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1.
Virol J ; 18(1): 205, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619949

ABSTRACT

Co-infections have a key role in virus transmission in wild reservoir hosts. We investigated the simultaneous presence of astroviruses, coronaviruses, and paramyxoviruses in bats from Madagascar, Mayotte, Mozambique, and Reunion Island. A total of 871 samples from 28 bat species representing 8 families were tested by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) targeting the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase genes. Overall, 2.4% of bats tested positive for the presence of at least two viruses, only on Madagascar and in Mozambique. Significant variation in the proportion of co-infections was detected among bat species, and some combinations of co-infection were more common than others. Our findings support that co-infections of the three targeted viruses occur in bats in the western Indian Ocean region, although further studies are needed to assess their epidemiological consequences.


Subject(s)
Astroviridae Infections/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Animals , Madagascar , Mozambique , Reunion
2.
Global Health ; 17(1): 124, 2021 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the differences in timing and composition of physical distancing policies is important to evaluate the early global response to COVID-19. A physical distancing intensity monitoring framework comprising 16 domains was recently published to compare physical distancing approaches across 12 U.S. States. We applied this framework to a diverse set of low and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Botswana, India, Jamaica, Mozambique, Namibia, and Ukraine) to test the appropriateness of this framework in the global context and to compare the policy responses in these LMICs with a sample of U.S. States during the first 100-days of the pandemic. RESULTS: The LMICs in our sample adopted wide ranging physical distancing policies. The highest peak daily physical distancing intensity during this period was: Botswana (4.60); India (4.40); Ukraine (4.40); Namibia (4.20); Mozambique (3.87), and Jamaica (3.80). The number of days each country stayed at peak policy intensity ranged from 12-days (Jamaica) to more than 67-days (Mozambique). We found some key similarities and differences, including substantial differences in whether and how countries expressly required certain groups to stay at home. Despite the much higher number of cases in the US, the physical distancing responses in our LMIC sample were generally more intense than in the U.S. States, but results vary depending on the U.S. State. The peak policy intensity for the U.S. 12-state average was 3.84, which would place it lower than every LMIC in this sample except Jamaica. The LMIC sample countries also reached peak physical distancing intensity earlier in outbreak progression compared to the U.S. states sample. The easing of physical distancing policies in the LMIC sample did not discernably correlate with change in COVID-19 incidence. CONCLUSIONS: This physical distancing intensity framework was appropriate for the LMIC context with only minor adaptations. This framework may be useful for ongoing monitoring of physical distancing policy approaches and for use in effectiveness analyses. This analysis helps to highlight the differing paths taken by the countries in this sample and may provide lessons to other countries regarding options for structuring physical distancing policies in response to COVID-19 and future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Botswana , Humans , India , Jamaica , Mozambique , Namibia , Physical Distancing , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Ukraine , United States
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467698

ABSTRACT

In early 2019, following the 2015-2016 severe drought, the provinces of Sofala and Cabo Delgado, Mozambique, were hit by Cyclones Idai and Kenneth, respectively. These were the deadliest and most destructive cyclones in the country's history. Currently, these two provinces host tens of thousands of vulnerable households due to the climatic catastrophes and the massive influx of displaced people associated with violent terrorist attacks plaguing Cabo Delgado. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic added a new challenge to this already critical scenario, serving as a real test for Mozambique's public health preparedness. On the planetary level, Mozambique can be viewed as a 'canary in the coal mine', harbingering to the world the synergistic effects of co-occurring anthropogenic and natural disasters. Herein, we discuss how the COVID-19 pandemic has accentuated the need for an effective and comprehensive public health response in a country already deeply impacted by health problems associated with natural disasters and population displacement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cyclonic Storms , Emergencies , Humans , Mozambique/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Virol J ; 18(1): 205, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465376

ABSTRACT

Co-infections have a key role in virus transmission in wild reservoir hosts. We investigated the simultaneous presence of astroviruses, coronaviruses, and paramyxoviruses in bats from Madagascar, Mayotte, Mozambique, and Reunion Island. A total of 871 samples from 28 bat species representing 8 families were tested by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) targeting the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase genes. Overall, 2.4% of bats tested positive for the presence of at least two viruses, only on Madagascar and in Mozambique. Significant variation in the proportion of co-infections was detected among bat species, and some combinations of co-infection were more common than others. Our findings support that co-infections of the three targeted viruses occur in bats in the western Indian Ocean region, although further studies are needed to assess their epidemiological consequences.


Subject(s)
Astroviridae Infections/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Animals , Madagascar , Mozambique , Reunion
5.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(10): 1199-1208, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hazardous drinking imposes a major public health burden worldwide, especially in low-income countries such as Mozambique. Implementation of the Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) approach to address problem drinking is recommended. However, evidence regarding the best strategies to implement SBIRT at scale is needed. METHODS: Guided by the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance model, the authors will conduct a 2-year, cluster-randomized, hybrid type-2 implementation-effectiveness trial in 12 districts in Mozambique evaluating implementation, clinical effectiveness, outcomes, and cost. Eight districts will be randomly assigned to a mobile application-based health SBIRT condition and four to SBIRT-Conventional Training and Supervision. Interventions will be delivered by clinic-based community health workers. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research will guide the authors' mixed-methods assessments throughout the study. RESULTS: The study arm showing better cost-effectiveness will be scaled up in the other arms' districts. During this 12-month scale-up phase, Ministry of Health personnel will be charged with providing training, clinical activities, and supervision in all 12 districts without research team support. The SBIRT scale-up phase is critical to identify facilitators and barriers for tracking internal and external factors in clinics that continue using the superior arm and those that switch to it. NEXT STEPS: In a multistep process with stakeholders from multiple sectors, outcomes and lessons learned from this study will inform the development of an implementation tool kit to guide SBIRT scale-up of community services addressing hazardous drinking in other low- and middle-income countries and low-resource settings in high-income countries.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders , Telemedicine , Community Health Workers , Crisis Intervention , Humans , Mozambique , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Referral and Consultation
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046125, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376488

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, remains a cause of preventable disability. Early detection, treatment and prevention are key to reducing transmission. Post-exposure prophylaxis with single-dose rifampicin (SDR-PEP) reduces the risk of developing leprosy when administered to screened contacts of patients. This has been adopted in the WHO leprosy guidelines. The PEP4LEP study aims to determine the most effective and feasible method of screening people at risk of developing leprosy and administering chemoprophylaxis to contribute to interrupting transmission. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PEP4LEP is a cluster-randomised implementation trial comparing two interventions of integrated skin screening combined with SDR-PEP distribution to contacts of patients with leprosy in Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania. One intervention is community-based, using skin camps to screen approximately 100 community contacts per leprosy patient, and to administer SDR-PEP when eligible. The other intervention is health centre-based, inviting household contacts of leprosy patients to be screened in a local health centre and subsequently receive SDR-PEP when eligible. The mobile health (mHealth) tool SkinApp will support health workers' capacity in integrated skin screening. The effectiveness of both interventions will be compared by assessing the rate of patients with leprosy detected and case detection delay in months, as well as feasibility in terms of cost-effectiveness and acceptability. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the national ethical committees of Ethiopia (MoSHE), Mozambique (CNBS) and Tanzania (NIMR/MoHCDEC). Study results will be published open access in peer-reviewed journals, providing evidence for the implementation of innovative leprosy screening methods and chemoprophylaxis to policymakers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NL7294 (NTR7503).


Subject(s)
Leprosy , Ethiopia , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Leprosy/diagnosis , Leprosy/drug therapy , Leprosy/prevention & control , Mozambique , Tanzania
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 860, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic has so far infected more than 30 million people in the world, having major impact on global health with collateral damage. In Mozambique, a public state of emergency was declared at the end of March 2020. This has limited people's movements and reduced public services, leading to a decrease in the number of people accessing health care facilities. An implementation research project, The Alert Community for a Prepared Hospital, has been promoting access to maternal and child health care, in Natikiri, Nampula, for the last four years. Nampula has the second highest incidence of Covid-19. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of Covid-19 pandemic Government restrictions on access to maternal and child healthcare services. We compared health centres in Nampula city with healthcare centres in our research catchment area. We wanted to see if our previous research interventions have led to a more resilient response from the community. METHODS: Mixed-methods research, descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective, using a review of patient visit documentation. We compared maternal and child health care unit statistical indicators from March-May 2019 to the same time-period in 2020. We tested for significant changes in access to maternal and child health services, using KrushKall Wallis, One-way Anova and mean and standard deviation tests. We compared interviews with health professionals, traditional birth attendants and patients in the two areas. We gathered data from a comparable city health centre and the main city referral hospital. The Marrere health centre and Marrere General Hospital were the two Alert Community for a Prepared Hospital intervention sites. RESULTS: Comparing 2019 quantitative maternal health services access indicators with those from 2020, showed decreases in most important indicators: family planning visits and elective C-sections dropped 28%; first antenatal visit occurring in the first trimester dropped 26%; hospital deliveries dropped a statistically significant 4% (p = 0.046), while home deliveries rose 74%; children vaccinated down 20%. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated the negative collateral effects of Covid-19 pandemic Government restrictions, on access to maternal and child healthcare services, and highlighted the need to improve the health information system in Mozambique.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health Services , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Mozambique/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e051823, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334584

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Front-line health workers in remote health facilities are the first contact of the formal health sector and are confronted with life-saving decisions. Health information systems (HIS) support the collection and use of health related data. However, HIS focus on reporting and are unfit to support decisions. Since data tools are paper-based in most primary healthcare settings, we have produced an innovative Paper-based Health Information System in Comprehensive Care (PHISICC) using a human-centred design approach. We are carrying out a cluster randomised controlled trial in three African countries to assess the effects of PHISICC compared with the current systems. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Study areas are in rural zones of Côte d'Ivoire, Mozambique and Nigeria. Seventy health facilities in each country have been randomly allocated to using PHISICC tools or to continuing to use the regular HIS tools. We have randomly selected households in the catchment areas of each health facility to collect outcomes' data (household surveys have been carried out in two of the three countries and the end-line data collection is planned for mid-2021). Primary outcomes include data quality and use, coverage of health services and health workers satisfaction; secondary outcomes are additional data quality and use parameters, childhood mortality and additional health workers and clients experience with the system. Just prior to the implementation of the trial, we had to relocate the study site in Mozambique due to unforeseen logistical issues. The effects of the intervention will be estimated using regression models and accounting for clustering using random effects. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics committees in Côte d'Ivoire, Mozambique and Nigeria approved the trials. We plan to disseminate our findings, data and research materials among researchers and policy-makers. We aim at having our findings included in systematic reviews on health systems interventions and future guidance development on HIS. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PACTR201904664660639; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
Health Information Systems , Child , Cote d'Ivoire , Data Accuracy , Humans , Mozambique , Nigeria , Primary Health Care , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
10.
Malar J ; 20(1): 282, 2021 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe metabolic acidosis and acute kidney injury are major causes of mortality in children with severe malaria but are often underdiagnosed in low resource settings. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the 'Artesunate versus quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in African children' (AQUAMAT) trial was conducted to identify clinical features of severe metabolic acidosis and uraemia in 5425 children from nine African countries. Separate models were fitted for uraemia and severe metabolic acidosis. Separate univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed to identify prognostic factors for severe metabolic acidosis and uraemia. Both analyses adjusted for the trial arm. A forward selection approach was used for model building of the logistic models and a threshold of 5% statistical significance was used for inclusion of variables into the final logistic model. Model performance was assessed through calibration, discrimination, and internal validation with bootstrapping. RESULTS: There were 2296 children identified with severe metabolic acidosis and 1110 with uraemia. Prognostic features of severe metabolic acidosis among them were deep breathing (OR: 3.94, CI 2.51-6.2), hypoglycaemia (OR: 5.16, CI 2.74-9.75), coma (OR: 1.72 CI 1.17-2.51), respiratory distress (OR: 1.46, CI 1.02-2.1) and prostration (OR: 1.88 CI 1.35-2.59). Features associated with uraemia were coma (3.18, CI 2.36-4.27), Prostration (OR: 1.78 CI 1.37-2.30), decompensated shock (OR: 1.89, CI 1.31-2.74), black water fever (CI 1.58. CI 1.09-2.27), jaundice (OR: 3.46 CI 2.21-5.43), severe anaemia (OR: 1.77, CI 1.36-2.29) and hypoglycaemia (OR: 2.77, CI 2.22-3.46) CONCLUSION: Clinical and laboratory parameters representing contributors and consequences of severe metabolic acidosis and uraemia were independently associated with these outcomes. The model can be useful for identifying patients at high risk of these complications where laboratory assessments are not routinely available.


Subject(s)
Acidosis/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/complications , Uremia/diagnosis , Acidosis/parasitology , Africa South of the Sahara , Child , Child, Preschool , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Female , Gambia , Ghana , Humans , Infant , Kenya , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Male , Mozambique , Nigeria , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Rwanda , Tanzania , Uganda , Uremia/parasitology
11.
Vaccine ; 39(31): 4335-4342, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274451

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Single-dose rotavirus vaccines, which are used by a majority of countries, are some of the largest-sized vaccines in immunization programs, and have been shown to constrain supply chains and cause bottlenecks. Efforts have been made to reduce the size of the single-dose vaccines; however, with two-dose, five-dose and ten-dose options available, the question then is whether using multi-dose instead of single-dose rotavirus vaccines will improve vaccine availability. METHODS: We used HERMES-generated simulation models of the vaccine supply chains of the Republic of Benin, Mozambique, and Bihar, a state in India, to evaluate the operational and economic impact of implementing each of the nine different rotavirus vaccine presentations. RESULTS: Among single-dose rotavirus vaccines, using Rotarix RV1 MMP (multi-monodose presentation) led to the highest rotavirus vaccine availability (49-80%) and total vaccine availability (56-79%), and decreased total costs per dose administered ($0.02-$0.10) compared to using any other single-dose rotavirus vaccine. Using two-dose ROTASIIL decreased rotavirus vaccine availability by 3-6% across each supply chain compared to Rotarix RV1 MMP, the smallest single-dose vaccine. Using a five-dose rotavirus vaccine improved rotavirus vaccine availability (52-92%) and total vaccine availability (60-85%) compared to single-dose and two-dose vaccines. Further, using the ten-dose vaccine led to the highest rotavirus vaccine availability compared to all other rotavirus vaccines in both Benin and Bihar. CONCLUSION: Our results show that countries that implement five-dose or ten-dose rotavirus vaccines consistently reduce cold chain constraints and achieve higher rotavirus and total vaccine availability compared to using either single-dose or two-dose rotavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Benin , Humans , Immunization Programs , India , Infant , Mozambique , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Vaccines, Attenuated
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 947, 2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To achieve universal health coverage by 2030, sub-Saharan African countries are planning to develop large scale tele-consultation public health services. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the level of peoples' willingness to use this kind of tele-health services. To address this gap and inform policymakers, the present study aims at accessing the Mozambican people's willingness to use tele-consultation public health services and the determinants associate to their willingness. METHODS: A total of 403 adults participated in the study. The material consisted of 32 vignettes (scenarios) describing realistic health problem situations in which an individual was proposed to use a tele-consultation public health service, varying as a function of five factors: consultation category, health problem category, health problem severity, physician category, and the consultation price. For each health problem situation presented in the vignettes, the participants were asked to rate their willingness to use the proposed tele-consultation service on an 11-point scale. A cluster analysis using the K-means procedure was applied to the quantitative raw data to capture the participants' different perspectives. ANOVA, x2 and t-test analyses were also conducted to examine the effects of the different health problem situations and the sociodemographic characteristics on the participant ratings. RESULTS: Five different perspectives (clusters) were found: never-willing (15% of the sample), severity (26%), consultation-category (22%), undecided (16%), and price-severity (21%). These perspectives were associated with participants' sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: According to the main results, it seems that the majority of the participants (69%) were highly willing to use tele-consultation public health services in the case of mild illness, cheaper prices and follow-up consultation. In addition, the participants' willingness was significantly affected by some of the participants' sociodemographic characteristics.


Subject(s)
Remote Consultation , Telemedicine , Adult , Cluster Analysis , Humans , Mozambique , United States , United States Public Health Service
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 254, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218865

ABSTRACT

Since the announcement of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in January 30th 2020, 68 countries reported to the World Health Organization that they were experiencing disruptions in malaria diagnosis and treatment. This situation had the potential to lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment, which could result in an increase in severe cases and deaths. This analysis was based on findings from a field visit, carried out between June 30th and July 1st, 2020, to a warehouse, to two health facilities, and a meeting with a community health worker, and an descriptive epidemiologic data analysis of health information system (HIS) to evaluate trends of the number of people tested for malaria and number of malaria cases reported, by comparing data from 2018, 2019 and 2020 for the period between January and May. The two health facilities and the warehouse had about two months of stock of antimalarial drugs, and patients with malaria symptoms were being tested for malaria at the COVID-19 screening site. The HIS data showed that the number of reported malaria cases decreased by 3.0% (177.646/172.246) in April, and 7.0% (173.188/161.812) in May, when comparing 2019 and 2020 data. People tested for malaria in community increased by 39.0% (190.370/264.730), between 2019 and 2020. The COVID-19 may have had a negative impact on the diagnosis and treatment of malaria in health facility (HF). The decrease in people tested for malaria in the health facilities may have overwhelmed the activities of the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/supply & distribution , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Mass Screening/methods , Mozambique/epidemiology
15.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 90, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the COVID-19 response preparedness of the Mozambican health system by 1) determining the location of oxygen-ready public health facilities, 2) estimating the oxygen treatment capacity, and 3) determining the population coverage of oxygen-ready health facilities in Mozambique. METHODS: This analysis utilizes information on the availability of oxygen sources and delivery apparatuses to determine if a health facility is ready to deliver oxygen therapy to patients in need, and estimates how many patients can be treated with continuous oxygen flow for a 7-day period based on the available oxygen equipment at health facilities. Using GIS mapping software, the study team modeled varying travel times to oxygen-ready facilities to estimate the proportion of the population with access to care. RESULTS: 0.4% of all health facilities in Mozambique are prepared to deliver oxygen therapy to patients, for a cumulative total of 283.9 to 406.0 patients-weeks given the existing national capacity, under varying assumptions including ability to divert oxygen from a single source to multiple patients. 35% of the population in Mozambique has adequate access within one-hour driving time of an oxygen-ready health facility. This varies widely by region; 89.1% of the population of Maputo City was captured by the one-hour driving time network, as compared ot 4.4% of the population of Niassa province. CONCLUSIONS: The Mozambican health system faces the dual challenges of under-resourced health facilities and low geographic accessibility to healthcare as it prepares to confront the COVID-19 pandemic. This analysis also illustrates the disparity between provinces in preparedness to deliver oxygen therapy to patient, with Cabo Delgado and Nampula being particularly under-resourced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Health Facilities , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Humans , Mozambique/epidemiology , Pandemics
16.
Euro Surveill ; 26(13)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167264

ABSTRACT

Two cases of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with the B.1.351 variant were reported in France in mid-January, 2020. These cases attended a gathering in Mozambique in mid-December 2020. Investigations led to the identification of five imported cases responsible for 14 transmission chains and a total 36 cases. Epidemiological characteristics seemed comparable to those described before the emergence of the South African variant B.1.351. The lack of tertiary transmission outside of the personal sphere suggests that distancing and barrier measures were effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Travel , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Communicable Diseases, Imported , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mozambique/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249195, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150557

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has increasingly disrupted the global delivery of preventive health care services, as a large number of governments have issued state of emergency orders halting service delivery. However, there is limited evidence on the realized effects of the pandemic and associated emergency orders on access to services in low-income country contexts to date. To address this gap, this paper analyzes administrative data on utilization of contraceptive health services by women referred via community health promoters in two large urban and peri-urban areas of Mozambique. We focus on the period immediately surrounding the national state of emergency declaration linked to the COVID-19 pandemic on March 31, 2020. Data reported for 109,129 women served by 132 unique promoters and 192 unique public health facilities is analyzed using logistic regression, interrupted time series analysis and hazard analysis. The results demonstrate that the imposition of the state of emergency is associated with a modest short-term drop in both service provision and utilization, followed by a relatively rapid rebound. We conclude that in this context, the accessibility of reproductive health services was not dramatically reduced during the first phase of the pandemic-related emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Contraceptive Agents/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Logistic Models , Mozambique , Proportional Hazards Models , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
19.
Health Care Women Int ; 42(3): 288-303, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078709

ABSTRACT

From the time when the first cases of COVID-19 were reported in Wuhan City, China, in December 2019, strict regulations are being implemented by policy makers to contain the spread of the virus. The measures taken in different countries spanned from complete isolation and lockdown to different degrees of restrictions to people's movement, contact between people, hygiene and sanitation. Accordingly, the success in containing the virus also differed. Italy was one among the worst-affected countries in the world despite the lockdown measures adopted. A combination of lockdown and Level-3 State of Emergency measures were adopted in Portugal and South Africa, which helped to delay and flatten the epidemic curve. The timely application of Level-3 State of Emergency in Mozambique resulted in recording low infection rates. Above all the tripod, orderly movement of people, social distance and hygiene and sanitation is the keystone measure to prevent spread of the virus. However, for successful outcome, the measures have to be tailored to the local context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mozambique/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(3)2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050610

ABSTRACT

We assessed adherence to government recommendations implemented shortly after the introduction of COVID-19 in Mozambique in March 2020, through two online cross-sectional surveys in April and June 2020. We quantified adherence to preventive measures by a composite score comprising of five measures: physical distancing, face mask use, hand hygiene, cough hygiene, and avoidance of touching the face. 3770 and 1115 persons participated in the first and second round respectively. Wearing face masks, regular handwashing and cough hygiene all reached compliance rates of over 90% while physical distancing and avoiding to touch the face reached a compliance rate of 80-90%. A multivariable model investigating factors associated with adherence found that being older, more educated, and belonging to the healthcare sector increased the odds for higher adherence. Private workers and retired people, respondents receiving COVID-19 information through social media, and those who reported flu-like symptoms were less likely to adhere. 6% of respondents reported flu-like symptoms which aligned with the WHO clinical definition of COVID-19, suggesting low level community transmission. In conclusion, most respondents in this online survey in Mozambique complied well with strategies to prevent COVID-19. Whether the good preventive behaviour explains the low grade COVID-19 transmission requires further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guideline Adherence , Guidelines as Topic , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mozambique/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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