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1.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256401, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365430

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospital areas is of a particular concern, since the close interaction between health care personnel and patients diagnosed with COVID-19, which allows virus to be easily spread between them and subsequently to their families and communities. Preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare personnel is essential to reduce the frequency of infections and outbreaks during the pandemic considering that they work in high-risk areas. In this research, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were tested in vitro and shown to have an inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection in cultured cells. Subsequently, we assess the effects of mouthwash and nose rinse with ARGOVIT® silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in health workers consider as high-risk group of acquiring the infection in the General Tijuana Hospital, Mexico, a hospital for the exclusive recruitment of patients diagnosed with COVID-19. We present a prospective randomized study of 231 participants that was carried out for 9 weeks (during the declaration of a pandemic). The "experimental" group was instructed to do mouthwash and nose rinse with the AgNPs solution; the "control" group was instructed to do mouthwashes and nose rinse in a conventional way. The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly lower in the "experimental" group (two participants of 114, 1.8%) compared to the "control" group (thirty-three participants of 117, 28.2%), with an 84.8% efficiency. We conclude that the mouth and nasal rinse with AgNPs helps in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in health personnel who are exposed to patients diagnosed with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Metal Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Vero Cells
2.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021032, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the form of mouthwash and nasal spray as an auxiliary treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Forty hospitalized patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test were evaluated. They were randomly divided into an experimental group (n= 20; gargling with 1.0% H2O2 and nasal wash with 0.5% H2O2) or a control group (n= 20). The solutions were used for 7 days and the patients were monitored every 2 days, for a total of 8 days. At check-ups, patients were asked about their symptoms and possible adverse effects of the solutions. The presence and severity (mild, moderate, or severe) of symptoms were recorded. Data were compared using the Student test and the Fisher exact test (α= 0.05). RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the length of hospital stay (p= 0.65). The most frequent symptom on day 0 was coughing (72.0% in the experimental group and 76.5% in the control group), which abated over time. There was no significant difference between the groups in the evaluated symptoms. Most (75.0%) of the patients in the experimental group presented a reduction in dyspnea between days 0 and 2. Few patients reported adverse effects from the use of the solutions. CONCLUSIONS: H2O2 as a mouthwash and nasal spray is safe to use. There is insufficient evidence to demonstrate that H2O2 is effective as an auxiliary treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Nasal Sprays , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013626, 2020 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection poses a serious risk to patients and - due to its contagious nature - to those healthcare workers (HCWs) treating them. If the mouth and nose of HCWs are irrigated with antimicrobial solutions, this may help reduce the risk of active infection being passed from infected patients to HCWs through droplet transmission or direct contact. However, the use of such antimicrobial solutions may be associated with harms related to the toxicity of the solutions themselves, or alterations in the natural microbial flora of the mouth or nose. Understanding these possible side effects is particularly important when the HCWs are otherwise fit and well. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of antimicrobial mouthwashes and nasal sprays used by healthcare workers (HCWs) to protect themselves when treating patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. SEARCH METHODS: Information Specialists from Cochrane ENT and Cochrane Oral Health searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2020, Issue 6); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 1 June 2020.  SELECTION CRITERIA: This is a question that urgently requires evidence, however at the present time we did not anticipate finding many completed randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore planned to include the following types of studies: RCTs; quasi-RCTs; non-randomised controlled trials; prospective cohort studies; retrospective cohort studies; cross-sectional studies; controlled before-and-after studies. We set no minimum duration for the studies.   We sought studies comparing any antimicrobial mouthwash and/or nasal spray (alone or in combination) at any concentration, delivered to HCWs, with or without the same intervention being given to the patients with COVID-19. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Our primary outcomes were: 1) incidence of symptomatic or test-positive COVID-19 infection in HCWs; 2) significant adverse event: anosmia (or disturbance in sense of smell). Our secondary outcomes were: 3) viral content of aerosol, when present (if intervention administered to patients); 4) other adverse events: changes in microbiome in oral cavity, nasal cavity, oro- or nasopharynx; 5) other adverse events: allergy, irritation/burning of nasal, oral or oropharyngeal mucosa (e.g. erosions, ulcers, bleeding), long-term staining of mucous membranes or teeth, accidental ingestion. We planned to use GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We found no completed studies to include in this review. We identified three ongoing studies (including two RCTs), which aim to enrol nearly 700 participants. The interventions included in these trials are povidone iodine, nitric oxide and GLS-1200 oral spray (the constituent of this spray is unclear and may not be antimicrobial in nature).   AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We identified no studies for inclusion in this review. This is not surprising given the relatively recent emergence of COVID-19 infection. It is promising that the question posed in this review is being addressed by two RCTs and a non-randomised study. We are concerned that only one of the ongoing studies specifically states that it will evaluate adverse events and it is not clear if this will include changes in the sense of smell or to the oral and nasal microbiota, and any consequences thereof. Very few interventions have large and dramatic effect sizes. If a positive treatment effect is demonstrated when studies are available for inclusion in this review, it may not be large. In these circumstances in particular, where those receiving the intervention are otherwise fit and well, it may be a challenge to weigh up the benefits against the harms if the latter are of uncertain frequency and severity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Nasal Sprays , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Mouth/virology , Mouthwashes/adverse effects , Nose/virology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Therapeutic Irrigation
5.
Trials ; 21(1): 906, 2020 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901917

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: - To describe the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 salivary viral load of patients infected with Covid-19, performing 7 days of tri-daily mouthwashes with and without antivirals. - To compare the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 nasal and salivary viral load according to the presence or absence of antivirals in the mouthwash. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a multi-center, randomised controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel arms (1:1 ratio). PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria - Age: 18-85 years old - Clinical diagnosis of Covid-19 infection - Clinical signs have been present for less than 8 days - Virological confirmation - Understanding and acceptance of the trial - Written agreement to participate in the trial Exclusion criteria - Pregnancy, breastfeeding, inability to comply with protocol, lack of written agreement - Patients using mouthwash on a regular basis (more than once a week) - Patient at risk of infectious endocarditis - Patients unable to answer questions - Uncooperative patient The clinical trial is being conducted with the collaboration of three French hospital centers: Hospital Center Emile Roux (Le Puy en Velay, France), Clinic of the Protestant Infirmary (Lyon, France) and Intercommunal Hospital Center (Mont de Marsan, France). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Eligible participants will be allocated to one of the two study groups. Intervention group: patients perform a tri-daily mouthwash with mouthwash containing antivirals (ß-cyclodextrin and Citrox®) for a period of 7 days. CONTROL GROUP: patients perform a tri-daily mouthwash with a placebo mouthwash for a period of 7 days. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Outcome Measures: Change from Baseline amount of SARS-CoV-2 in salivary samples at 4 and 9 hours, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. Real-time PCR assays are performed to assess salivary SARS-CoV 2 viral load. SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Change from Baseline amount of SARS-CoV-2 virus in nasal samples at 6 days. Real-time PCR assays are performed to assess nasal SARS-CoV-2 viral load. RANDOMISATION: Participants meeting all eligibility requirements are allocated to one of the two study arms (mouthwash with ß-cyclodextrin and Citrox® or mouthwash without ß-cyclodextrin and Citrox®) in a 1:1 ratio using simple randomisation with computer generated random numbers. BLINDING (MASKING): Participants, doctors and nurses caring for participants, laboratory technicians and investigators assessing the outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): Both the intervention and control groups will be composed of 103 participants, so the study will include a total of 206 participants. TRIAL STATUS: The current protocol version is 6, August 4th, 2020. Recruitment began on April 6, 2020 and is anticipated to be complete by April 5, 2021. As of October 2, 2020, forty-two participants have been included. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered on 20 April 2020 at www.clinicaltrials.gov with the number NCT04352959 . FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol." The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2)."


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Mouthwashes , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Saliva/virology , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Mouthwashes/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , beta-Cyclodextrins/administration & dosage , beta-Cyclodextrins/adverse effects
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013627, 2020 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-791634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection poses a serious risk to patients and - due to its contagious nature - to those healthcare workers (HCWs) treating them. If the mouth and nose of patients with infection are irrigated with antimicrobial solutions, this may help the patients by killing any coronavirus present at those sites. It may also reduce the risk of the active infection being passed to HCWs through droplet transmission or direct contact. However, the use of such antimicrobial solutions may be associated with harms related to the toxicity of the solutions themselves or alterations in the natural microbial flora of the mouth or nose. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of antimicrobial mouthwashes and nasal sprays administered to patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection to both the patients and the HCWs caring for them. SEARCH METHODS: Information Specialists from Cochrane ENT and Cochrane Oral Health searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2020, Issue 6); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 1 June 2020.  SELECTION CRITERIA: This is a question that urgently requires evidence, however at the present time we did not anticipate finding many completed RCTs. We therefore planned to include the following types of studies: randomised controlled trials (RCTs); quasi-RCTs; non-randomised controlled trials; prospective cohort studies; retrospective cohort studies; cross-sectional studies; controlled before-and-after studies. We set no minimum duration for the studies.   We sought studies comparing antimicrobial mouthwash and/or nasal spray (alone or in combination) at any concentration, delivered with any frequency or dosage to suspected/confirmed COVID-19 patients. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Our primary outcomes were: 1) RECOVERY* (www.recoverytrial.net) outcomes in patients (mortality; hospitalisation status; use of ventilation; use of renal dialysis or haemofiltration); 2) incidence of symptomatic or test-positive COVID-19 infection in HCWs; 3) significant adverse event: anosmia (or disturbance in sense of smell). Our secondary outcomes were: 4) change in COVID-19 viral load in patients; 5) COVID-19 viral content of aerosol (when present); 6) other adverse events: changes in microbiome in oral cavity, nasal cavity, oro- or nasopharynx; 7) other adverse events: allergy, irritation/burning of nasal, oral or oropharyngeal mucosa (e.g. erosions, ulcers, bleeding), long-term staining of mucous membranes or teeth, accidental ingestion. We planned to use GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We found no completed studies to include in this review. We identified 16 ongoing studies (including 14 RCTs), which aim to enrol nearly 1250 participants. The interventions included in these trials are ArtemiC (artemisinin, curcumin, frankincense and vitamin C), Citrox (a bioflavonoid), cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide, essential oils, hydrogen peroxide, hypertonic saline, Kerecis spray (omega 3 viruxide - containing neem oil and St John's wort), neem extract, nitric oxide releasing solution, povidone iodine and saline with baby shampoo.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We identified no studies for inclusion in this review. This is not surprising given the relatively recent emergence of COVID-19 infection. It is promising that the question posed in this review is being addressed by a number of RCTs and other studies. We are concerned that few of the ongoing studies specifically state that they will evaluate adverse events such as changes in the sense of smell or to the oral and nasal microbiota, and any consequences thereof. Very few interventions have large and dramatic effect sizes. If a positive treatment effect is demonstrated when studies are available for inclusion in this review, it may not be large. In these circumstances in particular it may be a challenge to weigh up the benefits against the harms if the latter are of uncertain frequency and severity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Nasal Sprays , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Mouth/virology , Mouthwashes/adverse effects , Nose/virology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Therapeutic Irrigation
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013628, 2020 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-774574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection poses a serious risk to patients and - due to its contagious nature - to those healthcare workers (HCWs) treating them. The risks of transmission of infection are greater when a patient is undergoing an aerosol-generating procedure (AGP). Not all those with COVID-19 infection are symptomatic, or suspected of harbouring the infection. If a patient who is not known to have or suspected of having COVID-19 infection is to undergo an AGP, it would nonetheless be sensible to minimise the risk to those HCWs treating them. If the mouth and nose of an individual undergoing an AGP are irrigated with antimicrobial solutions, this may be a simple and safe method of reducing the risk of any covert infection being passed to HCWs through droplet transmission or direct contact. Alternatively, the use of antimicrobial solutions by the HCW may decrease the chance of them acquiring COVID-19 infection. However, the use of such antimicrobial solutions may be associated with harms related to the toxicity of the solutions themselves or alterations in the natural microbial flora of the mouth or nose. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of antimicrobial mouthwashes and nasal sprays administered to HCWs and/or patients when undertaking AGPs on patients without suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. SEARCH METHODS: Information Specialists from Cochrane ENT and Cochrane Oral Health searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2020, Issue 6); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 1 June 2020.  SELECTION CRITERIA: This is a question that urgently requires evidence, however at the present time we did not anticipate finding many completed RCTs. We therefore planned to include the following types of studies: randomised controlled trials (RCTs); quasi-RCTs; non-randomised controlled trials; prospective cohort studies; retrospective cohort studies; cross-sectional studies; controlled before-and-after studies. We set no minimum duration for the studies.   We sought studies comparing any antimicrobial mouthwash and/or nasal spray (alone or in combination) at any concentration, delivered to the patient or HCW before and/or after an AGP. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Our primary outcomes were: 1) incidence of symptomatic or test-positive COVID-19 infection in HCWs or patients; 2) significant adverse event: anosmia (or disturbance in sense of smell). Our secondary outcomes were: 3) COVID-19 viral content of aerosol (when present); 4) change in COVID-19 viral load at site(s) of irrigation; 5) other adverse events: changes in microbiome in oral cavity, nasal cavity, oro- or nasopharynx; 6) other adverse events: allergy, irritation/burning of nasal, oral or oropharyngeal mucosa (e.g. erosions, ulcers, bleeding), long-term staining of mucous membranes or teeth, accidental ingestion. We planned to use GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We found no completed studies to include in this review.   AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We identified no studies for inclusion in this review, nor any ongoing studies. The absence of completed studies is not surprising given the relatively recent emergence of COVID-19 infection. However, we are disappointed that this important clinical question is not being addressed by ongoing studies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Nasal Sprays , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Administration, Intranasal , Air Microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Asymptomatic Infections/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Mouth/virology , Mouthwashes/adverse effects , Nose/virology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Trials ; 21(1): 785, 2020 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-757090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: 1- To compare the effectiveness of 1% Hydrogen peroxide, 0.2% Povidone-Iodine, 2% hypertonic saline and a novel solution Neem extract (Azardirachta indica) in reducing intra-oral viral load in COVID-19 positive patients. 2- To determine the salivary cytokine profiles of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL- 17 among COVID-19 patients subjected to 1% Hydrogen peroxide, 0.2% Povidone-Iodine, 2% hypertonic saline or Neem extract (Azardirachta indica) based gargles. TRIAL DESIGN: This will be a parallel group, quadruple blind-randomised controlled pilot trial with an add on laboratory based study. PARTICIPANTS: A non-probability, purposive sampling technique will be followed to identify participants for this study. The clinical trial will be carried out at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, Pakistan. The viral PCR tests will be done at main AKUH clinical laboratories whereas the immunological tests (cytokine analysis) will be done at the Juma research laboratory of AKUH. The inclusion criteria are laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 positive patients, male or female, in the age range of 18-65 years, with mild to moderate disease, already admitted to the AKUH. Subjects with low Glasgow coma score, with a history of radiotherapy or chemotherapy, who are more than 7 days past the onset of COVID- 19 symptoms, or intubated or edentulous patients will be excluded. Patients who are being treated with any form of oral or parenteral antiviral therapy will be excluded, as well as patients with known pre-existing chronic mucosal lesions such as lichen planus. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Group A (n=10) patients on 10 ml gargle and nasal lavage using 0.2% Povidone-Iodine (Betadiene® by Aviro Health Inc./ Pyodine® by Brooks Pharma Inc.) for 20-30 seconds, thrice daily for 6 days. Group B (n=10) patients will be subjected to 10 ml gargle and nasal lavage using 1% Hydrogen peroxide (HP® by Karachi Chemicals Products Inc./ ActiveOxy® by Boumatic Inc.) for 20-30 seconds, thrice daily for 6 days. Group C will comprised of (n=10) subjects on 10ml gargle and nasal lavage using Neem extract solution (Azardirachta indica) formulated by Karachi University (chemistry department laboratories) for 20-30 seconds, thrice daily for 6 days. Group D (n=10) patients will use 2% hypertonic saline (Plabottle® by Otsuka Inc.) gargle and nasal lavage for a similar time period. Group E (n=10) will serve as positive controls. These will be given simple distilled water gargles and nasal lavage for 20-30 seconds, thrice daily for six days. For nasal lavage, a special douche syringe will be provided to each participant. Its use will be thoroughly explained by the data collection officer. After each use, the patient is asked not to eat, drink, or rinse their mouth for the next 30 minutes. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome is the reduction in the intra-oral viral load confirmed with real time quantitative PCR. RANDOMISATION: The assignment to the study group/ allocation will be done using the sealed envelope method under the supervision of Clinical Trial Unit (CTU) of Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. The patients will be randomised to their respective study group (1:1:1:1:1 allocation ratio) immediately after the eligibility assessment and consent administration is done. BLINDING (MASKING): The study will be quadruple-blinded. Patients, intervention provider, outcome assessor and the data collection officer will be blinded. The groups will be labelled as A, B, C, D or E. The codes of the intervention will be kept in lock & key at the CTU and will only be revealed at the end of study or if the study is terminated prematurely. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): As there is no prior work on this research question, so no assumptions for the sample size calculation could be made. The present study will serve as a pilot trial. We intend to study 50 patients in five study groups with 10 patients in each study group. For details, please refer to Fig. 1 for details. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version is 7.0, approved by the department and institutional ethics committees and clinical trial unit of the university hospital. Recruitment is planned to start as soon as the funding is sanctioned. The total duration of the study is expected to be 6 months i.e. August 2020-January 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov on 10 April 2020 NCT04341688 . FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2). Fig. 1 Flow diagram of study-participants' timeline.


Subject(s)
Azadirachta , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral , Povidone-Iodine/administration & dosage , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/administration & dosage , Viral Load , Adult , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Monitoring, Immunologic/methods , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Nasal Lavage/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Load/methods
9.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110081, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634173

ABSTRACT

Hand hygiene by washing with soap and water is recommended for the prevention of COVID-19 spread. Soaps and detergents are explained to act by damaging viral spike glycoproteins (peplomers) or by washing out the virus through entrapment in the micelles. Technically, soaps come under a functional category of molecules known as surfactants. Surfactants are widely used in pharmaceutical formulations as excipients. We wonder why surfactants are still not tried for prophylaxis or therapy against COVID-19? That too when many of them have proven antiviral properties. Moreover, lung surfactants have already shown benefits in respiratory viral infections. Therefore, we postulate that surfactant-based prophylaxis and therapy would be promising. We believe that our hypothesis would stimulate debate or new research exploring the possibility of surfactant-based prophylaxis and therapy against COVID-19. The success of a surfactant-based technique would save the world from any such pandemic in the future too.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Micelles , Models, Biological , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents/administration & dosage
10.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 109910, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457514

ABSTRACT

We reviewed the literature concerning the innate response from nasal and oral epithelial cells and their reaction to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hydrogen peroxide is produced physiologically by oral bacteria and plays a significant role in the balance of oral microecology since it is an important antimicrobial agent. In the epithelial cells, the enzyme superoxide dismutase catalyzes a reaction leading from hydrogen peroxide to the ion superoxide. The induced oxidative stress stimulates a local innate response via activation of the toll-like receptors and the NF-κB. Those kinds of reactions are also activated by viral infections. Virus-induced oxidative stress plays an important role in the regulation of the host immune system and the specific oxidant-sensitive pathway is one of the effective strategies against viral infections. Therefore, nose/mouth/throat washing with hydrogen peroxide may enhance those local innate responses to viral infections and help protect against the current coronavirus pandemic. We strongly encourage the rapid development of randomized controlled trials in both SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative subjects to test the preliminary findings from the in-vitro and in-vivo observational studies that we identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Models, Immunological , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Nasal Sprays , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
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