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4.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 141, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the combination of systemic and targeted chemotherapies is associated with severe adverse side effects and long-term health complications, there is interest in reducing treatment intensity for patients with early-stage breast cancer (EBC). Clinical trials are needed to determine the feasibility of reducing treatment intensity while maintaining 3-year recurrence-free survival of greater than 92%. To recruit participants for these trials, it is important to understand patient perspectives on reducing chemotherapy. METHODS: We collected qualitative interview data from twenty-four patients with Stage II-III breast cancer and sixteen patient advocates. Interviews explored potential barriers and facilitators to participation in trials testing reduced amounts of chemotherapy. As the COVID-19 pandemic struck during data collection, seventeen participants were asked about the potential impact of COVID-19 on their interest in these trials. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed, and researchers used qualitative content analysis to code for dominant themes. RESULTS: Seventeen participants (42.5%) expressed interest in participating in a trial of reduced chemotherapy. Barriers to reducing chemotherapy included (1) fear of recurrence and inefficacy, (2) preference for aggressive treatment, (3) disinterest in clinical trials, (4) lack of information about expected outcomes, (5) fear of regret, and (6) having young children. Facilitators included (1) avoiding physical toxicity, (2) understanding the scientific rationale of reducing chemotherapy, (3) confidence in providers, (4) consistent monitoring and the option to increase dosage, (5) fewer financial and logistical challenges, and (6) contributing to scientific knowledge. Of those asked, nearly all participants said they would be more motivated to reduce treatment intensity in the context of COVID-19, primarily to avoid exposure to the virus while receiving treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with EBC, there is significant interest in alleviating treatment-related toxicity by reducing chemotherapeutic intensity. Patients will be more apt to participate in trials testing reduced amounts of chemotherapy if these are framed in terms of customizing treatment to the individual patient and added benefit-reduced toxicities, higher quality of life during treatment and lower risk of long-term complications-rather than in terms of taking treatments away or doing less than the standard of care. Doctor-patient rapport and provider support will be crucial in this process.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , Patient Advocacy/psychology , Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Decision Making , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Middle Aged , Motivation , Qualitative Research , Quality of Life
6.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e297, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133028

ABSTRACT

In addition to satisfying a predisposition for exploration, fiction with imaginary worlds may also appeal to morbid curiosity, an adaptive motivation to seek out information about dangerous situations. Most imaginary worlds contain narrative elements of danger, and immersion in such worlds may provide people with information that would be costly to acquire in the real world.


Subject(s)
Exploratory Behavior , Learning , Humans , Motivation
7.
J Surg Educ ; 79(6): e61-e68, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131717

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has played a lasting role on residency recruitment through the virtual interview process. The objective of this study was to 1) examine general surgery applicants' priorities and perceptions following pre-interview virtual open houses and 2) to assess applicant expectations and efficacy of the virtual interview day process. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: This study utilized two voluntary and anonymous cross-sectional surveys administered via email to evaluate the virtual interview process of a general surgery residency program. The first was administered to registrants following completion of three open houses of various topics. The second was administered following each interview day. The post-open house survey had 78 respondents, two excluded for no open house attendance. The post-interview survey was completed by 44 applicants (62.9% response rate). RESULTS: Majority of respondents reported that attending virtual open houses made them want to apply to (90.9%) and improved their perception of the program (94.7%). Applicants who felt a sense of obligation to attend open houses (68.4%) were significantly more likely to feel that they contributed to the stress and time commitment of applications (81.8% vs 18.2%, p=0.028). Interview expectations were identified in recurrent themes: 1. Clear organization with breaks, 2. Interactive resident sessions, 3. Meetings with program leadership, 4. Additional information unavailable on other resources. The pre-interview social and interview day improved 90.2% of the applicants' perceptions of the program. The interview significantly improved applicants' ability to assess nearly all aspects of the program, notably resident camaraderie and culture (30.8% vs 97.4%, p=0.01) and strengths and weaknesses (30.8% vs 92.3%, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: While virtual open houses can improve applicants' perceptions and desire to apply to a program, the associated stress and obligation should be considered. Virtual interviews should provide information unavailable using other resources and provide avenues for conveying the resident culture and camaraderie.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Motivation , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143133

ABSTRACT

Depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) among adolescents have become a public health concern. The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and measure an IMB-based health education intervention module for reducing DAS among adolescents in boarding schools in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. A single-blinded cluster randomised control trial (RCT) was conducted among students with abnormal DASS-21 scores. They were divided into an intervention group (three schools, 62 participants) and a control group (three schools, 57 participants). Participants in the intervention group received IMB-based health education, while participants in the control group underwent the standard care session. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, the Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) analysis was conducted. A total of 119 students participated in this study, and no loss to follow-up was reported. Both intervention and control groups showed significantly reduced DAS scores (p < 0.005). However, the reduction of these scores was greater in the intervention group. The GLMM analysis revealed that the intervention was effective in reducing depression (ß = -2.400, t = -3.102, SE = 0.7735, p = 0.002, 95% CI = -3.921, -0.878), anxiety (ß = -2.129, t = -2.824, SE = 0.7541, p = 0.005, 95% CI = -3.612, -0.646), and stress (ß = -1.335, t = -2.457, SE = 0.536, p = 0.015, 95% CI = -2.045, -0.266) among adolescents. The IMB-based health education module was effective in reducing DAS among adolescents in boarding schools.


Subject(s)
Depression , Motivation , Humans , Adolescent , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Schools , Health Education , Anxiety/prevention & control
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142782

ABSTRACT

Research indicates that while nurses are aware of the benefits of physical activity (PA), their adherence to PA is low. The results of workplace interventions that increase PA are inconsistent. The study aim was identification the sociodemographic, professional, and incentive factors influencing nurses' PA and investigation its relationship with the level of PA that they report. This study was based on observational cross-sectional research conducted among professionally active nurses working in a clinical setting (n = 350). The self-reported questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and employment data and motivators and barriers of participating in PA. The level of PA was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The analysis revealed significant differences in the Total Physical Activity Score (TPAS) depending on the variables related to professional activity (working in a management position: p = 0.015; workplace: p = 0.01; shift type: p ≤ 0.002). Cluster analysis revealed that the most important statement in the group division about motivation was fear of the pain occurring after exercise. Nurses who were more motivated to be active showed a higher level of leisure-time PA than less motivated nurses. The recommendation of PA in the nursing population should be focused on increasing the leisure time PA, ensuring the appropriate time to recovery, and compliance with the principles of work ergonomics to prevent musculoskeletal disorders.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Motivation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace
10.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 261, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116844

ABSTRACT

The aims explored the associations between stress, personality and coping on student mental health and compared defensive-pessimism and optimism as influences on learning motivation. Most research construes 'stress' as 'distress', with little attempt to measure the stress that enhances motivation and wellbeing. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 162) were surveyed on student and pandemic-related stressors, personality, support, control, mental health and learning motivation. Overall, adverse mental health was high and the lack of motivation acute. While positive ratings of teaching and optimistic thinking were associated with good mental health, context control was key. Adverse ratings of teaching quality lowered learning motivation. Support and conscientiousness bolstered learning motivation and conscientiousness buffered against the adverse impact of stress on motivation. Openness was associated with the stress involved in learning. For those anxious-prone, defensive-pessimism was as effective as optimism was in stimulating learning motivation. Developing context control, support and strategies linked to personality could bolster student resilience during and post Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Humans , Universities , Mental Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Personality , Adaptation, Psychological , Students/psychology
11.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1616-1625, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109348

ABSTRACT

Many low-income Americans experience food insecurity, which may have been exacerbated by economic instability during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. In this study we assessed the impact of Healthy Helping, a short-term fruit and vegetable incentive program aimed at alleviating food insecurity and improving diet quality for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants, on grocery purchases, using transaction data from a large supermarket chain in North Carolina. We compared Healthy Helping participants' purchases of key food groups before and during the program with purchases by control shoppers participating in federal food assistance programs during the same period. Healthy Helping enrollment was associated with a $26.95 increase in monthly spending on fruit, vegetables, nuts, and legumes-an increase of 2.5 grams of fiber per 1,000 kilocalories purchased-and other shifts in the composition of food purchases, relative to control shoppers. These findings suggest that the program increased healthy food purchases while also increasing dollar sales at participating retailers. On average, participants did not use the full benefit; future research should explore factors associated with non- or underuse of benefits, to inform program design and outreach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Humans , Motivation , North Carolina , Pandemics , Vegetables , Fruit , Food Supply
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110080

ABSTRACT

This paper elucidates the relationship between possible changes in volunteering experienced by older people during the COVID-19 pandemic, and their motivation to volunteer, as well as the direct or indirect experience of COVID-19 symptoms. Given the well-known positive benefits of volunteering in older age both for individuals (in terms of improved health and wellbeing) and society at large, there is a paucity of studies on older volunteers in the time of COVID-19. In this context, older people's volunteering was highly challenged due to age-based physical and social restrictions put in place by national governments, which have been considered as ageist by a large part of the gerontological scientific community. This study was carried out on a sample of 240 Italian older volunteers. The results suggest that during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially older volunteers driven by social goals (e.g., opportunities to have relationships with others) were able to continue volunteer activities without needing to change them. The study also clarified that having directly or indirectly experienced COVID-19 symptoms did not influence changes in voluntary activities of older people. These results have important policy implications, given the indication that through volunteering, older individuals may try to counter the undesired calls by the governments for self-isolation and physical distancing. It is important that in emergency situations involving older people, policy makers should not treat them as only recipients of health and social care, but also as useful providers of help in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , Volunteers
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disastrous impacts that impose the cultivation of knowledge and motivation of self-protection to foster disease containment. AIM: Evaluate the effect of digital self-learned educational intervention about COVID-19 using the protection motivation theory (PMT) on non-health students' knowledge and self-protective behaviors at Saudi Electronic University (SEU). METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was accomplished at three randomly chosen branches of SEU (Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah) using a multistage sampling technique to conveniently select 219 students. An electronic self-administered questionnaire was used, which included three scales for assessing the students' knowledge, self-protective behaviors, and the constructs of the PMT. The educational intervention was designed using four stages: need assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. A peer-reviewed digital educational content was developed after assessing the participants' educational needs using the pretest. Then, distributed through their university emails. A weekly synchronous Zoom cloud meeting and daily key health messages were shared with them. Finally, the post-test was conducted after two months. RESULTS: The mean participants' age (SD) among the experimental group was 28.94 (6.719), and the control group was 27.80 (7.256), with a high female percentage (63.4%, 73.8%) and a previous history of direct contact with verified COVID-19 patients (78.6%, 69.2%), respectively. A significant positive mean change (p = 0.000) was detected in the total COVID-19 knowledge of the experimental group post-intervention, either when it was adjusted for the covariates effect of the control group (F1 = 630.547) or the pretest (F1 = 8.585) with a large effect size (η2 = 0.745, η2 = 0.268, respectively). The same was proved by the ANCOVA test for the total self-protective behaviors either when it adjusted for the covariates effect of the control group (F1 = 66.671, p = 0.000) or the pretest (F1 = 5.873, p = 0.020) with a large effect size (η2 = 0.236, η2 = 0.164, respectively). The ANCOVA test proved that post-intervention, all the PMT constructs (perceived threats, reward appraisal, efficacy appraisal, response cost, and protection intention) and the total PMT score were significantly improved (p = 0.000) among the experimental group either when adjusted for the covariates effect of the control group (F1 = 83.835) or the pretest (F1 = 11.658) with a large effect size (η2 = 0.280, η2 = 0.561, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The digital PMT-based self-learned educational intervention effectively boosts non-health university students' COVID-19 knowledge, protection motivation, and self-protective behaviors. Thus, PMT is highly praised as a basis for COVID-19-related educational intervention and, on similar occasions, future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Humans , Female , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Self Efficacy , Students , Electronics
14.
WHO South East Asia J Public Health ; 11(1): 32-41, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100053

ABSTRACT

Context: Self-protective behavior (SPB) plays a significant role in controlling the spread of infection of a pandemic like coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Little research has been conducted to examine critical factors influencing SPB, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh. Aims: This study aimed to develop and test a theoretical model based on the extended information-motivation-behavior (IMB) skills model to investigate factors associated with SPB among Bangladeshi people. Methods: An online, cross-sectional survey was conducted on Bangladesh citizens (18 years and older) from June 1 and July 31, 2020. A total of 459 responses were used to assess the proposed model's overall fit and test the hypothesized relationships among the model constructs. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling to identify relationships among model variables. Results: Health information-seeking behavior, health motivation, self-efficacy, and health consciousness (HC) (P < 0.05) had a significant impact on SPB among Bangladeshi people. The results identified the consequences of various degrees of HC on SPB in the COVID-19 outbreak. Conclusions: This study confirms the IMB model's applicability for analyzing SPB among people in developing countries like Bangladesh. The findings of this study could guide policymakers to develop and implement targeted strategies to ensure timely and transparent information for motivating people to improve SPB during the COVID-19 and in case of a future outbreak of an epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Motivation
15.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275823, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098747

ABSTRACT

In human challenge trials (HCTs), volunteers are deliberately infected with an infectious agent. Such trials can be used to accelerate vaccine development and answer important scientific questions. Starting early in the COVID-19 pandemic, ethical concerns were raised about using HCTs to accelerate development and approval of a vaccine. Some of those concerns pertained to potential exploitation of and/or lack of truly informed consent from volunteers. Specific areas of concern arose around individuals who may be unusually risk-seeking or too economically vulnerable to refuse the payments these trials provide, as opposed to being motivated primarily by altruistic goals. This pre-registered study is the first large-scale survey to characterize people who, early in the pandemic, expressed interest and intention to volunteer to participate in COVID-19 HCTs. We found that individuals expressing interest in SARS-CoV-2 HCTs exhibit consistently altruistic motivations without any special indication of poor risk perception or economic vulnerability. In finding that, early in the pandemic, COVID-19 HCTs were able to attract volunteers whose values align with the nature of these trials, and who are not unusually vulnerable to exploitation, this study may allay some ethical concerns about the volunteers interested in participating in such trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Motivation , Volunteers
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062092, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097986

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The community group Brown Buttabean Motivation (BBM) initially began to assist Auckland Pasifika and Maori to manage weight problems, predominantly through community-based exercise sessions and social support. BBM's activities expanded over time to include many other components of healthy living in response to community need. With advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, BBM outreach grew to include a foodbank distributing an increasing amount of donated healthy food to families in need, a community kitchen and influenza and COVID-19 vaccine drives. A strong social media presence has served as the main means of communication with the BBM community as well as use of traditional news media (written, radio, television) to further engage with vulnerable members of the community. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study aims to conduct mixed method process evaluation of BBM's community engagement through in-person, social and news media outreach activities with respect to the health and well-being of Pasifika and Maori over time. The project is informed by theoretical constructs including Pacific Fa'afaletui and Fonofale and Maori Te Whare Tapa Wha Maori research frameworks and principles of Kaupapa Maori. It is further framed using the concept of community-driven diffusion of knowledge and engagement through social networks. Data sources include in-person community engagement databases, social and news media outreach data from archived documents and online resources. Empirical data will undergo longitudinal and time series statistical analyses. Qualitative text thematic analyses will be conducted using the software NVivo, Leximancer and AntConc. Image and video visual data will be randomly sampled from two social media platforms. The social media dataset contains almost 8000 visual artefacts. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval obtained from University of Auckland Human Participants Ethics Committee UAHPEC 23456. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed publications, disseminated through community meetings and conferences and via BBM social network platforms. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN 12621 00093 1875.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Motivation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18132, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096795

ABSTRACT

In September 2021 we conducted a survey to 1482 people in Italy, when the vaccination campaign against Covid19 was going on. In the first part of the survey we run three simple tests on players' behavior in standard tasks with monetary incentives to measure their risk attitudes, willingness to contribute to a public good in an experimental game, and their beliefs about others' behavior. In the second part, we asked respondents if they were vaccinated and, if not, for what reason. We classified as no-vaxxers those (around [Formula: see text] of the sample) who did not yet start the vaccination process and declared that they intended not to do it in the future. We find that no-vaxxers contribute less to the public good in the experimental game because they trust others less to do so. from the three tests we extrapolated a classification based on the benchmark of rationality and other-regarding preferences for each respondent, and we found that in this respect no-vaxxers do not differ from the rest of the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Game Theory , Humans , Trust , Vaccination , Motivation
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1963, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low engagement in contact tracing for COVID-19 dramatically reduces its impact, but little is known about how experiences, environments and characteristics of cases and contacts influence engagement. METHODS: We recruited a convenience sample of COVID-19 cases and contacts from the New Haven Health Department's contact tracing program for interviews about their contact tracing experiences. We analyzed transcripts thematically, organized themes using the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, Behavior (COM-B) model, and identified candidate interventions using the linked Behavior Change Wheel Framework. RESULTS: We interviewed 21 cases and 12 contacts. Many felt physically or psychologically incapable of contact tracing participation due to symptoms or uncertainty about protocols. Environmental factors and social contacts also influenced engagement. Finally, physical symptoms, emotions and low trust in and expectations of public health authorities influenced motivation to participate. CONCLUSION: To improve contact tracing uptake, programs should respond to clients' physical and emotional needs; increase clarity of public communications; address structural and social factors that shape behaviors and opportunities; and establish and maintain trust. We identify multiple potential interventions that may help achieve these goals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Humans , Contact Tracing/methods , Qualitative Research , Public Health , Motivation
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082334

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has limited human freedom in many areas. Developing a COVID-19 vaccine has been a key task to contain the spread of the virus. In many countries, there is increasing concern about anti-vaccines due to complications after receiving the vaccine. The research problem concerns the opinions of Polish and Palestinian students after receiving vaccinations against COVID-19. This study involved 657 respondents (332 from Poland and 325 from Palestine) who completed the original questionnaire online. The respondents present two different cultures, embedded in different existential conditions, also in terms of health care, and especially the availability of vaccines. The obtained data indicate that almost 50% of research participants from both countries believe that vaccines are an effective antidote to the pandemic situation. Respondents in both populations believed that it was their personal choice to undergo vaccinations. The social motivation for vaccination in both groups was the desire to participate in public life, and the possibility of free travel for Poles, and the fear of infecting other people for Palestinians. The most common side effect reported after vaccination was pain at the site of the infection. Medical assistance was more often sought by respondents from Palestine. From an existential, psychosocial and health perspective, vaccines contributed to strengthening the vital forces in a large part of the population, allowed rebuilding social interactions and gave a sense of security in the daily functioning of a person.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccination , Humans , Arabs/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Poland , Students/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Motivation
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