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2.
Rev Med Virol ; 32(1): e2248, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239996

ABSTRACT

Initially, it was reported that coronavirus 2019 disease (Covid-19) affects respiratory, gastrointestinal and neurological systems, but the oral, olfactory and integumentary systems are also involved. This review discusses various oral manifestations of Covid-19 reported in the literature along with possible underlying mechanisms. The reported manifestations include taste impairment, oral mucosal changes (petechiae, ulcers, plaque-like lesions, reactivation of herpes simplex virus 1(HSV1), geographical tongue and desquamative gingivitis) and dry mouth. The prominent location for mucosal lesions are tongue, palate and labial mucosa. The exact pathogenesis of these oral symptoms is not known. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cell receptors are expressed in abundance on oral mucosa allowing severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) to infect them. Gustatory impairment along with olfactory changes is now listed as a symptom of Covid-19 by the World Health Organization, but further research is needed to confirm a link between reported additional oral symptoms and Covid-19. Dental professionals may encounter individuals with Covid-19 and be called upon to identify various oral manifestations of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mouth Diseases/virology , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Taste Disorders/virology , Xerostomia , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Dysgeusia/virology , Humans , Mouth Diseases/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Xerostomia/immunology , Xerostomia/virology
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(4): e1009531, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231265

ABSTRACT

Most individuals who consume foods contaminated with the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) develop mild symptoms, while others are susceptible to life-threatening systemic infections (listeriosis). Although it is known that the risk of severe disease is increased in certain human populations, including the elderly, it remains unclear why others who consume contaminated food develop listeriosis. Here, we used a murine model to discover that pulmonary coinfections can impair the host's ability to adequately control and eradicate systemic Lm that cross from the intestines to the bloodstream. We found that the resistance of mice to oral Lm infection was dramatically reduced by coinfection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), a bacterium that colonizes the respiratory tract and can also cause severe infections in the elderly. Exposure to Spn or microbial products, including a recombinant Lm protein (L1S) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), rendered otherwise resistant hosts susceptible to severe systemic Lm infection. In addition, we show that this increase in susceptibility was dependent on an increase in the production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) from Ncr1+ cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. Lastly, the ability of Ncr1+ cell derived IL-10 to increase disease susceptibility correlated with a dampening of both myeloid cell accumulation and myeloid cell phagocytic capacity in infected tissues. These data suggest that efforts to minimize inflammation in response to an insult at the respiratory mucosa render the host more susceptible to infections by Lm and possibly other pathogens that access the oral mucosa.


Subject(s)
Listeria monocytogenes/immunology , Listeriosis/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , Animals , Disease Progression , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/physiology , Lipopolysaccharides , Listeria monocytogenes/pathogenicity , Listeriosis/complications , Listeriosis/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Mouth Diseases/complications , Mouth Diseases/immunology , Mouth Diseases/microbiology , Mouth Diseases/pathology , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/pathology
4.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 7(1): 101-108, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this narrative review was to collect all findings from literature about oral signs and symptoms of COVID-19, in order to draw a picture of oral involvement of this challenging viral infection, to help oral professionals in a better triage and early diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The search for international literature was made including articles written in English and reporting about oral manifestations in patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19. The publication time was limited to 2019 and 2020, up to May 20, 2020. A narrative review was performed. RESULTS: Twenty-three articles were included in this review. Three different oral manifestations were found: taste alteration, oral blister and ulcers, and oral lesions associated with Kawasaki-like diseases (erythema, bleeding of lips, "strawberry tongue"). The higher expression of Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in the oral cavity and in endothelial cells might be responsible for oral manifestation and the major report of signs and symptoms in the occidental countries. CONCLUSIONS: Detecting oral signs and symptoms of COVID-19 could be useful to perform a better preliminary triage in dental setting, and in recognizing possible early manifestations of the disease. However, considering the outbreak of COVID-19 and the consequent difficulty of undergoing oral examinations, the oral manifestations might be misdiagnosed; then, we would encourage oral professionals to perform other studies about this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mouth Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mouth Diseases/epidemiology , Mouth Diseases/pathology , Prognosis
6.
J Dent Res ; 100(2): 141-154, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760369

ABSTRACT

This living systematic review aims to summarize evidence on the prevalence of oral signs and symptoms in patients with COVID-19. The review was reported per the PRISMA checklist, and the literature search was conducted in 6 databases and in gray literature. Studies published in any language mentioning oral symptoms and signs in patients with COVID-19 were included. The risk of bias was assessed by the Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal tools. The certainty of evidence was evaluated through GRADE assessment. After a 2-step selection, 40 studies were included: 33 cross-sectional and 7 case reports. Overall, 10,228 patients (4,288 males, 5,770 females, and 170 unknown) from 19 countries were assessed. Gustatory impairment was the most common oral manifestation, with a prevalence of 45% (95% CI, 34% to 55%; I2 = 99%). The pooled eligible data for different taste disorders were 38% for dysgeusia and 35% for hypogeusia, while ageusia had a prevalence of 24%. Taste disorders were associated with COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 12.68; 95% CI, 6.41 to 25.10; I2 = 63%; P < 0.00001), mild/moderate severity (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.25 to 3.49; I2 = 66%; P = 0.005), and female patients (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.17; I2 = 70%; P = 0.0007). Oral mucosal lesions presented multiple clinical aspects, including white and erythematous plaques, irregular ulcers, small blisters, petechiae, and desquamative gingivitis. Tongue, palate, lips, gingiva, and buccal mucosa were affected. In mild cases, oral mucosal lesions developed before or at the same time as the initial respiratory symptoms; however, in those who required medication and hospitalization, the lesions developed approximately 7 to 24 d after onset symptoms. Therefore, taste disorders may be common symptoms in patients with COVID-19 and should be considered in the scope of the disease's onset and progression. Oral mucosal lesions are more likely to present as coinfections and secondary manifestations with multiple clinical aspects (PROSPERO CRD42020184468).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mouth Diseases/virology , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Taste Disorders/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mouth Diseases/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Prevalence
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