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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2146168, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620079

ABSTRACT

Importance: The association of COVID-19 not requiring hospitalization with functional mobility in community-dwelling adults above and beyond the impact of the pandemic control measures implemented in 2020 remains to be elucidated. Objective: To evaluate the association between a COVID-19 diagnosis and change in mobility and physical function of adults in Canada aged 50 years or older during the initial pandemic lockdown. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) COVID-19 study. This study was launched on April 15, 2020, and the exit questionnaires were completed between September and December 2020. Prepandemic data from the first CLSA follow-up (2015-2018) were also used. Respondents included middle-aged and older community-dwelling participants residing in Canadian provinces. Data were analyzed from February to May 2021. Exposures: The assessment for self-reported COVID-19 status was adapted from the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition available at the time of data collection; cases were classified as confirmed or probable, suspected, or non-COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in mobility since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were assessed using global rating of change in mobility scales at the COVID-19 exit questionnaire. Participant-reported new onset of difficulty in 3 physical function tasks was also examined. Results: Among 51 338 participants at baseline, 21 491 participants (41.9%) were 65 years or older and 26 155 participants (51.0%) were women and 25 183 (49.1%) were men. Of 2748 individuals with confirmed or probable or suspected COVID-19, 113 (94.2%) were not hospitalized. Individuals with confirmed or probable COVID-19 had higher odds of worsening mobility in terms of ability to engage in household activity (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% CI, 1.11-3.22), physical activity (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.32-2.76), and standing up after sitting in a chair (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.06-5.11) compared with adults without COVID-19 during the same pandemic time period. Similar results were found for suspected COVID-19 status (eg, household activity: OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.82-2.41). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study among older adults in Canada found that receiving a COVID-19 diagnosis was significantly associated with worse mobility and functioning outcomes even in the absence of hospitalization. These findings suggest that interventions may be needed for individuals with mild to moderate COVID-19 who do not require hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise , Geriatric Assessment , Independent Living , Mobility Limitation , Pandemics , Physical Functional Performance , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Canada , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Movement , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24467, 2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596771

ABSTRACT

Mobility restrictions are successfully used to contain the diffusion of epidemics. In this work we explore their effect on the epidemic growth by investigating an extension of the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model in which individual mobility is taken into account. In the model individual agents move on a chessboard with a Lévy walk and, within each square, epidemic spreading follows the standard SIR model. These simple rules allow to reproduce the sub-exponential growth of the epidemic evolution observed during the Covid-19 epidemic waves in several countries and which cannot be captured by the standard SIR model. We show that we can tune the slowing-down of the epidemic spreading by changing the dynamics of the agents from Lévy to Brownian and we investigate how the interplay among different containment strategies mitigate the epidemic spreading. Finally we demonstrate that we can reproduce the epidemic evolution of the first and second COVID-19 waves in Italy using only 3 parameters, i.e , the infection rate, the removing rate, and the mobility in the country. We provide an estimate of the peak reduction due to imposed mobility restrictions, i. e., the so-called flattening the curve effect. Although based on few ingredients, the model captures the kinetic of the epidemic waves, returning mobility values that are consistent with a lock-down intervention during the first wave and milder limitations, associated to a weaker peak reduction, during the second wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Movement , COVID-19/virology , Epidemics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595606

ABSTRACT

To investigate the accuracy of fidgety movements (FMs) assessment in Japanese assessors. Sixty specialists participated in the first survey. Of the participants, 18 were assessors certified by the GMs basic-training course. The surveys were composed of FMs assessment of 20 video clips. The correct assessment rates (CARs) were investigated. The survey videos were judged into three types: normal (F + +, F +), abnormal (AF) and absent (F + -, F -). After the first survey, each participant performed a self-learning exercise using clips of the first survey. The follow-up survey was conducted three months after the first survey. The median CAR of the first survey was 65% in certified assessors and 50% in noncertified assessors. The median CARs of certified assessors were significantly higher than that of noncertified assessors for all clips and for normal FMs and AF clips (p < 0.01). After 3 months of self-learning exercise the CARs in each judgement type improved in 28 follow-up survey participants. Their median CAR improved from 60% in the first survey to 84% in the follow-up survey. To practise general movements assessment (GMA), course certification is required. The self-learning exercise with the confirmed judgement FMs clips may be effective for improving the ability of FMs judgement.


Subject(s)
Movement , Humans , Japan
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594999

ABSTRACT

The sleep/wake rhythm is one of the most important biological rhythms. Quality and duration of sleep change during lifetime. The aim of our study was to determine differences in sleep efficiency, movement, and fragmentation during sleep period between genders and according to age. Sleep period was monitored by wrist actigraphy under home-based conditions. Seventy-four healthy participants-47 women and 27 men participated in the study. The participants were divided by age into groups younger than 40 years and 40 years and older. Women showed lower sleep fragmentation and mobility during sleep compared to men. Younger women showed a higher actual sleep and sleep efficiency compared to older women and younger men. Younger men compared to older men had a significantly lower actual sleep, lower sleep efficiency and significantly more sleep and wake bouts. Our results confirmed differences in sleep parameters between genders and according to age. The best sleep quality was detected in young women, but gender differences were not apparent in elderly participants, suggesting the impact of sex hormones on sleep.


Subject(s)
Actigraphy , Wrist , Adult , Aged , Circadian Rhythm , Female , Humans , Male , Movement , Sleep
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592135

ABSTRACT

Regular physical exercise is essential for overall health; however, it is also crucial to mitigate the probability of injuries due to incorrect exercise executions. Existing health or fitness applications often neglect accurate full-body motion recognition and focus on a single body part. Furthermore, they often detect only specific errors or provide feedback first after the execution. This lack raises the necessity for the automated detection of full-body execution errors in real-time to assist users in correcting motor skills. To address this challenge, we propose a method for movement assessment using a full-body haptic motion capture suit. We train probabilistic movement models using the data of 10 inertial sensors to detect exercise execution errors. Additionally, we provide haptic feedback, employing transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation immediately, as soon as an error occurs, to correct the movements. The results based on a dataset collected from 15 subjects show that our approach can detect severe movement execution errors directly during the workout and provide haptic feedback at respective body locations. These results suggest that a haptic full-body motion capture suit, such as the Teslasuit, is promising for movement assessment and can give appropriate haptic feedback to the users so that they can improve their movements.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Movement , Feedback , Humans , Motion , Motor Skills
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24452, 2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585771

ABSTRACT

Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs), aimed at reducing the diffusion of the COVID-19 pandemic, have dramatically influenced our everyday behaviour. In this work, we study how individuals adapted their daily movements and person-to-person contact patterns over time in response to the NPIs. We leverage longitudinal GPS mobility data of hundreds of thousands of anonymous individuals to empirically show and quantify the dramatic disruption in people's mobility habits and social behaviour. We find that local interventions did not just impact the number of visits to different venues but also how people experience them. Individuals spend less time in venues, preferring simpler and more predictable routines, also reducing person-to-person contacts. Moreover, we find that the individual patterns of visits are influenced by the strength of the NPIs policies, the local severity of the pandemic and a risk adaptation factor, which increases the people's mobility regardless of the stringency of interventions. Finally, despite the gradual recovery in visit patterns, we find that individuals continue to keep person-to-person contacts low. This apparent conflict hints that the evolution of policy adherence should be carefully addressed by policymakers, epidemiologists and mobility experts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Social Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Health Behavior , Humans , Movement , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 686, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Associations between community-level risk factors and COVID-19 incidence have been used to identify vulnerable subpopulations and target interventions, but the variability of these associations over time remains largely unknown. We evaluated variability in the associations between community-level predictors and COVID-19 case incidence in 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts from March to October 2020. METHODS: Using publicly available sociodemographic, occupational, environmental, and mobility datasets, we developed mixed-effect, adjusted Poisson regression models to depict associations between these variables and town-level COVID-19 case incidence data across five distinct time periods from March to October 2020. We examined town-level demographic variables, including population proportions by race, ethnicity, and age, as well as factors related to occupation, housing density, economic vulnerability, air pollution (PM2.5), and institutional facilities. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) associated with these predictors and compared these values across the multiple time periods to assess variability in the observed associations over time. RESULTS: Associations between key predictor variables and town-level incidence varied across the five time periods. We observed reductions over time in the association with percentage of Black residents (IRR = 1.12 [95%CI: 1.12-1.13]) in early spring, IRR = 1.01 [95%CI: 1.00-1.01] in early fall) and COVID-19 incidence. The association with number of long-term care facility beds per capita also decreased over time (IRR = 1.28 [95%CI: 1.26-1.31] in spring, IRR = 1.07 [95%CI: 1.05-1.09] in fall). Controlling for other factors, towns with higher percentages of essential workers experienced elevated incidences of COVID-19 throughout the pandemic (e.g., IRR = 1.30 [95%CI: 1.27-1.33] in spring, IRR = 1.20 [95%CI: 1.17-1.22] in fall). Towns with higher proportions of Latinx residents also had sustained elevated incidence over time (IRR = 1.19 [95%CI: 1.18-1.21] in spring, IRR = 1.14 [95%CI: 1.13-1.15] in fall). CONCLUSIONS: Town-level COVID-19 risk factors varied with time in this study. In Massachusetts, racial (but not ethnic) disparities in COVID-19 incidence may have decreased across the first 8 months of the pandemic, perhaps indicating greater success in risk mitigation in selected communities. Our approach can be used to evaluate effectiveness of public health interventions and target specific mitigation efforts on the community level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Social Environment , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Incidence , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Movement/physiology , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260919, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, most countries have introduced non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as stay-at-home orders, to reduce person-to-person contact and break trains of transmission. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of different public health restrictions on mobility across different countries and cultures. The University of Bern COVID-19 Living Evidence database of COVID-19 and SARS-COV-2 publications was searched for retrospective or prospective studies evaluating the impact of COVID-19 public health restrictions on Google Mobility. Titles and abstracts were independently screened by two authors. Information from included studies was extracted by one researcher and double checked by another. Risk of bias of included articles was assessed using the Newcastle Ottowa Scale. Given the heterogeneous nature of the designs used, a narrative synthesis was undertaken. From the search, 1672 references were identified, of which 14 were included in the narrative synthesis. All studies reported data from the first wave of the pandemic, with Google Mobility Scores included from January to August 2020, with most studies analysing data during the first two months of the pandemic. Seven studies were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias and seven as a low risk of bias. Countries that introduced more stringent public health restrictions experienced greater reductions in mobility, through increased time at home and reductions in visits to shops, workplaces and use of public transport. Stay-at-home orders were the most effective of the individual strategies, whereas mask mandates had little effect of mobility. CONCLUSIONS: Public health restrictions, particularly stay-at-home orders have significantly impacted on transmission prevention behaviours. Further research is required to understand how to effectively address pandemic fatigue and to support the safe return back to normal day-to-day behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Movement , Public Health , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260610, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556868

ABSTRACT

This article proposes a study of the SARS-CoV-2 virus spread and the efficacy of public policies in Brazil. Using both aggregated (from large Internet companies) and fine-grained (from Departments of Motor Vehicles) mobility data sources, our work sheds light on the effect of mobility on the pandemic situation in the Brazilian territory. Our main contribution is to show how mobility data, particularly fine-grained ones, can offer valuable insights into virus propagation. For this, we propose a modification in the SENUR model to add mobility information, evaluating different data availability scenarios (different information granularities), and finally, we carry out simulations to evaluate possible public policies. In particular, we conduct a case study that shows, through simulations of hypothetical scenarios, that the contagion curve in several Brazilian cities could have been milder if the government had imposed mobility restrictions soon after reporting the first case. Our results also show that if the government had not taken any action and the only safety measure taken was the population's voluntary isolation (out of fear), the time until the contagion peak for the first wave would have been postponed, but its value would more than double.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Movement , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Public Policy , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23286, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550344

ABSTRACT

The reproduction number of an infectious disease, such as CoViD-19, can be described through a modified version of the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model with time-dependent contact rate, where mobility data are used as proxy of average movement trends and interpersonal distances. We introduce a theoretical framework to explain and predict changes in the reproduction number of SARS-CoV-2 in terms of aggregated individual mobility and interpersonal proximity (alongside other epidemiological and environmental variables) during and after the lockdown period. We use an infection-age structured model described by a renewal equation. The model predicts the evolution of the reproduction number up to a week ahead of well-established estimates used in the literature. We show how lockdown policies, via reduction of proximity and mobility, reduce the impact of CoViD-19 and mitigate the risk of disease resurgence. We validate our theoretical framework using data from Google, Voxel51, Unacast, The CoViD-19 Mobility Data Network, and Analisi Distribuzione Aiuti.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Movement , Contact Tracing , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546945

ABSTRACT

As scientific research becomes increasingly cross-disciplinary, many universities seek to support collaborative activity through new buildings and institutions. This study examines the impacts of spatial proximity on collaboration at MIT from 2005 to 2015. By exploiting a shift in the location of researchers due to building renovations, we evaluate how discrete changes in physical proximity affect the likelihood that researchers co-author. The findings suggest that moving researchers into the same building increases their propensity to collaborate, with the effect plateauing five years after the move. The effects are large when compared to the average rate of collaboration among pairs of researchers, which suggests that spatial proximity is an important tool to support cross-disciplinary collaborative science. Furthermore, buildings that host researchers working in the same or related fields and from multiple departments have a larger effect on their propensity to collaborate.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Interdisciplinary Communication , Spatial Behavior , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Facility Design and Construction , Humans , Movement , Research Personnel/psychology , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22658, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528031

ABSTRACT

As the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic spread across the world over the past year, many countries imposed lockdowns in the form of stay at home requirements on their citizens to mitigate its spread. We analyze mobility data from 93 countries implementing lockdowns to investigate their immediate impact on mobility and the subsequent evolution of mobility. We find that at the start of a lockdown, median mobility is reduced to 36% below the baseline, and by another 18% in the subsequent 2 weeks. 70 countries had lockdowns lasting beyond 4 weeks and showed a significant reduction in mobility compared to that prior to the lockdown. Mobility was at its minimum 18 days into the lockdown for the median country. Comparing this minimum mobility to the average mobility 2 weeks before the lockdown, we observe a median reduction of 50 percentage points, evidencing that lockdowns reduce mobility. For 59 of these 70 countries, lockdowns lasted at least 4 weeks after reaching minimum mobility and most observed a significant rebound in mobility during the lockdown period. For the median country, 30.1% of the mobility reduction achieved is lost within 4 weeks, and lockdowns lose all their impact on mobility in 112.1 days. Overall, our findings show that while lockdowns significantly reduce mobility, this impact is also subject to fatigue as the lockdown period extends longer. The magnitude of mobility reductions achieved and fatigues reported in this research can help policy makers anticipate the likely impact of their lockdown policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Movement , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatigue , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Time Factors
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22665, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528026

ABSTRACT

We build on recent work to develop a fully mechanistic, activity-based and highly spatio-temporally resolved epidemiological model which leverages person-trajectories obtained from an activity-based model calibrated for two full-scale prototype cities, consisting of representative synthetic populations and mobility networks for two contrasting auto-dependent city typologies. We simulate the propagation of the COVID-19 epidemic in both cities to analyze spreading patterns in urban networks across various activity types. Investigating the impact of the transit network, we find that its removal dampens disease propagation significantly, suggesting that transit restriction is more critical for mitigating post-peak disease spreading in transit dense cities. In the latter stages of disease spread, we find that the greatest share of infections occur at work locations. A statistical analysis of the resulting activity-based contact networks indicates that transit contacts are scale-free, work contacts are Weibull distributed, and shopping or leisure contacts are exponentially distributed. We validate our simulation results against existing case and mortality data across multiple cities in their respective typologies. Our framework demonstrates the potential for tracking epidemic propagation in urban networks, analyzing socio-demographic impacts and assessing activity- and mobility-specific implications of both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
Automobiles , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Epidemics , Age Factors , Algorithms , COVID-19/mortality , Cities/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Contact Tracing , Humans , Models, Statistical , Movement , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Time Factors , Transportation
15.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260332, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526704

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Traditional measures of muscular strength require in-person visits, making administration in large epidemiologic cohorts difficult. This has left gaps in the literature regarding relationships between strength and long-term health outcomes. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and validity of a video-led, self-administered 30-second sit-to-stand (STS) test in a sub-cohort of the U.S.-based Cancer Prevention Study-3. METHODS: A video was created to guide participants through the STS test. Participants submitted self-reported scores (n = 1851), and optional video recordings of tests (n = 134). Two reviewers scored all video tests. Means and standard deviations (SD) were calculated for self-reported and video-observed scores. Mean differences (95% confidence intervals (CI)) and Spearman correlation coefficients between self-reported and observed scores were calculated, stratifying by demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Participants who uploaded a video reported 14.1 (SD = 3.5) stands, which was not significantly different from the number of stands achieved by the full cohort (13.9 (SD = 4.2), P-difference = 0.39). Self-reported and video-observed scores were highly correlated (ρ = 0.97, mean difference = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5). There were no significant differences in correlations by sociodemographic factors (all P-differences ≥0.42). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the self-administered, video-guided STS test may be appropriate for participants of varying ages, body sizes, and activity levels, and is feasible for implementation within large, longitudinal studies. This video-guided test would also be useful for remote adaptation of the STS test during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Movement , Neurologic Examination/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Fitness , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sitting Position , Standing Position
16.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 8347261, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472318

ABSTRACT

In several epidemic diseases, one of the main symptoms exhibited by people is abnormal body temperature. Therefore, monitoring body temperature is crucial for preventing the spread of infectious diseases and facilitating timely responses. This study presents a wearable bracelet that can be used as a temperature monitoring and trajectory analysis system. The temperature sensor in the bracelet can effectively monitor the body temperature of the wearer in the target scene, and the data transmission between the bracelet and the data collector can effectively detect the movement range and trajectory of the wearer. Through these, the whole set can also detect the direct and indirect contact of the wearer in any period of time, which is very helpful for the prevention and control of infectious diseases and the isolation of potentially infected persons.


Subject(s)
Movement , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic , Temperature
17.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 129, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471836

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In patients with a cardiac pacemaker, pocket-related complications such as nerve impairment or bone fractures are infrequent. We present a man with a fracture of the 4th rib several months after pacemaker implantation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 74-year-old man, with a left prepectoral pacemaker implanted 13 months ago, presented complaining of chest pain. The pain started after a sudden trunk rotation and right arm flexion movement with a crack. There was tenderness to palpation and crepitation over the left upper ribs. Computed tomography identified a non-displaced fracture line in the anterior aspect of the left 4th rib. After kinesiotaping and activity restriction, pain alleviated. CONCLUSION: Pacemaker implantation might have caused shoulder dysfunction and pectoral tightness resulting in reduced flexibility of the trunk. Consequently, a reaching motion of the arm with a trunk rotation might have directed rotational force vectors towards the osteopenic left 4th rib causing a fragility fracture. In elderly with a pacemaker, osteopenia and concomitant sarcopenia may create a predisposition to this atypical complication.


Subject(s)
Pacemaker, Artificial , Rib Fractures , Aged , Humans , Male , Movement , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Rib Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Rib Fractures/etiology , Ribs/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258509, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Variable, and typically inadequate, delivery of skills training following manual wheelchair (MWC) provision has a detrimental impact on user mobility and participation. Traditional in-person delivery of training by rehabilitation therapists has diminished due to cost, travel time, and most recently social distancing restrictions due to COVID-19. Effective alternative training approaches include eHealth home training applications and interactive peer-led training using experienced and proficient MWC users. An innovative TEAM Wheels program integrates app-based self-training and teleconference peer-led training using a computer tablet platform. OBJECTIVE: This protocol outlines implementation and evaluation of the TEAM Wheels training program in a randomized control trial using a wait-list control group. SETTING: The study will be implemented in a community setting in three Canadian cities. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals ≥ 18 years of age within one year of transitioning to use of a MWC. INTERVENTION: Using a computer tablet, participants engage in three peer-led teleconference training sessions and 75-150 minutes of weekly practice using a video-based training application over 4 weeks. Peer trainers individualize the participants' training plans and monitor their tablet-based training activity online. Control group participants also receive the intervention following a 1-month wait-list period and data collection. MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes assessing participation; skill capacity and performance; self-efficacy; mobility; and quality of life will be measured at baseline and post-treatment, and at 6-month follow-up for the treatment group. IMPACT STATEMENT: We anticipate that TEAM Wheels will be successfully carried out at all sites and participants will demonstrate statistically significant improvement in the outcome measures compared with the control group.


Subject(s)
Program Evaluation , Wheelchairs , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Canada , Durable Medical Equipment/standards , Humans , Male , Manuals as Topic , Movement , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Efficacy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430953

ABSTRACT

The pandemic emergency of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shed light on the need for innovative aids, devices, and assistive technologies to enable people with severe disabilities to live their daily lives. EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) can lead individuals with significant health challenges to improve their independence, facilitate participation in activities, thus enhancing overall well-being and preventing impairments. This systematic review provides state-of-the-art applications of EEG-based BCIs, particularly those using motor-imagery (MI) data, to wheelchair control and movement. It presents a thorough examination of the different studies conducted since 2010, focusing on the algorithm analysis, features extraction, features selection, and classification techniques used as well as on wheelchair components and performance evaluation. The results provided in this paper could highlight the limitations of current biomedical instrumentations applied to people with severe disabilities and bring focus to innovative research topics.


Subject(s)
Brain-Computer Interfaces , COVID-19 , Wheelchairs , Electroencephalography , Humans , Movement , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257295, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410610

ABSTRACT

Among tennis coaches and players, the standard volley and drop volley are considered basically similar, but muscles need to be relaxed (deactivation) just at the moment of impact when hitting the drop volley. However, this is not evidence-based. The aim of this study was to clarify racket head trajectory and muscle activity during the drop volley and to compare them with those of the standard volley. We hypothesized that 1) the racket head would move less forward for the drop volley than for the standard volley and 2) the wrist and elbow muscles be relaxed for the drop volley at the time of ball impact. Eleven male college students with sufficient tennis experience volunteered to participate in this study. Wireless EMG sensors recorded activation of the four arm muscles. Each subject performed the standard volley or the drop volley with both a forehand and a backhand from a position near the net. Four high speed video cameras (300 Hz) were set up on the court to measure ball speed and racket head trajectory. Returned ball speed of the drop volley was significantly lower than that of the standard volley (p < 0.05). The racket head moved less forward than in the standard volley, supporting the first hypothesis. Muscle activity of the drop volley, just before and after ball impact for both the forehand and backhand, was lower than that of the standard volley. However, the activity was in the form of a gradual increase as impact time approached, rather than a sudden deactivation (relaxation), which did not support the second hypothesis. For the drop volley, lower muscle activity in the forearm enabled a softer grip and thus allowed a "flip" movement of the racket to diminish the speed of the returned ball.


Subject(s)
Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Tennis/injuries , Biomechanical Phenomena , Electromyography , Forearm , Hand , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Movement , Wrist Joint , Young Adult
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