health conditions, and for those reporting a higher number of stressors, including food insecurity and job loss. INTERPRETATION: Maternal mental health significantly worsened during the early stages of the pandemic. Considering the vulnerability and pre-existing mental health conditions of this population, the estimated effects are substantial. Policies in fragile and conflict-affected settings targeting IDP and other vulnerable people will be important to mitigate further mental health and socioeconomic problems. FUNDING: Saving Brains-Grand Challenges Canada, Fundación Éxito, Fundación FEMSA, United Way Colombia, Universidad de los Andes. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Maternal Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Adult , Armed Conflicts , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Vulnerable Populations
9.
Can J Public Health ; 112(4): 599-619, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239229

ABSTRACT

SETTING: This knowledge mobilization project was conceptualized to increase awareness among breastfeeding mothers and the general public on safe infant feeding practices during the COVID-19 pandemic by addressing myths and misconceptions associated with breastfeeding practices, guiding breastfeeding mothers to make informed decisions around child feeding practices, and offering meaningful guidance in simple language through a short online animated video. INTERVENTION: This project was undertaken in four phases. During phase 1, an informal discussion was held with the breastfeeding mothers, service providers, and community partner in identifying issues surrounding lactation counselling facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. During phase 2, recommendations from 23 organizations with regard to breastfeeding during COVID-19 were reviewed and analyzed. During phase 3, using evidence from reliable sources, a 5-minute animated e-resource on breastfeeding during COVID-19 was conceptualized and developed. During phase 4, the e-resource was disseminated to the breastfeeding mothers, general public, post-secondary institutions, and organizations providing services to breastfeeding mothers in Canada. OUTCOMES: This evidence-based e-resource facilitated addressing misconceptions around breastfeeding during COVID-19 and raising public awareness on safe infant feeding practices during this pandemic. Overall, the video was described as an informative, user-friendly, useful, and easily accessible resource by breastfeeding mothers who were in self-isolation with little access to healthcare services during the pandemic. IMPLICATIONS: This project highlighted the importance of patient engagement and collaboration with the community partner in protecting breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. It further illustrated how informational e-resources can protect breastfeeding in situations where breastfeeding mothers' access to healthcare services is compromised.


RéSUMé: LIEU: Notre projet de mobilisation des connaissances vise à sensibiliser les mères allaitantes et le grand public aux pratiques d'alimentation sûres pour les nourrissons durant la pandémie de COVID-19 en abordant les mythes et les idées fausses associés aux pratiques d'allaitement maternel, en aidant les mères allaitantes à prendre des décisions éclairées quant aux pratiques d'alimentation des bébés et en offrant des conseils utiles, en langage simple, dans une courte vidéo animée accessible en ligne. INTERVENTION: Le projet a été mené en quatre phases. Pendant la phase 1, nous avons eu une discussion informelle avec les mères allaitantes, les dispensateurs de services et le  partenaire associatif pour définir les problèmes entourant les services-conseils sur la lactation durant la pandémie de COVID-19. Pendant la phase 2, nous avons vu et analysé les recommandations de 23 organismes concernant l'allaitement durant la COVID-19. Pendant la phase 3, à l'aide de données probantes provenant de sources fiables, nous avons conceptualisé et créé une cyberressource animée de cinq minutes sur l'allaitement durant la COVID-19. Pendant la phase 4, nous avons diffusé cette cyberressource aux mères allaitantes, au grand public, à des établissements d'enseignement postsecondaires et à des organismes de services aux mères allaitantes au Canada. RéSULTATS: Cette cyberressource factuelle a permis d'aborder plus facilement les idées fausses entourant l'allaitement durant la COVID-19 et de sensibiliser le public aux pratiques sûres d'alimentation des nourrissons durant la pandémie. Dans l'ensemble, des mères allaitantes en isolement, qui avaient peu accès aux services de soins de santé durant la pandémie, ont trouvé notre vidéo informative, conviviale, utile et facilement accessible. CONSéQUENCES: Ce projet souligne l'importance du contact avec la patiente et de la collaboration avec le partenaire associatif pour protéger l'allaitement maternel durant la pandémie. Il montre aussi que des ressources informationnelles accessibles en ligne peuvent protéger l'allaitement dans les situations où les mères allaitantes ont moins accès aux services de soins de santé.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Education/methods , Mothers/education , Mothers/psychology , Adult , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mothers/statistics & numerical data
10.
PLoS Biol ; 19(3): e3001100, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125719

ABSTRACT

The issues facing academic mothers have been discussed for decades. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is further exposing these inequalities as womxn scientists who are parenting while also engaging in a combination of academic related duties are falling behind. These inequities can be solved by investing strategically in solutions. Here we describe strategies that would ensure a more equitable academy for working mothers now and in the future. While the data are clear that mothers are being disproportionately impacted by COVID-19, many groups could benefit from these strategies. Rather than rebuilding what we once knew, let us be the architects of a new world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Sexism/statistics & numerical data , Teaching/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Mothers/psychology , Parenting/psychology , Parenting/trends , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sexism/psychology , Sexism/trends
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 299, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115558

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: the implementation of neonatal screening to identify infants with sickle cell disease during the COVID-19 pandemic is a major challenge in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The purpose of this study is to determine whether socio-economic factors are associated with acceptability of newborn screening to identify infants with sickle cell disease during the COVID-19 pandemic in Kisangani, DRC. METHODS: we conducted an observational study of mothers sensitized to neonatal screening to detect sickle cell disease in their newborns with hemotypeSCTM (HT401RUO-USA). The study was carried out at the maternity wards in Kisangani from March 21st to June 30th 2020. Collected data were parity, educational level, age, socio-economic level, occupation, awareness and the reason for the denial of screening. RESULTS: out of 55.5% (273/492) of sensitized mothers, 107 (39.19%) accepted and 166 (60.80%) refused neonatal screening to detect sickle cell disease in their newborn. The reasons for refusal were lack of information (67.5%; 95% CI [59.8-74.5]), lack of money due to confinement (66.3%; 95% CI [58.5-73.4]), blood test to develop a vaccine for protection against COVID-19 (63.2%; 95% CI = [55.4-70.6]). Factors associated with the acceptability of screening were age > 35 years (p = 0.0009; ORa = 3.04; 95% CI = 1.57-5.87) and low socio-economic level (p = 0.0016; ORa = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.37-3.85). CONCLUSION: the acceptability of neonatal screening to detect sickle cell disease during COVID-19 is low in Kisangani. The government should identify effective communication channels to promote health care initiatives.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Neonatal Screening/methods , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Communication , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Treatment Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
12.
Sleep Health ; 7(1): 19-23, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111852

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study longitudinally compared the sleep of infants in the United States whose mothers were in home confinement to those whose mothers were working as usual throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Mothers of 572 infants (46% girls) aged 1-12 months (M = 5.9, standard deviation = 2.9) participated. Assessments were conducted on 4 occasions from late March to May 2020. Infant sleep was measured objectively using auto-videosomnography. Mothers reported their sheltering status, demographic characteristics, and infant sleep. RESULTS: Infants of mothers in home confinement had later sleep offset times and longer nighttime sleep durations, compared to infants of mothers who were working as usual. At the end of March, these infants also had earlier bedtimes, more nighttime awakenings, and more parental nighttime visits, but differences were not apparent during April and May. CONCLUSIONS: Living restrictions issued in the United States may have led to longer sleep durations and temporary delays in sleep consolidation for infants of mothers in home confinement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Sleep , Women, Working/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(2): 197-211, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111293

ABSTRACT

With the development of multiple effective vaccines, reducing the global morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 will depend on the distribution and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. Estimates of global vaccine acceptance among pregnant women and mothers of young children are yet unknown. An understanding of the challenges and correlates to vaccine acceptance will aid the acceleration of vaccine administration within these populations. Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 18-years-old, as well as potential predictors, were assessed through an online survey, administered by Pregistry between October 28 and November 18, 2020. 17,871 total survey responses from 16 countries were obtained. Given a 90% COVID-19 vaccine efficacy, 52.0% of pregnant women (n = 2747/5282) and 73.4% of non-pregnant women (n = 9214/12,562) indicated an intention to receive the vaccine. 69.2% of women (n = 11,800/17,054), both pregnant and non-pregnant, indicated an intention to vaccinate their children. Vaccine acceptance was generally highest in India, the Philippines, and all sampled countries in Latin America; it was lowest in Russia, the United States and Australia. The strongest predictors of vaccine acceptance included confidence in vaccine safety or effectiveness, worrying about COVID-19, belief in the importance of vaccines to their own country, compliance to mask guidelines, trust of public health agencies/health science, as well as attitudes towards routine vaccines. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and its predictors among women vary globally. Vaccination campaigns for women and children should be specific for each country in order to attain the largest impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Intention , Internationality , Middle Aged , Mothers/psychology , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(3): 260-266, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962133

ABSTRACT

Importance: The management of mother-infant dyads during the ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic constitutes a major issue for neonatologists. In mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection, current recommendations suggest either to separate the dyad or encourage protected rooming-in under appropriate precautions. No data are available regarding the risk of mother-to-infant transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during rooming-in. Objective: To evaluate the risk of postnatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infected mothers to their neonates following rooming-in and breastfeeding. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective, multicenter study enrolling mother-infant dyads from March 19 to May 2, 2020, followed up for 20 days of life (range, 18-22 days), was performed. The study was conducted at 6 coronavirus disease 2019 maternity centers in Lombardy, Northern Italy. Participants included 62 neonates born to 61 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection who were eligible for rooming-in practice based on the clinical condition of the mother and infants whose results of nasopharyngeal swabs were negative at birth. Exposures: Mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection were encouraged to practice rooming-in and breastfeeding under a standardized protocol to minimize the risk of viral transmission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical characteristics and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 on neonatal nasopharyngeal swabs at 0, 7, and 20 days of life. Results: Of the 62 neonates enrolled (25 boys), born to 61 mothers (median age, 32 years; interquartile range, 28-36 years), only 1 infant (1.6%; 95% CI, 0%-8.7%) was diagnosed as having SARS-CoV-2 infection at postbirth checks. In that case, rooming-in was interrupted on day 5 of life because of severe worsening of the mother's clinical condition. The neonate became positive for the virus on day 7 of life and developed transient mild dyspnea. Ninety-five percent of the neonates enrolled were breastfed. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study provide evidence-based information on the management of mother-infant dyads in case of SARS-CoV-2 maternal infection suggesting that rooming-in and breastfeeding can be practiced in women who are able to care for their infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/enzymology , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Public Health ; 8: 587833, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961668

ABSTRACT

The present study focused on the psychological impact that the lockdown due to coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) had on families in Italy. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Italian government imposed a strict lockdown for all citizens. People were forced to stay at home, and the length of the lockdown was uncertain. Previous studies analyzed the impact of social distance measures on individuals' mental health, whereas few studies have examined the interplay between the adults' functioning, as parents, during this period and the association with the child's adjustment. The present study tested if maternal distress/coping predicts children's behaviors during the COVID-19 lockdown, hypothesizing a mediation effect via children's emotional experience. Participants were 144 mothers (M age = 39.3, 25-52, SD = 5.6) with children aged 5-10 years (M age = 7.54, SD = 1.6, 82 boys); mothers answered to an online survey. Results indicated that mothers with higher exposure to COVID-19 showed higher levels of distress and higher display of coping attitudes, even if in the structural equation modeling model, the COVID-19 exposure was not a predictor of mothers' distress. Compared with mothers with good coping skills, mothers with higher stress levels were more likely to attribute negative emotions to their children at the expense of their positive emotions. Moreover, children's emotions acted as mediators between maternal distress/coping and children's adaptive/maladaptive behaviors. In conclusion, it is important to support parents during pandemic emergence, by providing them with adequate information to manage the relationship with their children, to reduce their level of distress and to enhance their coping abilities.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(1): 15-21, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947046

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To advocate perspectives to strengthen existing healthcare systems to prioritize maternal health services amidst and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic in low- and middle income countries. DESCRIPTION: COVID-19 directly affects pregnant women causing more severe disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The indirect effects due to the monumental COVID-19 response are much worse, increasing maternal and neonatal mortality. ASSESSMENT: Amidst COVID-19, governments must balance effective COVID-19 response measures while continuing delivery of essential health services. Using the World Health Organization's operational guidelines as a base, countries must conduct contextualized analyses to tailor their operations. Evidence based information on different services and comparative cost-benefits will help decisions on trade-offs. Situational analyses identifying extent and reasons for service disruptions and estimates of impacts using modelling techniques will guide prioritization of services. Ensuring adequate supplies, maintaining core interventions, expanding non-physician workforce and deploying telehealth are some adaptive measures to optimize care. Beyond the COVID-19 pandemic, governments must reinvest in maternal and child health by building more resilient maternal health services supported by political commitment and multisectoral engagement, and with assistance from international partners. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-sectoral investments providing high-quality care that ensures continuity and available to all segments of the population are needed. A robust primary healthcare system linked to specialist care and accessible to all segments of the population including marginalized subgroups is of paramount importance. Systematic approaches to digital health care solutions to bridge gaps in service is imperative. Future pandemic preparedness programs must include action plans for resilient maternal health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Health Services/organization & administration , Mothers/psychology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Female , Humans , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 82, 2020 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-757073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is disrupting normal life globally, every area of life is touched. The pandemic demands quick action and as new information emerges, reliable synthesises and guidelines for care are urgently needed. Breastfeeding protects mother and child; its health benefits are undisputed and based on evidence. To plan and support breastfeeding within the current pandemic, two areas need to be understood: 1) the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 as it applies to breastfeeding and 2) the protective properties of breastfeeding, including the practice of skin-to-skin care. This review aims to summarise how to manage breastfeeding during COVID-19. The summary was used to create guidelines for healthcare professionals and mothers. METHODS: Current publications on breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic were reviewed to inform guidelines for clinical practice. RESULTS: Current evidence states that the Coronavirus is not transmitted via breastmilk. Breastfeeding benefits outweigh possible risks during the COVID-19 pandemic and may even protect the infant and mother. General infection control measures should be in place and adhered to very strictly. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding should be encouraged, mothers and infant dyads should be cared for together, and skin-to-skin contact ensured throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. If mothers are too ill to breastfeed, they should still be supported to express their milk, and the infant should be fed by a healthy individual. Guidelines, based on this current evidence, were produced and can be distributed to health care facilities where accessible information is needed.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Milk, Human/chemistry , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 30(9): 1401-1412, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737902

ABSTRACT

Italy has been the first nation outside of Asia to face the COVID-19 outbreak. To limit viral transmission of infection, by March 10th, 2020, the Italian Government has ordered a national lockdown, which established home confinement, home (smart) working, and temporary closure of non-essential businesses and schools. The present study investigated how these restrictive measures impacted mothers and their pre-school children's behavioral habits (i.e., sleep timing and quality, subjective time experience) and psychological well-being (i.e., emotion regulation, self-regulation capacity). An online survey was administered to 245 mothers with pre-school children (from 2 to 5 years). Mothers were asked to fill the survey thinking both on their habits, behaviors, and emotions and on those of their children during the quarantine, and retrospectively, before the national lockdown (i.e., in late February). A general worsening of sleep quality and distortion of time experience in both mothers and children, as well as increasing emotional symptoms and self-regulation difficulties in children, was observed. Moreover, even when the interplay between the behavioral and psychological factors was investigated, the factor that seems to mostly impact both mothers' and children's psychological well-being was their sleep quality. Overall, central institutions urgently need to implementing special programs for families, including not only psychological support to sustain families with working parents and ameliorating children's management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Behavior , Communicable Disease Control , Mothers , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child Behavior/psychology , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mothers/psychology , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Perception
19.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(11): e1380-e1389, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stay-at-home orders (lockdowns) have been deployed globally to control COVID-19 transmission, and might impair economic conditions and mental health, and exacerbate risk of food insecurity and intimate partner violence. The effect of lockdowns in low-income and middle-income countries must be understood to ensure safe deployment of these interventions in less affluent settings. We aimed to determine the immediate impact of COVID-19 lockdown orders on women and their families in rural Bangladesh. METHODS: An interrupted time series was used to compare data collected from families in Rupganj upazila, rural Bangladesh (randomly selected from participants in a randomised controlled trial), on income, food security, and mental health a median of 1 year and 2 years before the COVID-19 pandemic to data collected during the lockdown. We also assessed women's experiences of intimate partner violence during the pandemic. RESULTS: Between May 19 and June 18, 2020, we randomly selected and invited the mothers of 3016 children to participate in the study, 2424 of whom provided consent. 2414 (99·9%, 95% CI 99·6-99·9) of 2417 mothers were aware of, and adhering to, the stay-at-home advice. 2321 (96·0%, 95·2-96·7) of 2417 mothers reported a reduction in paid work for the family. Median monthly family income fell from US$212 at baseline to $59 during lockdown, and the proportion of families earning less than $1·90 per day rose from five (0·2%, 0·0-0·5) of 2422 to 992 (47·3%, 45·2-49·5) of 2096 (p<0·0001 comparing baseline with lockdown period). Before the pandemic, 136 (5·6%, 4·7-6·6) of 2420 and 65 (2·7%, 2·1-3·4) of 2420 families experienced moderate and severe food insecurity, respectively. This increased to 881 (36·5%, 34·5-38·4) of 2417 and 371 (15·3%, 13·9-16·8) of 2417 during the lockdown; the number of families experiencing any level of food insecurity increased by 51·7% (48·1-55·4; p<0·0001). Mothers' depression and anxiety symptoms increased during the lockdown. Among women experiencing emotional or moderate physical violence, over half reported it had increased since the lockdown. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 lockdowns present significant economic, psychosocial, and physical risks to the wellbeing of women and their families across economic strata in rural Bangladesh. Beyond supporting only the most socioeconomically deprived, support is needed for all affected families. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Income/statistics & numerical data , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Family , Female , Humans , Infant , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Mothers/psychology , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
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