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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19934, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133627

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we synthesized Ag/ZnO composite colloidal nanoparticles and the surface of nanoparticles was improved by amodiaquine ligand. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using the XRD diffraction pattern, FT-IR Spectroscopy, TEM image, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects of the synthesized colloid were examined on E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus hirae bacteria, and Candida Albicans and form spore aspergillus fungi, also influenza, herpes simplex, and covid 19 viruses. The results indicate more than 7 log removal of the bacteria, fungi, and viruses by synthesized colloid with a concentration of 15 µg/L (Ag)/50 µg/ml (ZnO). This removal for covid 19 virus is from 3.2 × 108 numbers to 21 viruses within 30 s. Also, irritation and toxicity tests of the synthesized colloid show harmless effects on human cells and tissues. These colloidal nanoparticles were used as mouthwash solution and their clinical tests were done on 500 people infected by the coronavirus. The results indicate that by washing their mouth and nose three times on day all patients got healthy at different times depending on the depth of the disease. Almost all people with no signs of infection and using this solution as a mouthwash didn't infect by the virus during the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Metal Nanoparticles , Zinc Oxide , Humans , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Amodiaquine/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Escherichia coli
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043751

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global and evolving pandemic associated with heavy health and financial burdens. Considering the oral cavity as the major reservoir for SARS-CoV-2, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to assess the efficacy of mouth rinses and nasal sprays in reducing the salivary viral load of SARS-CoV-2. All in vivo and in vitro studies that assessed the virucidal efficacy of mouth rinses and nasal sprays against SARS-CoV-2 and were published in the English language from December 2019 to April 2022 were considered for analyses. Special Medical Subject Headings terms were used to search Pubmed, Scopus, Embase Ovid, and Web of Science databases. The toxicological data reliability assessment tool (ToxRToool) was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Thirty-three studies (11 in vivo and 22 in vitro) were deemed eligible for inclusion in this analysis. Results of the pooled data showed that povidone-iodine is the most efficacious intervention in vivo in terms of reducing the SARS-CoV-2 salivary viral load, followed by chlorhexidine. The mean difference in the viral load was 86% and 72%, respectively. Similarly, povidone-iodine was associated with the highest log10 reduction value (LRV) in vitro, followed by cetylpyridinium chloride, (LRV = 2.938 (p < 0.0005) and LRV = 2.907 (p = 0.009), respectively). Povidone-iodine-based oral and nasal preparations showed favourable results in terms of reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral loads both in vivo and in vitro. Considering the limited number of patients in vivo, further studies among larger cohorts are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cetylpyridinium , Chlorhexidine , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Nasal Sprays , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14050, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991675

ABSTRACT

Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a quaternary ammonium compound, which is present in mouthwash, is effective against bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses. This study was conducted to explore the antiviral effect of CPC on SARS-CoV-2. There are few reports on the effect of CPC against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 at low concentrations such as 0.001%-0.005% (10-50 µg/mL). Interestingly, we found that low concentrations of CPC suppressed the infectivity of human isolated SARS-CoV-2 strains (Wuhan, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma) even in saliva. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CPC shows anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects without disrupting the virus envelope, using sucrose density analysis and electron microscopic examination. In conclusion, this study provided experimental evidence that CPC may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection even at lower concentrations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cetylpyridinium , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Dent Med Probl ; 59(3): 357-363, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the oral cavity, which plays an important role in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), it is possible to reduce the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 with antiseptics, thereby minimizing the transmission of the virus during dental procedures. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to clinically evaluate the effect of the hypochlorous acid (HClO) and povidone-iodine (PVP-I) solutions on the oral viral load of SARS-CoV-2. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 75 patients hospitalized in the COVID-19 ward of a local hospital. All the patients included in the study were within the first 24 h of hospitalization and the first 5 days of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms. The viral load of mouthwash samples was measured with the cycle threshold (Ct) value of SARS-CoV-2 through a realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The patients were divided into 3 groups. The effect on the patient's SARS-CoV-2 viral load was investigated after gargling the mouths and throats for 30 s with HClO, PVP-I and isotonic saline. First, a sample was taken after gargling with isotonic saline, then another sample was taken after gargling for 30 s with a particular antiseptic to determine the viral load of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Comparing the before and after mouthwash samples from all 3 groups, there were no statistically significant differences in the Ct values before and after gargling (p > 0.05). However, there were statistically significant differences in the number of negative samples after the use of HClO and PVP-I, which were positive before gargling (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the light of the data obtained in this study, there is insufficient evidence that gargling with HClO or PVP-I reduces viral load. Taken together, these findings imply no role for antiseptics in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by the aerosol generated during dental procedures, or more generally, SARS-CoV-2 infection control.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Humans , Hypochlorous Acid , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
5.
Oral Dis ; 28 Suppl 2: 2481-2491, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937980

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This work aims to determine the efficacy of preprocedural oral rinsing with chlorine dioxide solutions to minimize the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission during high-risk dental procedures. METHODS: The antiviral activity of chlorine-dioxide-based oral rinse (OR) solutions was tested by pre-incubating with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pseudovirus in a dosage-dependent manner before transducing to human embryonic kidney epithelial (HEK293T-ACE2) cells, which stably expresses ACE-2 receptor. Viral entry was determined by measuring luciferase activity using a luminescence microplate reader. In the cell-to-cell fusion assay, effector Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells co-expressing spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 and T7 RNA polymerase were pre-incubated with the ORs before co-culturing with the target CHO-K1 cells co-expressing human ACE2 receptor and luciferase gene. The luciferase signal was quantified 24 h after mixing the cells. Surface expression of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and ACE-2 receptor was confirmed using direct fluorescent imaging and quantitative cell-ELISA. Finally, dosage-dependent cytotoxic effects of ORs were evaluated at two different time points. RESULTS: A dosage-dependent antiviral effect of the ORs was observed against SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and spike glycoprotein mediated cell-to-cell fusion. This demonstrates that ORs can be useful as a preprocedural step to reduce viral infectivity. CONCLUSIONS: Chlorine-dioxide-based ORs have a potential benefit for reducing SARS-CoV-2 entry and spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Chlorine/pharmacology , Virus Internalization , COVID-19/prevention & control , CHO Cells , HEK293 Cells , Cricetulus , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/pharmacology
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1833-1842, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915485

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTBackground: In vitro studies have shown that several oral antiseptics have virucidal activity against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, mouthwashes have been proposed as an easy to implement strategy to reduce viral transmission. However, there are no data measuring SARS-CoV-2 viability after mouthwashes in vivo. METHODS: In this randomized double-blind, five-parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial, SARS-CoV-2 salivary viral load (by quantitative PCR) and its infectious capacity (incubating saliva in cell cultures) have been evaluated before and after four different antiseptic mouthwashes and placebo in 54 COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Contrary to in vitro evidence, salivary viral load was not affected by any of the four tested mouthwashes. Viral culture indicated that cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) significantly reduced viral infectivity, but only at 1-hour post-mouthwash. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that some of the mouthwashes currently used to reduce viral infectivity are not efficient in vivo and, furthermore, that this effect is not immediate, generating a false sense of security.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04707742..


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
7.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 1488-1499, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860599

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulating data suggest antiviral effects of povidone-iodine against the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. This narrative review aims to examine the antiviral mechanisms of povidone-iodine, efficacy of povidone-iodine against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and safety of povidone-iodine to human epithelial cells and thyroid function. METHODS: We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for articles containing the keywords "povidone-iodine", "SARS-CoV-2" and "COVID-19" from database inception till 3 June 2021. RESULTS: Despite in vitro data supporting the anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects of povidone-iodine, findings from clinical studies revealed differences in treatment response depending on study settings (healthy vs. hospitalized individuals), treatment target (nasal vs. oral vs. pharynx), method of administration (oral rinse vs. gargle vs. throat spray) and choice of samples used to measure study endpoints (nasopharyngeal vs. saliva). One large-scale clinical trial demonstrated reduction in the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among participants who administered povidone-iodine 3 times daily during an active outbreak. Povidone-iodine is also used to disinfect the oro-pharyngeal space prior to dental or otolaryngology procedures. Although existing data suggest minimal impact of povidone-iodine on thyroid function, high-quality safety data are presently lacking. CONCLUSIONS: Povidone-iodine application to the oropharyngeal space could complement existing non-pharmacological interventions to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection especially in high exposure settings.Key messagesAccumulating data suggest antiviral effects of povidone-iodine against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.Findings from clinical studies reveal differences in treatment response depending on study settings, treatment target, method of administration and choice of samples used to measure study endpoints. One large-scale clinical trial observed reduction in the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among participants who administered povidone-iodine 3 times daily during an active outbreak.Povidone-iodine application to the oropharyngeal space could complement existing non-pharmacological interventions to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection especially in high exposure settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Povidone-Iodine , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Lipid Res ; 63(6): 100208, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859914

ABSTRACT

The lipid envelope of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an essential component of the virus; however, its molecular composition is undetermined. Addressing this knowledge gap could support the design of antiviral agents as well as further our understanding of viral-host protein interactions, infectivity, pathogenicity, and innate immune system clearance. Lipidomics revealed that the virus envelope comprised mainly phospholipids (PLs), with some cholesterol and sphingolipids, and with cholesterol/phospholipid ratio similar to lysosomes. Unlike cellular membranes, procoagulant amino-PLs were present on the external side of the viral envelope at levels exceeding those on activated platelets. Accordingly, virions directly promoted blood coagulation. To investigate whether these differences could enable selective targeting of the viral envelope in vivo, we tested whether oral rinses containing lipid-disrupting chemicals could reduce infectivity. Products containing PL-disrupting surfactants (such as cetylpyridinium chloride) met European virucidal standards in vitro; however, components that altered the critical micelle concentration reduced efficacy, and products containing essential oils, povidone-iodine, or chlorhexidine were ineffective. This result was recapitulated in vivo, where a 30-s oral rinse with cetylpyridinium chloride mouthwash eliminated live virus in the oral cavity of patients with coronavirus disease 19 for at least 1 h, whereas povidone-iodine and saline mouthwashes were ineffective. We conclude that the SARS-CoV-2 lipid envelope i) is distinct from the host plasma membrane, which may enable design of selective antiviral approaches; ii) contains exposed phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine, which may influence thrombosis, pathogenicity, and inflammation; and iii) can be selectively targeted in vivo by specific oral rinses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mouthwashes , Antiviral Agents , Cetylpyridinium , Humans , Lipids , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Povidone-Iodine , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3824796, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822104

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Given the high prevalence of the coronavirus and the high risk of virus transfer to dentists, the use of mouthwashes, which can potentially eliminate this virus, is suggested before dental procedures. Since these mouthwashes may affect the bond strength of composite resin restorations to teeth, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of recommended mouthwashes on the shear bond strength of composite resin restorations to dentin and enamel in selective etch and rinse and two-step self-etch bonding systems. Methods: Five groups of posterior teeth (n = 15) were selected for five groups of cetylpyridinium chloride 0.07%, povidone-iodine 1%, hydrogen peroxide 1%, and chlorhexidine 0.2% as mouthwash and distilled water as the control group. The buccal enamel and lingual dentin of each tooth were rinsed after immersion in a mouthwash. After 20 seconds of enamel acid-etching and 15 seconds of dentin priming, they were impregnated with an adhesive, and composite cylinders were placed on the dentin and enamel surfaces of the tooth. The shear bond strength test was performed after 24 hours, and results were analyzed by ANOVA and paired t-test (α = 0.05). Results: The mean shear bond strength of enamel to composite was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of dentin to composite in each study group, but no significant difference was found between the mean shear bond strength of composite to enamel (p = 0.199) and to dentin (p = 0.335) after the use of mouthwashes and that of the control group. Conclusion: The use of mouthwashes used in this study did not have negative effects on the shear bond strength of composite to enamel and dentin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dental Bonding , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Enamel , Dentin , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Humans , Materials Testing , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Resin Cements/chemistry , Shear Strength
10.
Oral Dis ; 28 Suppl 2: 2509-2515, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784721

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro virucidal activity of commercial mouthwashes against SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antiviral activity was assessed at different time intervals, based on common use of these products by titrating residual viral infectivity on Vero E6 cells. RESULTS: All the mouthwashes were effective to reduce the infectious titers of SARS-CoV-2 and its tested variants. Mouthwashes Listerine® Cool Mint milder taste and Listerine® Cavity Protection milder taste reduced the infectious viral titer by up to 3.9 log10 after 30 s, while mouthwash Cetilsan® Sugar Free was able to reduce the viral titer by 2.2-2.9 log10 at all tested time intervals. Mouthwash Curasept® ADS DNA Intensive treatment was less effective to decrease viral infectivity (0.7-2.2 log10 TCID50/ml at all tested time intervals). Interestingly, the Gamma variant appeared more resistant to treatment in vitro with the different mouthwashes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we were able to assess the ability of different mouthwashes to in vitro decrease the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, and we observed that Gamma variant of concern was more resistant to treatment with mouthwashes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mouthwashes , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
11.
Odontology ; 110(2): 376-392, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750724

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to systematically review the literature about the virucidal efficacy of CHX in comparison to other substances used in the oral cavity. Electronic searches were performed in four databases (PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science). Only studies that presented the following characteristics were included: (1) verified virucidal efficacy of CHX against Herpes Simplex Type-1 (HSV-1), any Influenza, or any human coronavirus (HcoV); and (2) compared the virucidal efficacy of CHX with essential oils (Listerine®), quaternary ammonium compounds, povidone-iodine, hydrogen peroxide, negative control substance, and absence of therapy. Two researchers independently selected the studies, extracted data and evaluated the risk of bias. A narrative data synthesis was used. Twenty-five studies were included, of which 21 were in vitro and four were randomized clinical trials (RCT). Studies assessed the virucidal efficacy of CHX against Herpes Simplex Type-1 (HSV-1) (10 studies), Influenza A (InfluA) (4 studies), human coronavirus (HCoV) (4 studies) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Related Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) (11 studies). Most studies demonstrated that CHX has a positive virucidal efficacy against HSV-1 and InfluA strains. However, lower efficacy was shown to InfluA strain in comparison to povidone-iodine. Lower to none virucidal efficacy of CHX is expected for HCoV and SARS-CoV-2 strains for in vitro studies. Three RCT demonstrated that CHX was able to significantly reduce the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 for a short period. CHX may present an interesting virucidal efficacy against HSV-1 and InfluA viruses. CHX also presents transient efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 when used as a mouthwash.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlorhexidine , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Povidone-Iodine , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 153(7): 635-648.e16, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Considering that the oral cavity is a major entryway and reservoir for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the aim of the authors was to perform a systematic review of in vivo and in vitro studies to assess the effectiveness of mouthrinses on SARS-CoV-2 viral load. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, MedRxiv, and bioRxiv databases, including in vitro and in vivo studies assessing the virucidal effect of mouthrinses on SARS-CoV-2 or surrogates. From a total of 1,622 articles retrieved, the authors included 39 in this systematic review. RESULTS: Povidone-iodine was the most studied mouthrinse (14 in vitro and 9 in vivo studies), frequently showing significant reductions in viral load in in vitro assays. Similarly, cetylpyridinium chloride also showed good results, although it was evaluated in fewer studies. Chlorhexidine gluconate and hydrogen peroxide showed conflicting results on SARS-CoV-2 load reduction in both in vitro and in vivo studies. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Povidone-iodine-based mouthrinses appear to be the best option as an oral prerinse in the dental context for SARS-CoV-2 viral load reduction. Although the results of primary studies are relevant, there is a need for more in vivo studies on mouthrinses, in particular, randomized controlled clinical trials, to better understand their effect on SARS-CoV-2 viral load and infection prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , Viral Load
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(2)2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709252

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The importance of human saliva in aerosol-based transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is now widely recognized. However, little is known about the efficacy of virucidal mouthwash formulations against emergent SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and in the presence of saliva.Hypothesis. Mouthwashes containing virucidal actives will have similar inactivation effects against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and will retain efficacy in the presence of human saliva.Aim. To examine in vitro efficacy of mouthwash formulations to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 variants.Methodology. Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 variants by mouthwash formulations in the presence or absence of human saliva was assayed using ASTM International Standard E1052-20 methodology.Results. Appropriately formulated mouthwashes containing 0.07 % cetylpyridinium chloride but not 0.2 % chlorhexidine completely inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (USA-WA1/2020, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta) up to the limit of detection in suspension assays. Tests using USA-WA1/2020 indicates that efficacy is maintained in the presence of human saliva.Conclusions. Together these data suggest cetylpyridinium chloride-based mouthwashes are effective at inactivating SARS-CoV-2 variants. This indicates potential to reduce viral load in the oral cavity and mitigate transmission via salivary aerosols.


Subject(s)
Cetylpyridinium , Mouthwashes , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , COVID-19 , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saliva/virology
14.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 47, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals, especially dentists and dental hygienists, are at increased risk for contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through air-borne particles and splatter. This study assessed the in vitro virucidal activity of 0.5% (w/v) povidone-iodine (PVP-I) oral rinse against SARS-CoV-2 to demonstrate its utility as a professional oral rinse. METHODS: A 0.5% (w/v) PVP-I oral rinse formulation, placebo oral rinse, and positive (70% [v/v] ethanol and water) and negative (water) controls were assessed using the time-kill method. SARS-CoV-2 was propagated in Vero 76 host cells. Following neutralization validation, triplicate tests were performed for each test formulation and virucidal activity measured at 15, 30, and 60 s and 5 min. RESULTS: The 0.5% (w/v) PVP-I oral rinse demonstrated effective in vitro virucidal activity against SARS-CoV-2 as early as 15 s after exposure; viral titer was reduced to < 0.67 log10 50% cell culture infectious dose (CCID50)/0.1 mL (log10 reduction of > 4.0) at 30 s, whereas the placebo oral rinse reduced the SARS-CoV-2 viral titer to 4.67 and 4.5 log10 CCID50/0.1 mL at the 15- and 30-s time points, with a log10 reduction of 0.63 and 0.17, respectively. No toxicity or cytotoxic effects against Vero 76 host cells were observed with the 0.5% (w/v) PVP-I oral rinse; positive and negative controls performed as expected. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro virucidal activity of 0.5% (w/v) PVP-I oral rinse against SARS-CoV-2 was demonstrated. Rapid inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 was observed with 0.5% (w/v) formulation with a contact duration of 15 s. Clinical investigations are needed to assess the effectiveness of PVP-I oral rinse against SARS-CoV-2 in dental practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Povidone-Iodine , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 43(2): e13-e16, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Saliva is an active carrier of SARS-CoV-2, and antimicrobial mouthrinses can be rendered less effective by saliva. Aerosol-generating procedures are commonplace in dentistry, and preprocedural mouthrinses and/or irrigation with effective SARS-CoV-2 virucidals should be tested in the presence of saliva. METHODS: With the use of an in vitro virucidal suspension test, molecular iodine oral rinse was assayed against SARS-CoV-2 with and without saliva after 30- and 60-second exposures to the rinse. Log10 infectivity and consequent virus reductions were calculated at each timepoint. RESULTS: Virus load reductions with saliva were 4.75 log10 after 30 seconds of exposure and ≥5.25 log10 after 60 seconds. Without saliva, infectivity was reduced by 5.00 log10 and ≥5.75 log10 after 30 and 60 seconds, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular iodine oral rinse appears effective in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in vitro and, to date, appears to be the most effective oral rinse tested both in the presence of and without human saliva.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Iodine , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24392, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585793

ABSTRACT

Most public health measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic are based on preventing the pathogen spread, and the use of oral antiseptics has been proposed as a strategy to reduce transmission risk. The aim of this manuscript is to test the efficacy of mouthwashes to reduce salivary viral load in vivo. This is a multi-centre, blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial that tests the effect of four mouthwashes (cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, povidone-iodine and hydrogen peroxide) in SARS-CoV-2 salivary load measured by qPCR at baseline and 30, 60 and 120 min after the mouthrinse. A fifth group of patients used distilled water mouthrinse as a control. Eighty-four participants were recruited and divided into 12-15 per group. There were no statistically significant changes in salivary viral load after the use of the different mouthwashes. Although oral antiseptics have shown virucidal effects in vitro, our data show that salivary viral load in COVID-19 patients was not affected by the tested treatments. This could reflect that those mouthwashes are not effective in vivo, or that viral particles are not infective but viral RNA is still detected by PCR. Viral infectivity studies after the use of mouthwashes are therefore required. ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04707742 ; Identifier: NCT04707742).


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saliva/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Placebo Effect , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load/drug effects , Young Adult
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2610122, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this study, the cytotoxic responses of six different over-the-counter mouthwashes on L929 cells were analyzed by two different techniques: the traditional colorimetric tetrazolium-based reduction assay (MTT) and the modern impedance-based real-time cell analysis (RTCA) system to investigate their biocompatibility in vitro. Thus, the investigation of the antiproliferative effects of the specified materials via different techniques is vital to reach this goal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, L929 mouse fibroblasts were exposed to the dilutions of mouthwashes for 2 minutes. After incubation, the tetrazolium reduction method was used to assess the metabolic viability of cells measured by colorimetric MTT assay and morphological inspection of cells was performed via phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of each mouthwash on the proliferation, morphology, and adhesion of L929 cells was monitored continuously by a noninvasive and label-free RTCA system for 140 h. RESULTS: Our data showed that all of the mouthwashes had varying cytotoxic effects on fibroblasts compared to the control group in MTT assay. In addition to that, RTCA technology has provided the growth kinetic profiles that can be used to analyze if the treatment is causing antimitotic or DNA-damaging effect on cells. Thus, analysis via this system can tell us the mechanism of toxicity behind the cell growth inhibition in vitro. Here, we found that only mouthwash 1 moderately maintained the viability of the L929 cells, yet displaying antimitotic effects and the other mouthwashes (mouthwash 2-mouthwash 6) showed toxicity via DNA-damaging effects. CONCLUSIONS: Of the six types of mouthwash tested, the most biocompatible result was obtained from a mouthwash containing alcohol (i.e., mouthwash 1). On the other hand, sodium fluoride- (NaF-) and cetylpyridinium chloride- (CPC-) containing mouthwash (i.e., mouthwash 2) showed the most cytotoxic effect.


Subject(s)
Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Sodium Fluoride/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Mice , Mouthwashes/chemistry
18.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 121(5): 879-885, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458570

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection that is mainly through the airborne transmission, is a worldwide health concern. This review seeks to assess the potential effectiveness of mouthwash in reducing the oropharyngeal load of SARS-CoV-2 based on the available evidence. Articles related to mouthwash and COVID-19 in PubMed were electronically searched in July, 2021. After manually excluding articles lacking sufficient scientific evidence or validation processes, those with inaccessible online full text, those that did not test the effectiveness of mouthwash against SARS-CoV-2, and those not written in English, 17 original and 13 review articles were chosen for this review. The eligible articles revealed that the main virucidal mechanism of mouthwash was via interactions with the viral envelope. Povidone-iodine (PVP-I), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and essential oils with ethanol showed virucidal effects on SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, potentially by interfering with the viral envelope. A few clinical studies demonstrated that PVP-I, CPC, hydrogen peroxide, and chlorhexidine reduced the oropharyngeal load of SARS-CoV-2. Although the available evidence is limited, mouthwash containing PVP-I or CPC shows potential for reducing the oropharyngeal load of SARS-CoV-2 and thus may present a risk-mitigation strategy for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257705, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416908

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells when the viral spike protein is cleaved by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) after binding to the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Since ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in the tongue and gingival mucosa, the oral cavity is a potential entry point for SARS-CoV-2. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of general ingredients of toothpastes and mouthwashes on the spike protein-ACE2 interaction and the TMPRSS2 protease activity using an in vitro assay. Both assays detected inhibitory effects of sodium tetradecene sulfonate, sodium N-lauroyl-N-methyltaurate, sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and copper gluconate. Molecular docking simulations suggested that these ingredients could bind to inhibitor-binding site of ACE2. Furthermore, tranexamic acid exerted inhibitory effects on TMPRSS2 protease activity. Our findings suggest that these toothpaste and mouthwash ingredients could help prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Oral Hygiene/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Toothpastes/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Humans , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1179-1185, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340729

ABSTRACT

This systematic review aims to evaluate the evidence on the efficacy of mouth rinses on SARS-CoV-2 from in vitro studies. Five electronic databases were searched up to February 2021; no language or time restrictions were used. Two independent reviewers conducted both selection and data extraction processes. The toxicological data reliability assessment tool was used to evaluate the risk of bias. Starting from 239 articles, retrieved by the electronic search, only eight studies were included in our systematic review. Povidone Iodine (PVP-I) was effective in killing SARS-CoV-2, demonstrated higher virucidal activity than other commonly used active ingredients. Conflicting results were found about the effectiveness of Chlorhexidine (CHX) while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) proved less effective than PVP-I. Other active ingredients, such as quaternary ammonium compounds and Ethanol (particularly when combined with essential oils), have also shown promising results in reducing viral load, with results comparable to PVP-I.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
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