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2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21707, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504388

ABSTRACT

We investigate the connection between the choice of transportation mode used by commuters and the probability of COVID-19 transmission. This interplay might influence the choice of transportation means for years to come. We present data on commuting, socioeconomic factors, and COVID-19 disease incidence for several US metropolitan areas. The data highlights important connections between population density and mobility, public transportation use, race, and increased likelihood of transmission. We use a transportation model to highlight the effect of uncertainty about transmission on the commuters' choice of transportation means. Using multiple estimation techniques, we found strong evidence that public transit ridership in several US metro areas has been considerably impacted by COVID-19 and by the policy responses to the pandemic. Concerns about disease transmission had a negative effect on ridership, which is over and above the adverse effect from the observed reduction in employment. The COVID-19 effect is likely to reduce the demand for public transport in favor of lower density alternatives. This change relative to the status quo will have implications for fuel use, congestion, accident frequency, and air quality. More vulnerable communities might be disproportionally affected as a result. We point to the need for additional studies to further quantify these effects and to assist policy in planning for the post-COVID-19 transportation future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Transportation/economics , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Cities , Employment/trends , Humans , Motor Vehicles/economics , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Population Density , Population Dynamics/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Socioeconomic Factors , Transportation/methods , United States/epidemiology
3.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252300, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256038

ABSTRACT

We collected COVID-19 epidemiological and epidemic control measures-related data in mainland China during the period January 1 to February 19, 2020, and empirically tested the practical effects of the epidemic control measures implemented in China by applying the econometrics approach. The results show that nationally, both traffic control and social distancing have played an important role in controlling the outbreak of the epidemic, however, neither of the two measures have had a significant effect in low-risk areas. Moreover, the effect of traffic control is more successful than that of social distancing. Both measures complement each other, and their combined effect achieves even better results. These findings confirm the effectiveness of the measures currently in place in China, however, we would like to emphasize that control measures should be more tailored, which implemented according to each specific city's situation, in order to achieve a better epidemic prevention and control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(10): 1792-1798, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177766

ABSTRACT

Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of adolescent mortality and injury in the United States. For young drivers, crash risk peaks immediately after licensure and declines during the next two years, making the point of licensure an important safety intervention opportunity. Legislation in Ohio established a unique health-transportation partnership among the State of Ohio, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and Diagnostic Driving, Inc., to identify underprepared driver license applicants through a virtual driving assessment system. The system, a computer-based virtual driving test, exposes drivers to common serious crash scenarios to identify critical skill deficits and is delivered in testing centers immediately before the on-road examination. A pilot study of license applicants who completed it showed that the virtual driving assessment system accurately predicted which drivers would fail the on-road examination and provided automated feedback that informed drivers on their skill deficits. At this time, the partnership's work is informing policy changes around integrating the virtual driving assessment system into licensing and driver training with the aim of reducing crashes in the first months of independent driving. The system can be developed to identify deficits in safety-critical skills that lead to crashes in new drivers and to address challenges that the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has introduced to driver testing and training.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving/legislation & jurisprudence , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Licensure/legislation & jurisprudence , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Safety Management/organization & administration , User-Computer Interface , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , Ohio , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Philadelphia , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Transportation/methods , Young Adult
5.
Inj Prev ; 27(1): 3-9, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894885

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our health and safety is imperative. This study sought to examine the impact of COVID-19's stay-at-home order on daily vehicle miles travelled (VMT) and MVCs in Connecticut. METHODS: Using an interrupted time series design, we analysed daily VMT and MVCs stratified by crash severity and number of vehicles involved from 1 January to 30 April 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. MVC data were collected from the Connecticut Crash Data Repository; daily VMT estimates were obtained from StreetLight Insight's database. We used segmented Poisson regression models, controlling for daily temperature and daily precipitation. RESULTS: The mean daily VMT significantly decreased 43% in the post stay-at-home period in 2020. While the mean daily counts of crashes decreased in 2020 after the stay-at-home order was enacted, several types of crash rates increased after accounting for the VMT reductions. Single vehicle crash rates significantly increased 2.29 times, and specifically single vehicle fatal crash rates significantly increased 4.10 times when comparing the pre-stay-at-home and post-stay-at-home periods. DISCUSSION: Despite a decrease in the number of MVCs and VMT, the crash rate of single vehicles increased post stay-at-home order enactment in Connecticut after accounting for reductions in VMT.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , Connecticut/epidemiology , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Travel/statistics & numerical data
6.
Inj Prev ; 27(1): 98-100, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873564

ABSTRACT

Between March and May 2020, Japan experienced a lockdown due to the COVID-19 crisis. Empty roads possibly triggered speed-related traffic violations that caused fatal motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). Using police data on the monthly number of fatal MVCs between January 2010 and February 2020 in which motor vehicle drivers were at fault, we forecasted the numbers of fatal MVCs due to the speed-related violations during the lockdown and compared these with those observed. We also compared the observed to forecasted using the ratio of the number of speed-related fatal MVCs to that of non-speed related fatal MVCs. The observed numbers of speed-related fatal MVCs were within the 95% CIs of the forecasted numbers. The observed ratio was higher than the forecasted ratio in April (p=0.016). In the second month of the lockdown, drivers were more likely to commit speed-related violations that caused fatal MVCs than before the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/mortality , Automobile Driving/legislation & jurisprudence , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acceleration/adverse effects , Accidents, Traffic/legislation & jurisprudence , Accidents, Traffic/trends , Adult , Aged , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , Police , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety , Young Adult
7.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(12): 1665-1671, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738931

ABSTRACT

Importance: Evidence of whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can be transmitted as an aerosol (ie, airborne) has substantial public health implications. Objective: To investigate potential transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 infection with epidemiologic evidence from a COVID-19 outbreak. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study examined a community COVID-19 outbreak in Zhejiang province. On January 19, 2020, 128 individuals took 2 buses (60 [46.9%] from bus 1 and 68 [53.1%] from bus 2) on a 100-minute round trip to attend a 150-minute worship event. The source patient was a passenger on bus 2. We compared risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection among at-risk individuals taking bus 1 (n = 60) and bus 2 (n = 67 [source patient excluded]) and among all other individuals (n = 172) attending the worship event. We also divided seats on the exposed bus into high-risk and low-risk zones according to the distance from the source patient and compared COVID-19 risks in each zone. In both buses, central air conditioners were in indoor recirculation mode. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or by viral genome sequencing results. Attack rates for SARS-CoV-2 infection were calculated for different groups, and the spatial distribution of individuals who developed infection on bus 2 was obtained. Results: Of the 128 participants, 15 (11.7%) were men, 113 (88.3%) were women, and the mean age was 58.6 years. On bus 2, 24 of the 68 individuals (35.3% [including the index patient]) received a diagnosis of COVID-19 after the event. Meanwhile, none of the 60 individuals in bus 1 were infected. Among the other 172 individuals at the worship event, 7 (4.1%) subsequently received a COVID-19 diagnosis. Individuals in bus 2 had a 34.3% (95% CI, 24.1%-46.3%) higher risk of getting COVID-19 compared with those in bus 1 and were 11.4 (95% CI, 5.1-25.4) times more likely to have COVID-19 compared with all other individuals attending the worship event. Within bus 2, individuals in high-risk zones had moderately, but nonsignificantly, higher risk for COVID-19 compared with those in the low-risk zones. The absence of a significantly increased risk in the part of the bus closer to the index case suggested that airborne spread of the virus may at least partially explain the markedly high attack rate observed. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study and case investigation of a community outbreak of COVID-19 in Zhejiang province, individuals who rode a bus to a worship event with a patient with COVID-19 had a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than individuals who rode another bus to the same event. Airborne spread of SARS-CoV-2 seems likely to have contributed to the high attack rate in the exposed bus. Future efforts at prevention and control must consider the potential for airborne spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Community-Acquired Infections , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation/methods , Air Pollution , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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