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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667192

ABSTRACT

This review article was designed to evaluate the existing evidence related to the molecular processes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the oral cavity. The World Health Organization stated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and transmission is produced by respiratory droplets and aerosols from the oral cavity of infected patients. The oral cavity structures, keratinized and non-keratinized mucosa, and salivary glands' epithelia express SARS-CoV-2 entry and transmission factors, especially angiotensin converting enzyme Type 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). Replication of the virus in cells leads to local and systemic infection spread, and cellular damage is associated with clinical signs and symptoms of the disease in the oral cavity. Saliva, both the cellular and acellular fractions, holds the virus particles and contributes to COVID-19 transmission. The review also presents information about the factors modifying SARS-CoV-2 infection potential and possible local pharmacotherapeutic interventions, which may confine SARS-CoV-2 virus entry and transmission in the oral cavity. The PubMed and Scopus databases were used to search for suitable keywords such as: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, oral virus infection, saliva, crevicular fluid, salivary gland, tongue, oral mucosa, periodontium, gingiva, dental pulp, ACE2, TMPRSS2, Furin, diagnosis, topical treatment, vaccine and related words in relevant publications up to 28 December 2021. Data extraction and quality evaluation of the articles were performed by two reviewers, and 63 articles were included in the final review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Mouth , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mouth/metabolism , Mouth/pathology , Mouth/virology , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Pathology, Oral , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Virus Internalization
3.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(6): 750-756, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385291

ABSTRACT

Pemphigus and its variants, viz., vulgaris, foliaceous, vegetans, Ig A pemphigus, paraneoplastic pemphigus and Senear-Usher syndrome are rare autoimmune blistering diseases of the skin and/or mucous membranes. The autoantibodies involved in the pathogenesis of pemphigus against desmoglein result in the breach of the skin and mucosal barrier, which acts as the first line of defence against pathogens. In this paper we underscore the importance of the integumentary system as a shield against the acquisition as well as transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virion. We have also made an attempt to delineate the various treatment modalities available and the viral-drug dynamics involved in choosing the optimum therapeutic modality.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/transmission , Pemphigus/drug therapy , Virus Shedding , Administration, Oral , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Feces/virology , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Pemphigus/complications , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding/drug effects
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273460

ABSTRACT

More than a year ago, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization, with the world approaching its fourth wave. During this period, vaccines were developed in a much shorter period than thought possible, with the initiation of the pertinent vaccination. However, oral cavities have come under renewed scrutiny worldwide because saliva, a mixture of salivary secretions, pharyngeal secretions, and gingival crevicular fluid, have not only been shown to contain infective viral loads, mediating the route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via droplet, aerosol, or contagion, but also used as a sample for viral RNA testing with a usefulness comparable to the nasopharyngeal swab. The oral cavity is an important portal for ingress of SARS-CoV-2, being an entryway to the bronchi, alveoli, and rest of the lower respiratory tract, causing inflammation by viral infection. Moreover, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a host receptor for SARS-CoV-2, coupled with proteases responsible for viral entry have been found to be expressed on the tongue and other oral mucosae, suggesting that the oral cavity is the site of virus replication and propagation. Furthermore, there is a possibility that the aspiration of oral bacteria (such as periodontal pathogens) along with saliva into the lower respiratory tract may be a complicating factor for COVID-19 because chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes are known COVID-19 comorbidities with a greater risk of disease aggravation and higher death rate. These comorbidities have a strong connection to chronic periodontitis and periodontal pathogens, and an oral health management is an effective measure to prevent these comorbidities. In addition, oral bacteria, particularly periodontal pathogens, could be proinflammatory stimulants to respiratory epithelia upon its exposure to aspirated bacteria. Therefore, it may be expected that oral health management not only prevents comorbidities involved in aggravating COVID-19 but also has an effect against COVID-19 progression. This review discusses the significance of oral health management in SARS-CoV-2 infection in the era of "the new normal with COVID-19" and COVID-19 prevention with reference to the hypothetical mechanisms that the authors and the other researchers have proposed.


Subject(s)
Oral Health , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Mouth Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Tongue/metabolism , Virus Internalization
5.
Rev Med Virol ; 32(1): e2248, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239996

ABSTRACT

Initially, it was reported that coronavirus 2019 disease (Covid-19) affects respiratory, gastrointestinal and neurological systems, but the oral, olfactory and integumentary systems are also involved. This review discusses various oral manifestations of Covid-19 reported in the literature along with possible underlying mechanisms. The reported manifestations include taste impairment, oral mucosal changes (petechiae, ulcers, plaque-like lesions, reactivation of herpes simplex virus 1(HSV1), geographical tongue and desquamative gingivitis) and dry mouth. The prominent location for mucosal lesions are tongue, palate and labial mucosa. The exact pathogenesis of these oral symptoms is not known. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cell receptors are expressed in abundance on oral mucosa allowing severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) to infect them. Gustatory impairment along with olfactory changes is now listed as a symptom of Covid-19 by the World Health Organization, but further research is needed to confirm a link between reported additional oral symptoms and Covid-19. Dental professionals may encounter individuals with Covid-19 and be called upon to identify various oral manifestations of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mouth Diseases/virology , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Taste Disorders/virology , Xerostomia , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Dysgeusia/virology , Humans , Mouth Diseases/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Xerostomia/immunology , Xerostomia/virology
6.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 71(6): 348-350, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199340

ABSTRACT

During the next few months or years, vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection will significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19. However, additional measures are needed to protect those who are still not immunized. This is even more important in view of new viral mutations that result in increased transmission rates. We propose that the use of long-standing medicinal solutions based on hypochloric acid (HOCl) and intended for application on wounds may be effective as a gargling solution or nasal irrigation in blocking transmission of the virus. Here, we propose the use of HOCl-containing solutions for blocking the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in combination with other prevention measures. This may constitute another important cornerstone in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hypochlorous Acid/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Administration, Oral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Nasal Lavage , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Nasal Sprays , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(3): 370-372, 2020 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146229

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detected from at least 1 buccal specimen in 9 of 11 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected children (81.8%). Viral loads in buccal specimens were substantially lower than those in nasopharyngeal specimens. Buccal swabs are not good as COVID-19 screening specimens in children.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Cheek , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Infant , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/virology , Viral Load
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 255-261, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective management of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) requires large-scale testing to identify and isolate infectious carriers. Self-administered buccal swab and saliva collection are convenient, painless, and safe alternatives to the current healthcare worker (HCW)-collected nasopharyngeal swab (NPS). METHODS: A cross-sectional single-centre study was conducted on 42 participants who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 via an NPS within the past 7 days. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed and cycle threshold (Ct) values were obtained for each test. The positive percent agreement (PPA), negative percent agreement (NPA), and overall agreement (OA) were calculated for the saliva samples and buccal swabs, and compared with NPS. RESULTS: Among the 42 participants, 73.8% (31/42) tested positive by any one of the three tests. With reference to NPS, the saliva test had PPA 66.7%, NPA 91.7%, and OA 69.0%; the buccal swab had PPA 56.7%, NPA 100%, and OA 73.8%. CONCLUSION: Self-collected saliva tests and buccal swabs showed only moderate agreement with HCW-collected NPS. Primary screening for SARS-CoV-2 may be performed with a saliva test or buccal swab, with a negative test warranting a confirmatory NPS to avoid false-negatives, minimize discomfort, and reduce the risk of spread to the community and HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling , Workflow
9.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(6): e620-e622, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052233

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, a novel coronavirus strain, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), triggered a global pandemic as the virus spread from the Wuhan Province, China, across all continents. Although infrequent, severe respiratory infection and death caused by SARS-CoV-2 is disproportionately high amongst healthcare providers such as craniofacial surgeons who work in the head and neck region. Factors this impact SARS-CoV-2 transmission include: (1) high viral loads in the mucosa of the oral and nasopharynx, (2) limited and/or imprecise disease screening/confirmation testing, (3) access to and appropriate use of personal protective equipment (PPE).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Face/surgery , Jaw Diseases/surgery , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Laryngeal Mucosa/virology , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
10.
Int J Oral Sci ; 12(1): 8, 2020 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997807

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that ACE2 is the main host cell receptor of 2019-nCoV and plays a crucial role in the entry of virus into the cell to cause the final infection. To investigate the potential route of 2019-nCov infection on the mucosa of oral cavity, bulk RNA-seq profiles from two public databases including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Functional Annotation of The Mammalian Genome Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (FANTOM5 CAGE) dataset were collected. RNA-seq profiling data of 13 organ types with para-carcinoma normal tissues from TCGA and 14 organ types with normal tissues from FANTOM5 CAGE were analyzed in order to explore and validate the expression of ACE2 on the mucosa of oral cavity. Further, single-cell transcriptomes from an independent data generated in-house were used to identify and confirm the ACE2-expressing cell composition and proportion in oral cavity. The results demonstrated that the ACE2 expressed on the mucosa of oral cavity. Interestingly, this receptor was highly enriched in epithelial cells of tongue. Preliminarily, those findings have explained the basic mechanism that the oral cavity is a potentially high risk for 2019-nCoV infectious susceptibility and provided a piece of evidence for the future prevention strategy in dental clinical practice as well as daily life.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Mouth Mucosa , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Tongue , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Mouth Mucosa/enzymology , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tongue/metabolism , Tongue/virology
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(22): 22425-22444, 2020 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969889

ABSTRACT

With the current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there is an urgent need for new therapies and prevention strategies that can help curtail disease spread and reduce mortality. The inhibition of viral entry and thus spread is a plausible therapeutic avenue. SARS-CoV-2 uses receptor-mediated entry into a human host via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is expressed in lung tissue as well as the oral and nasal mucosa, kidney, testes and gastrointestinal tract. The modulation of ACE2 levels in these gateway tissues may be an effective strategy for decreasing disease susceptibility. Cannabis sativa, especially those high in the anti-inflammatory cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), has been found to alter gene expression and inflammation and harbour anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its effects on ACE2 expression remain unknown. Working under a Health Canada research license, we developed over 800 new C. sativa cultivars and hypothesized that high-CBD C. sativa extracts may be used to down-regulate ACE2 expression in target COVID-19 tissues. Using artificial 3D human models of oral, airway and intestinal tissues, we identified 13 high-CBD C. sativa extracts that decrease ACE2 protein levels. Some C. sativa extracts down-regulate serine protease TMPRSS2, another critical protein required for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells. While our most effective extracts require further large-scale validation, our study is important for future analyses of the effects of medical cannabis on COVID-19. The extracts of our most successful novel high-CBD C. sativa lines, pending further investigation, may become a useful and safe addition to the prevention/treatment of COVID-19 as an adjunct therapy.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cannabis/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , Cannabidiol/therapeutic use , Computer Simulation , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Models, Anatomic , Mouth Mucosa/drug effects , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Internalization/drug effects
12.
J Dent Res ; 100(2): 141-154, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760369

ABSTRACT

This living systematic review aims to summarize evidence on the prevalence of oral signs and symptoms in patients with COVID-19. The review was reported per the PRISMA checklist, and the literature search was conducted in 6 databases and in gray literature. Studies published in any language mentioning oral symptoms and signs in patients with COVID-19 were included. The risk of bias was assessed by the Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal tools. The certainty of evidence was evaluated through GRADE assessment. After a 2-step selection, 40 studies were included: 33 cross-sectional and 7 case reports. Overall, 10,228 patients (4,288 males, 5,770 females, and 170 unknown) from 19 countries were assessed. Gustatory impairment was the most common oral manifestation, with a prevalence of 45% (95% CI, 34% to 55%; I2 = 99%). The pooled eligible data for different taste disorders were 38% for dysgeusia and 35% for hypogeusia, while ageusia had a prevalence of 24%. Taste disorders were associated with COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 12.68; 95% CI, 6.41 to 25.10; I2 = 63%; P < 0.00001), mild/moderate severity (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.25 to 3.49; I2 = 66%; P = 0.005), and female patients (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.17; I2 = 70%; P = 0.0007). Oral mucosal lesions presented multiple clinical aspects, including white and erythematous plaques, irregular ulcers, small blisters, petechiae, and desquamative gingivitis. Tongue, palate, lips, gingiva, and buccal mucosa were affected. In mild cases, oral mucosal lesions developed before or at the same time as the initial respiratory symptoms; however, in those who required medication and hospitalization, the lesions developed approximately 7 to 24 d after onset symptoms. Therefore, taste disorders may be common symptoms in patients with COVID-19 and should be considered in the scope of the disease's onset and progression. Oral mucosal lesions are more likely to present as coinfections and secondary manifestations with multiple clinical aspects (PROSPERO CRD42020184468).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mouth Diseases/virology , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Taste Disorders/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mouth Diseases/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Prevalence
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 326-328, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591793

ABSTRACT

Some oral manifestations have been observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there is still a question about whether these lesions are due to coronavirus infection or secondary manifestations resulting from the patient's systemic condition. Thus, this article aims to report an additional case of an oral condition in a patient diagnosed with COVID-19. Our patient, a sixty-seven-year-old Caucasian man, tested positive to coronavirus and presented oral manifestations such as recurrent herpes simplex, candidiasis, and geographic tongue. We support the argument that some oral conditions could be secondary to the deterioration of systemic health or due to treatments for COVID-19. The present case report highlights the importance of including dentists in the intensive care unit multi-professional team to improve oral health in critical patients, not only COVID-19 patients, but also, to contribute to evidence-based and decision-making in managing infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 109907, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437394

ABSTRACT

Periodontal pockets are the major clinical manifestation of Periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory oral disease affecting the teeth-supporting tissues and has high prevalence in the adult population. Periodontal pockets are ideal environments for subgingival bacterial biofilms, that interact with the supragingival oral cavity, mucosal tissues of the pocket and a peripheral circulatory system. Periodontal pockets have been found to harbor viral species such as the Herpes simplex viruses' family. Recently, the SARS-CoV-2 has gained major interest of the scientific/medical community as it caused a global pandemic (Covid-19) and paralyzed the globe with high figures of infected people worldwide. This virus behavior is still partially understood, and by analyzing some of its features we hypothesized that periodontal pocket could be a favorable anatomical niche for the virus and thus acting as a reservoir for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Periodontal Pocket/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Models, Biological , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Periodontal Pocket/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Oral Oncol ; 105: 104741, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133297

ABSTRACT

This article aims at collecting all information needed for dentists regarding the COVID-19 pandemic throughout the world by reviewing articles published by now. In late 2019, a pneumonia outbreak of uncertain etiology happened in Wuhan, China. There were many reports related to a live-animal and seafood market, supporting that the pathogens were transferred from animals to humans, rapidly evolving into transmission from human to human. The pathogen was classified as 2019 Novel Corona Virus (2019-nCoV), and the disease was named COrona VIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Given that COVID-19 has lately been detected in infected patients' saliva, the COVID-19 outbreak is an alert that all dental and other health professionals must be vigilant in defending against the infectious disease spread, and it may enable to assess whether non-invasive saliva diagnostic for COVID-19. There has so far been no evidence from randomized controlled trials to prescribe any particular anti-nCoV treatment or vaccine, and COVID-19 management has been widely supportive. Since the ACE-2 was expressing on oral cavity mucosa, there is a potentially huge COVID-19 infectious vulnerability risk for oral cavity and brought up a proof for the future prevention procedure in dental practice and daily life. As a result, the whole dental teams should be vigilant and keep patients and themselves in a safe environment by following the guideline in this study.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dentists , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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