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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 109(1): 76-89, 2023 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237554

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, the Zambian Ministry of Health instituted prevention guidelines to limit spread of COVID-19. We assessed community knowledge, motivations, behavioral skills, and perceived community adherence to prevention behaviors (i.e., hand hygiene, mask wearing, social distancing, and limiting gatherings). Within a cluster-randomized controlled trial in four rural districts, in November 2020 and May 2021, we conducted in-depth interviews with health center staff (N = 19) and community-based volunteers (N = 34) and focus group discussions with community members (N = 281). A content analysis was conducted in Nvivo v12. Data were interpreted using the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Generally, respondents showed good knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms, spread, and high-risk activities, with some gaps. Prevention behavior performance was driven by personal and social factors. Respondents described institutional settings (e.g., clinics and church) having higher levels of perceived adherence due to stronger enforcement measures and clear leadership. Conversely, informal community settings (e.g., weddings, funerals, football matches) lacked similar social and leadership expectations for adherence and had lower perceived levels of adherence. These settings often involved higher emotions (excitement or grief), and many involved alcohol use, resulting in community members "forgetting" guidelines. Doubt about disease existence or need for precautions persisted among some community members and drove non-adherence more generally. Although COVID-19 information successfully penetrated these very remote rural communities, more targeted messaging may address persistent COVID-19 doubt and misinformation. Engaging local leaders in religious, civic, and traditional leadership positions could improve community behaviors without adding additional monitoring duties on an already overburdened, resource-limited health system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Zambia/epidemiology , Rural Population , Information Motivation Behavioral Skills Model , Motivation
2.
J Glob Health ; 13: 06022, 2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234959

ABSTRACT

Background: The workload burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on health systems requires not only financial support but also long-term and contextualized policies. We assessed the work motivation and its determinants among health workers at Vietnamese hospitals and facilities during the prolonged COVID-19 outbreaks in 2021. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2814 health care professionals across all three regions of Vietnam from October to November 2021. An online questionnaire, including the Work Motivation Scale, distributed by the snowball method to a subgroup of 939 respondents, investigated changes in working characteristics due to COVID-19, work motivation, and occupational intention. Results: Only 37.2% of respondents committed to their current job and about 40% reported a decrease in their job satisfaction. The Work Motivation Scale scored the lowest in "financial motivation" and the highest in "perception of work value". Participants who were in the north region, of younger age, unmarried, and who had a low level of adaptability to external work pressure, shorter experience, and less job satisfaction tended to be less motivated and committed to their current job. Conclusions: Intrinsic motivation has increased in importance during the pandemic. Therefore, policymakers should develop interventions that raise intrinsic, psychological motivation instead of only focusing on salary raises. Issues about intrinsic motivations of health care workers such as low adaptability to stress and professionalism in routine work should be prioritized during the pandemic preparedness and control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vietnam/epidemiology , Pandemics , Southeast Asian People , Health Personnel/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 946, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233856

ABSTRACT

Sport participation and volunteering can make important contributions to good health. Sporting organisations need volunteers to deliver their participation opportunities and for many years the sector has faced challenges to volunteer recruitment and retention, especially due to the increased bureaucratic and compliance demands in operating community sports clubs. As sporting organisations pivot to adapt to COVID-safe sport we can learn about their experiences to inform volunteer recruitment and retention policies and practices. This research examined volunteer intentions and motivations in coaching and officiating in basketball and explored factors influencing their decision to return to COVID-safe basketball. Data was collected via an online survey that drew on theoretical frameworks of volunteer motivations (i.e. modified Volunteer Functions Inventory VFI) in sport as well as sport policies related to COVID-safe guidelines for return to sport. Data was collected in Victoria Australia during July 2020 before basketball had the chance to return from the first Australian-wide COVID-19 lockdown. Volunteers had positive intentions to return to basketball following COVID-19 restrictions because it was fun, to help others, or because friends/family were involved. Volunteers were most concerned that others will not comply with COVID-safe policies particularly around isolating when feeling unwell (95%), but also reported concerns about the inconveniences of some COVID-safe policies introduced to return to organised sport (e.g. social distancing, density limits, and enforcing rule changes). Understanding these volunteer intentions, motivations and factors influencing the decision to return to COVID-safe basketball can help inform recruitment and retention strategies to support volunteers in sport. Practical implications for sport policy and practice are discussed.


Subject(s)
Basketball , COVID-19 , Mentoring , Humans , Motivation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Victoria , Volunteers , Policy
4.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0285247, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238784

ABSTRACT

The advanced manufacturing industry is located at the top of the manufacturing value chain. Its development is restricted by supply chain collaboration (SCC), the level of which is affected by many factors. Few studies comprehensively summarize what influences SCC and distinguish the impact level of each factor. Practitioners have difficulty isolating the primary factors that affect SCC and managing them effectively. Therefore, based on synergetics and the theory of comparative advantage, this study analyzes what influences SCC in the advanced manufacturing industry and how these influencing factors work, using data from 94 manufacturing enterprises and the Haken model to identify the influencing factors. The results show that China's advanced manufacturing supply chain underwent a phase change and entered a new stage during 2017-2018. In the new stage, the competitive advantages of enterprises are one order parameter (slow variable) and are primary factors affecting SCC. The interest demands of enterprises are a fast variable and are secondary factors affecting SCC. The competitive advantages of enterprises dominate the interests of enterprises in affecting the collaboration level of China's advanced manufacturing supply chain. In addition, in the process of influencing SCC, there is a positive correlation between the competitive advantages of enterprises and the interest demands of enterprises, and the two factors have a positive feedback mechanism. Finally, when the enterprises in the supply chain cooperate based on their differential advantages, the collaboration capability of the supply chain is at the highest level, and the overall operation of the supply chain is orderly. In terms of theoretical contribution, this study is the first to propose a collaborative motivation framework that conforms to the characteristics of sequential parameters, which provides a theoretical reference for subsequent studies on SCC. In addition, the theory of comparative advantage and synergetics are linked for the first time in this study, and both of them are enriched and developed. Equally importantly, this study compares the bidirectional influence between firms' competitive advantages and firms' interest demands and the ability of both to influence SCC, enriching previous validation studies of unidirectional influence. In terms of practical implications, this study guides top managers to focus on the management practice of collaborative innovation in the supply chain and advises purchasing managers and sales managers on selecting supply chain partnerships.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Manufacturing Industry , Motivation , Records , China
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(11)2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239553

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in disruption in healthcare delivery for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). African, Caribbean, and Black women living with HIV (ACB WLWH) in British Columbia (BC) faced barriers to engage with HIV care services prior to the COVID-19 pandemic that were intensified by the transition to virtual care during the pandemic. This paper aims to assess which factors influenced ACB WLWH's access to, utilization and affordability of, and motivation to engage with HIV care services. This study utilized a qualitative descriptive approach using in-depth interviews. Eighteen participants were recruited from relevant women's health, HIV, and ACB organizations in BC. Participants felt dismissed by healthcare providers delivering services only in virtual formats and suggested that services be performed in a hybrid model to increase access and utilization. Mental health supports, such as support groups, dissolved during the pandemic and overall utilization decreased for many participants. The affordability of services pertained primarily to expenses not covered by the provincial healthcare plan. Resources should be directed to covering supplements, healthy food, and extended health services. The primary factor decreasing motivation to engage with HIV services was fear, which emerged due to the unknown impact of the COVID-19 virus on immunocompromised participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/psychology , Pandemics , HIV , Motivation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Costs and Cost Analysis
6.
J Psychol ; 157(5): 339-366, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327212

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, rumors were shared widely and quickly, leading to unfortunate consequences. To explore the dominant motivation underlying such rumor sharing behavior and the potential consequences for sharers' life satisfaction, two studies were conducted. Study 1 was based on representative popular rumors that circulated throughout Chinese society during the pandemic to examine the dominant motivation underlying rumor sharing behavior. Study 2 employed a longitudinal design to further test the dominant motivation underlying rumor sharing behavior and its effects on life satisfaction. The results of these two studies generally supported our hypotheses that people chose to share rumors during the pandemic mainly for the purpose of fact-finding. Regarding the effects of rumor sharing behavior on life satisfaction, although sharing wish rumors (i.e., rumors expressing hopes) had no effect on sharers' life satisfaction, sharing dread rumors (i.e., rumors reflecting fears) and aggression rumors (i.e., rumors implying aggression and hatred) reduced sharers' life satisfaction. This research lends support to the integrative model of rumor and provides practical implications for mitigating the spread of rumors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics , Communication , Personal Satisfaction
7.
J Health Commun ; 28(6): 375-383, 2023 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326153

ABSTRACT

Using the behavioral economics framework, the current study assessed the effectiveness of compliance gaining techniques and social normative influences to reduce vaccine hesitancy and increase vaccination behavior among college students. A total of 1,283 students responded to a cross-sectional survey assessing the influence of compliance gaining techniques and normative pressures upon vaccine attitudes and behavior. Findings suggest that being female, a person of color, and politically liberal were associated with increased likelihood of vaccination behavior. Likelihood of getting vaccinated was influenced by previous influenza vaccine behavior and parents' vaccination status, suggesting the importance of parental social norms. Compliance gaining techniques may have strengthened attitudes for unvaccinated students but were less successful at motivating actual vaccine behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Motivation , Parents , Vaccination
8.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 72(4): 361-380, 2023 May.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325083

ABSTRACT

In the project "Resilient Children", a resilience promotion program for kindergartens and elementary schools was directly applied and evaluated during the COVID-19-crisis.The aim of the study was to strengthen the three sources of resilience according to Grotberg (1995) I HAVE, I AM and I CAN through targeted exercises and resilience-promoting communication (transfer to everyday life). Additionally, gender differences with regard to the effect of the programme were addressed. "Resilient Children" was evaluated at the impact level (pre-post design) and process level. Eight kindergartens and three elementary schools with 125 children participated. A total of 122 teachers and 70 parents provided information about the children. The results at the impact level showed that from the parent and teacher perspective, and from the self-perspective (children), the three sources of resilience were significantly strengthened. With regard to gender differences, the results from the perspective of teachers and parents showed that girls were characterised by greater changes than boys. Compared to the girls, the physical andmental well-being of the boys improved fromthe parents' point of view. The results of the process evaluation revealed a high level of motivation and enthusiasm for participation in the programme on the part of participating children and teachers. The success of "Resilient Children" depends on the identification of the teachers with the program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Child , Program Evaluation , Schools , Educational Status , Motivation
9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2211319, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323685

ABSTRACT

Vaccination can sufficiently ameliorate the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Investigating what factors influence vaccine uptake may benefit ongoing vaccination efforts (e.g. booster injections, annual vaccination). The present study expanded Protection Motivation Theory with possible factors including perceived knowledge, adaptive responses, and maladaptive responses to develop a proposed model investigating vaccine uptake among United Kingdom (UK) and Taiwan (TW) populations. An online survey collected responses from UK (n = 751) and TW (n = 1052) participants (August to September, 2022). The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that perceived knowledge was significantly associated with coping appraisal in both samples (standardized coefficient [ß] = 0.941 and 0.898; p < .001). Coping appraisal was correlated with vaccine uptake only in the TW sample (ß = 0.319, p < .05). Multigroup analysis showed there were significant differences between the path coefficients of perceived knowledge to coping and threat appraisals (p < .001), coping appraisal to adaptive and maladaptive responses (p < .001), as well as threat appraisal to adaptive response (p < .001). Such knowledge may improve vaccine uptake in Taiwan. The potential factors for the UK population require further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Motivation , Taiwan , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adaptation, Psychological
10.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 31: e3902, 2023.
Article in Spanish, English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323566

ABSTRACT

to verify the implications of practical activities in the Skills and Simulation Laboratory on the motivation and feelings expressed by undergraduate students when returning to face-to-face activities after the social isolation caused by COVID-19 pandemic. a quasi-experimental study, with a single group and of the pre- and post-test type, carried out through an educational intervention based on skills training on medication administration and venipuncture, with medical students from a Brazilian public university. The sample was comprised by 47 students. The instruments of students' characterization and self-perceived feelings and the Situational Motivation Scale were used for data collection. in the sample, 98% mentioned the lack of practical activities during the pandemic. The most frequently described feeling was anxiety. After carrying out the activity, there was a change in the frequency of expressed feelings, although there was no significant change in motivational levels. External Regulation (5.1 - 5.6), Identified Regulation (6.1 - 6.4) and Intrinsic Motivation (5.6 - 6.0) presented high results, showing similarity to the feelings reported by the learners. motivation is essential for effective learning and the use of active methodologies reinforces skills built in an affective way in the students facing the learning process.


verificar las implicaciones de las actividades prácticas en el Laboratorio de Habilidad y Simulación relacionadas con la motivación y los sentimientos expresados por los estudiantes universitarios cuando regresan a las actividades presenciales luego del aislamiento social ocasionado por la pandemia del COVID-19. estudio cuasiexperimental, con un solo grupo y del tipo pre y postest, realizado mediante una intervención educativa basada en el entrenamiento de habilidades en administración de medicamentos y venopunción, con estudiantes de medicina de una universidad pública brasileña. La muestra estuvo conformada por 47 estudiantes. Para la recolección de datos se utilizaron los instrumentos de caracterización y autopercepción de los individuos y la Escala de Motivación Situacional. en la muestra, el 98% mencionó la falta de actividades prácticas durante la pandemia. El sentimiento descrito con mayor frecuencia fue la ansiedad. Después de realizar la actividad, hubo un cambio en la frecuencia de los sentimientos expresados, aunque no hubo un cambio significativo en los niveles de motivación. Regulación Externa (5,1 ­ 5,6), Regulación Identificada (6,1 ­ 6,4) y Motivación Intrínseca (5,6 ­ 6,0) presentaron resultados altos, demostrando similitud con los sentimientos relatados por los estudiantes. la motivación es fundamental para un aprendizaje efectivo y el uso de metodologías activas refuerza de manera efectiva las habilidades construidas en los estudiantes frente al proceso de aprendizaje.


verificar as implicações das atividades práticas no Laboratório de Habilidade e Simulação relacionado à motivação e os sentimentos expressos pelos estudantes universitários quando regressam às atividades presenciais após o isolamento social causado pela pandemia da COVID-19. estudo quase-experimental, com um único grupo, do tipo pré e pós-teste, realizado por meio de uma intervenção educacional baseada no treino de habilidades de administração de medicamentos e punção venosa, com estudantes de medicina de uma universidade pública brasileira. A amostra foi composta por 47 estudantes. Para a coleta de dados, foram utilizados os instrumentos de caracterização dos sujeitos e sentimentos autopercebidos pelos estudantes e a Escala de Motivação Situacional. na amostra, 98% referiram falta de atividades práticas durante a pandemia. O sentimento mais frequentemente descrito foi a ansiedade. Após a realização da atividade, observou-se uma mudança na frequência dos sentimentos expressos, embora não se tenha verificado uma mudança significativa nos níveis motivacionais. A Regulação Externa (5,1 ­ 5,6), a Regulação (6,1 ­ 6,4) e a Motivação Intrínseca (5,6 ­ 6,0) apresentaram resultados elevados, demostrando semelhança com os sentimentos relatados pelos alunos. a motivação é essencial para uma aprendizagem eficaz e a utilização de metodologias ativas reforça as habilidades construídas de uma forma efetiva nos estudantes frente ao processo de aprendizagem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics , Learning , Students, Medical/psychology
11.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 69: 103639, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321966

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate the mediating role of resilience and academic motivation between academic stress and self-directed learning. BACKGROUND: Academic stress in nursing students is a well-reported concept that affects resilience, academic motivation and self-directed learning. However, there is a dearth of studies investigating the mediating role of resilience and academic motivation between academic stress and self-directed learning. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study and mediation analysis. METHODS: Nursing students (n = 718) were recruited from five nursing schools via convenience sampling. Four self-report scales (Perception of Academic Stress Scale, Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale, Short Academic Motivation Scale and Self-directed Learning Instrument) were used to collect data from August to December 2022. Pearson's r, bivariate analysis and multistage regression analyses were employed to analyze the data. RESULTS: Academic stress negatively influences nursing students' resilience, academic motivation and self-directed learning. Resilience and academic motivation have a positive impact on self-directed learning. Resilience and academic motivation mediate the relationship between academic stress and self-directed learning, as evidenced by a reduction in the negative impacts of academic stress on nursing students. CONCLUSION: Resilience and academic motivation, as mediators, reduce the effects of academic stress on self-directed learning. Nursing educators and administrators should promote programs that strengthen resilience and academic motivation. Thus, improving educational and clinical performance.


Subject(s)
Motivation , Students, Nursing , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Learning , Educational Status
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 493, 2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Behavioural sciences have been shown to support the development of more effective interventions aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles. However, the operationalization of this knowledge seems to be sub-optimal in public health. Effective knowledge transfer strategies are thus needed to optimize the use of knowledge from behavioural sciences in this field. To this end, the present study examined public health practitioners' perceptions and use of theories and frameworks from behavioural sciences to design health promotion interventions. METHODS: This study adopted an exploratory qualitative design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 27 public health practitioners from across Canada to explore current intervention development processes, the extent to which they integrate theory and framework from behavioural sciences, and their perceptions regarding the use of this knowledge to inform intervention design. Practitioners from the public sector or non-profit/private organizations who were involved in the development of interventions aimed at promoting physical activity, healthy eating, or other healthy lifestyle habits (e.g., not smoking) were eligible to participate. RESULTS: Public health practitioners generally agreed that behaviour change is an important goal of public health interventions. On the other hand, behavioural science theories and frameworks did not appear to be fully integrated in the design of public health interventions. The main reasons were (1) a perceived lack of fit with current professional roles and tasks; (2) a greater reliance on experiential-produced knowledge rather than academic knowledge (mainly for tailoring interventions to local setting characteristics); (3) the presence of a fragmented knowledge base; (4) the belief that theories and frameworks require too much time and resources to be operationalized; and 4) the belief that using behavioural sciences might undermine partnership building. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided valuable insights that may inform knowledge transfer strategies that could be optimally designed to support the integration of behavioural sciences theories and frameworks into public health practices.


Subject(s)
Health Promotion , Public Health , Humans , Public Health Practice , Exercise , Motivation
13.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285984, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321331

ABSTRACT

Motivation as a catalyst for human conduct has been associated with lots of variables. However, self-efficacy and resilience as two important components of the individuals' psychological capital have not received enough scientific attention. This gets more significance considering the global COVID-19 pandemic with noticeable psychological consequences for the learners receiving online education. Hence, the current study proceeded to investigate the relationship between students' self-efficacy, resilience, and academic motivation in online education. To this aim, a convenience sample of 120 university students coming from two state universities in south of Iran participated in an online survey. The questionnaires used in the survey included the self-efficacy questionnaire, resilience questionnaire, and academic motivation questionnaire. Pearson correlation and multiple regression statistical methods were applied to analyze the obtained data. The results pointed to a positive relationship between self-efficacy and academic motivation. In addition, those with a higher degree of resilience were found to experience higher academic motivation. Moreover, the results of multiple regression test revealed that self-efficacy and resilience can significantly predict the academic motivation of the students involved in an online mode of education. The research proposes a number of recommendations for developing the learners' level of self-efficacy and resilience through enacting various pedagogical interventions. In this way, a heightened level of academic motivation would enhance EFL learners' learning rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics , Self Efficacy , Students
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2313436, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322993

ABSTRACT

This survey study examines the prevalence of incentive receipt for COVID-19 vaccination and the association of various sociodemographic characteristics with perspectives on incentives' influence on trust in the COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Humans , Trust , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control
15.
Trials ; 23(1): 582, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, mobility problems and some cancers, and its prevalence is rising. Men engage less than women in existing weight loss interventions. Game of Stones builds on a successful feasibility study and aims to find out if automated text messages with or without endowment incentives are effective and cost-effective for weight loss at 12 months compared to a waiting list comparator arm in men with obesity. METHODS: A 3-arm, parallel group, assessor-blind superiority randomised controlled trial with process evaluation will recruit 585 adult men with body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or more living in and around three UK centres (Belfast, Bristol, Glasgow), purposively targeting disadvantaged areas. Intervention groups: (i) automated, theory-informed text messages daily for 12 months plus endowment incentives linked to verified weight loss targets at 3, 6 and 12 months; (ii) the same text messages and weight loss assessment protocol; (iii) comparator group: 12 month waiting list, then text messages for 3 months. The primary outcome is percentage weight change at 12 months from baseline. Secondary outcomes at 12 months are as follows: quality of life, wellbeing, mental health, weight stigma, behaviours, satisfaction and confidence. Follow-up includes weight at 24 months. A health economic evaluation will measure cost-effectiveness over the trial and over modelled lifetime: including health service resource-use and quality-adjusted life years. The cost-utility analysis will report incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years gained. Participant and service provider perspectives will be explored via telephone interviews, and exploratory mixed methods process evaluation analyses will focus on mental health, multiple long-term conditions, health inequalities and implementation strategies. DISCUSSION: The trial will report whether text messages (with and without cash incentives) can help men to lose weight over 1 year and maintain this for another year compared to a comparator group; the costs and benefits to the health service; and men's experiences of the interventions. Process analyses with public involvement and service commissioner input will ensure that this open-source digital self-care intervention could be sustainable and scalable by a range of NHS or public services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 91974895 . Registered on 14/04/2021.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Financial Management , Text Messaging , Adult , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Male , Motivation , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/therapy , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Weight Loss
16.
Perspect Biol Med ; 65(1): 133-142, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314023

ABSTRACT

Phase 1 drug trials-first-in-human tests of new pharmaceuticals- are necessary for FDA approval, and healthy volunteers are necessary to conduct those trials. Bioethicists are rightly concerned with the morally problematic aspects of these trials: Are risks and benefits balanced? Are would-be volunteers sufficiently informed, and have they given proper consent? But these are not the only, or even the most worrisome, ethical problems with Phase 1 research. In Adverse Events (2020), Jill Fisher looks beyond these ordinary bioethical concerns to the moral complications associated with the motivations of healthy volunteers and the demands of the everyday work of running those trials. Her work is the latest example of a much needed "second bioethics." Unlike the "first bioethics," this approach views health-care institutions from the outside, examining the structural and organizational sources that generate the ethical quandaries bioethicists are called upon to mediate and the ethical problems they often fail to see. Adverse Events makes clear that the moral problems of medicine can only be addressed by supporting bioethics of both types-the first and the second.


Subject(s)
Bioethics , Ethicists , Female , Humans , Morals , Motivation
17.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285202, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319025

ABSTRACT

During social interaction, humans prefer to keep a certain distance between themselves and other individuals. This preferred 'interpersonal distance' (IPD) is known to be sensitive to social context, and in the present study we aimed to further investigate the extent to which IPD is affected by the specific type of social interaction. In particular, we focused on the contrast between joint actions, where two or more individuals coordinate their actions in space and time to achieve a shared goal, and parallel actions, where individuals act alongside each other but individually. We predicted that joint action would be associated with a smaller preferred IPD compared to parallel action. Additionally, given that this research took place in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, we aimed to assess whether IPD preferences are affected by individuals' concerns about infection in general, as well as COVID-19 in particular. We predicted that higher individual concerns would be associated with greater preferred IPD. To test these hypotheses, we asked participants to imagine different social scenarios (involving either joint or parallel actions alongside a stranger) and indicate, on a visual scale, their preferred IPD. The results of two experiments (n = 211, n = 212) showed that participants preferred a shorter distance when they imagined acting jointly compared to when they imagined acting in parallel. Moreover, participants who reported higher discomfort for potential pathogen contact and who were more aware of the COVID-19 context in which the study took place preferred a larger IPD in general. Our results provide further evidence that different types of social interaction shape IPD preference. We discuss potential reasons for this phenomenon and highlight remaining questions for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Motivation , Social Interaction , Social Environment
18.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 157, 2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between care burden and motivation of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among caregivers of patients who have experienced a stroke and to explore the mediating roles of social media use, fear of COVID-19, and worries about infection in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study with 172 caregivers of patients who had experienced a stroke took part in a Taiwan community hospital. All participants completed the Zarit Burden Interview, Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale, Worry of Infection Scale, Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and Motors of COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance Scale. Multiple linear regression model was applied to construct and explain the association among the variables. Hayes Process Macro (Models 4 and 6) was used to explain the mediation effects. RESULTS: The proposed model significantly explained the direct association of care burden with motivation of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Despite the increased care burden associated with decreased vaccine acceptance, problematic social media use positively mediated this association. Moreover, problematic social media use had sequential mediating effects together with worry of infection or fear of COVID-19 in the association between care burden and motivation of vaccine acceptance. Care burden was associated with motivation of vaccine acceptance through problematic social media use followed by worry of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Increased care burden among caregivers of patients who have experienced a stroke may lead to lower COVID-19 vaccines acceptance. Moreover, problematic social media use was positively associated with their motivation to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Therefore, health experts and practitioners should actively disseminate accurate and trustworthy factual information regarding COVID-19, while taking care of the psychological problems among caregivers of patients who have experienced a stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Stroke , Vaccines , Humans , Caregiver Burden , Caregivers , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Motivation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Fear
19.
Support Care Cancer ; 31(5): 314, 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315529

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Goals provide insight into what is important to an individual. We describe the development and application of a mixed methods approach to elicit goals and perceptions about goals in patients with advanced cancer. METHODS: Patients receiving first-line treatment for advanced lung cancer participated in semi-structured interviews about their goals. Participants self-generated goals, then selected and ranked their three most important goals and provided Likert scale ratings of goal-related perceptions (e.g., attainability, locus of control). Independent raters coded goals into content domains. One month later, participants reported perceived progress toward goals and facilitators of and barriers to progress. RESULTS: Participants (N = 75, Mage = 64.5 years, 59% female) identified goals across eight domains: social/role/relationship, everyday/practical, leisure/pleasure, psychological/existential/spiritual, major life changes or achievements, cancer treatment response/disease outcomes, palliative outcomes, and behavioral health improvement. Of all goals identified (N = 352), 72% of patients had at least one social/role/relationship goal, 68% had a leisure/pleasure goal, and 29% had a cancer treatment response goal. On average, participants considered their goals to be attainable, perceived a high degree of control over reaching goals, anticipated making "some" progress in the short term, and perceived a high likelihood of reaching goals in the future. Facilitators of progress included mental fortitude, feeling physically well, and social support. Barriers included cancer-related side effects, practical challenges, and COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: A majority of participant goals focused on meaningful engagement and living well. Goals were largely viewed as attainable and under participants' control. Cancer clinicians may consider how to support patients in working toward valued goals in conjunction with oncology care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , Goals , Motivation , Emotions
20.
Health Psychol ; 42(6): 411-424, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315468

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although mass vaccination is critical for curbing the spread of COVID-19 and saving lives, vaccine rates remain suboptimal in most countries, calling for effective behavioral interventions to promote vaccinations. Nonfinancial behavioral interventions and monetary incentives are commonly used to promote COVID-19 vaccination but their effects are mixed. METHOD: Articles were searched in the Web of Science, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases. Previous review papers, Google Scholar search, references from the included articles, and unpublished databases were also searched for any other relevant articles. RESULTS: Drawing on 71 studies comprising 1,132,533 participants and 233 effect sizes, we found that the overall behavioral interventions (including nonfinancial interventions and monetary incentives) have a small but statistically significant effect size of Cohen's d = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [0.08, 0.31]. Different types of single interventions and combined strategies produce similar effects. Effect sizes were not moderated by early/late implementation time points, except that collective benefit-oriented interventions showed a marginally significant downward trend as COVID-19 evolves. The effect size of nonfinancial interventions did not significantly differ from monetary incentives. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings affirm the value of nonfinancial strategies and may help forecast the effectiveness of future interventions for ever-evolving pandemics. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Motivation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Pandemics
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