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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 1, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quantitative evaluation of radiographic images has been developed and suggested for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are limited opportunities to use these image-based diagnostic indices in clinical practice. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the utility of a novel visually-based classification of pulmonary findings from computed tomography (CT) images of COVID-19 patients with the following three patterns defined: peripheral, multifocal, and diffuse findings of pneumonia. We also evaluated the prognostic value of this classification to predict the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between January 1st and September 30th, 2020, who presented with suspicious findings on CT lung images at admission (n = 69). We compared the association between the three predefined patterns (peripheral, multifocal, and diffuse), admission to the intensive care unit, tracheal intubation, and death. We tested quantitative CT analysis as an outcome predictor for COVID-19. Quantitative CT analysis was performed using a semi-automated method (Thoracic Volume Computer-Assisted Reading software, GE Health care, United States). Lungs were divided by Hounsfield unit intervals. Compromised lung (%CL) volume was the sum of poorly and non-aerated volumes (- 500, 100 HU). We collected patient clinical data, including demographic and clinical variables at the time of admission. RESULTS: Patients with a diffuse pattern were intubated more frequently and for a longer duration than patients with a peripheral or multifocal pattern. The following clinical variables were significantly different between the diffuse pattern and peripheral and multifocal groups: body temperature (p = 0.04), lymphocyte count (p = 0.01), neutrophil count (p = 0.02), c-reactive protein (p < 0.01), lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.01), Krebs von den Lungen-6 antigen (p < 0.01), D-dimer (p < 0.01), and steroid (p = 0.01) and favipiravir (p = 0.03) administration. CONCLUSIONS: Our simple visual assessment of CT images can predict the severity of illness, a resulting decrease in respiratory function, and the need for supplemental respiratory ventilation among patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Body Temperature , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Mucin-1/blood , Neutrophils , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/therapeutic use
2.
Iran Biomed J ; 25(6): 381-9, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599259

ABSTRACT

Background: Lung injury is common in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The severity of lung injury appears to be reflected in serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6), a glycoprotein expressed on type II alveolar epithelium. This study aims to assess the role of serum KL-6 in reflecting the severity of lung injury in COVID-19 patients. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in Scopus, PubMed, Wiley Online Library, and ProQuest. Articles were screened based on several eligibility criteria and assessed for study quality using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results: This systematic review included four studies involving a total of 151 adult COVID-19 patients. Pooled analysis revealed that serum KL-6 was significantly higher in severe patients (SMD = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.69­1.63) with moderately high pooled sensitivity (79%; 95% CI = 61­91%) and specificity (86%; 95% CI = 72­95%). Conclusion: High serum KL-6 may depict more severe lung injury in COVID-19 patients with moderately high sensitivity and specificity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Injury/diagnosis , Lung Injury/virology , Mucin-1/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Lung Injury/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Virology ; 566: 106-113, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) is a molecule that is predominantly expressed by damaged alveolar type II cells, and has been proposed as a marker of COVID-19 and the severity of the disease. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to determine whether KL-6 could be used as a prognostic factor for severe COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane and Google Scholar were searched until April 20, 2021, and 7 studies were included. KL-6 was considered as the outcome and pooled in meta-analyses. RESULTS: All included studies compared KL-6 in severe and non-severe patients. Serum KL-6 was higher in severe COVID-19 patients compared to non-severe (n = 6; SMD = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.99-1.5; P < 0.001) and healthy controls (n = 4; SMD = 3.07; 95% CI: 1.36-4.8; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This data collection revealed the potential clinical significance of KL-6 as a non-expensive predictive biomarker in severe COVID-19 and for the categorization of COVID-19 clinical severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mucin-1/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19979, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462032

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic led to a worldwide increase of hospitalizations for interstitial pneumonia with thrombosis complications, endothelial injury and multiorgan disease. Common CT findings include lung bilateral infiltrates, bilateral ground-glass opacities and/or consolidation whilst no current laboratory parameter consents rapidly evaluation of COVID-19 risk and disease severity. In the present work we investigated the association of sFLT-1 and CA 15.3 with endothelial damage and pulmonary fibrosis. Serum sFlt-1 has been associated with endothelial injury and sepsis severity, CA 15.3 seems an alternative marker for KL-6 for fibrotic lung diseases and pulmonary interstitial damage. We analysed 262 SARS-CoV-2 patients with differing levels of clinical severity; we found an association of serum sFlt-1 (ROC AUC 0.902, decision threshold > 90.3 pg/mL, p < 0.001 Sens. 83.9% and Spec. 86.7%) with presence, extent and severity of the disease. Moreover, CA 15.3 appeared significantly increased in COVID-19 severe lung fibrosis (ICU vs NON-ICU patients 42.6 ± 3.3 vs 25.7 ± 1.5 U/mL, p < 0.0001) and was associated with lung damage severity grade (ROC AUC 0.958, decision threshold > 24.8 U/mL, p < 0.0001, Sens. 88.4% and Spec. 91.8%). In conclusion, serum levels of sFlt-1 and CA 15.3 appeared useful tools for categorizing COVID-19 clinical stage and may represent a valid aid for clinicians to better personalise treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Mucin-1/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis/blood , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/blood , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5405-5408, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208994

ABSTRACT

The new type of coronavirus could cause severe acute respiratory syndrome and injuries in other systems as well. Multiple organ damage can occur rapidly in patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Previous studies have shown that many laboratory biomarkers were not within the normal ranges in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to summarize laboratory parameters and the tumor markers in COVID-19 patients. This is a retrospective cohort study conducted on 53 women between the ages of 19-85 years infected with COVID-19 at a training and research hospital between May 2020 and August 2020. Of the 53 women, 16 (30.2%) had leukopenia. The mean C-reactive protein level was 18.42 ± 59.33 mg/L. The mean procalcitonin level was 0.1 ± 0.21 µg/L. The liver function tests were within normal limits. The mean creatinine level was 0.58 ± 0.37 mg/dl. Elevated levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP) in 1 patient, elevated levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in 2 patients, elevated levels of cancer antigen 125 (CA125) in 4 patients, elevated levels of CA19-9 in 2 patients, and elevated levels of CA15-3 in 2 patients were detected. One of 4 patients who were taken to the intensive care unit had elevated levels of AFP. In addition, 2 of 4 patients who were taken to the intensive care unit had elevated levels of CA125 and CA15-3. Except for AFP, levels of all tumor markers of the patient who died were high. We found that COVID-19 had no effect on tumor markers (CA125, CA19-9, CA15-3, AFP, and CEA).


Subject(s)
CA-125 Antigen/blood , CA-19-9 Antigen/blood , COVID-19/blood , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/blood , Leukopenia/blood , Mucin-1/blood , Pandemics , alpha-Fetoproteins/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Leukopenia/diagnosis , Leukopenia/virology , Lymphocytes/virology , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/virology , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Troponin/blood , Turkey/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249607, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207629

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute presentations of COVID-19 infection vary, ranging from asymptomatic carriage through to severe clinical manifestations including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Longer term sequelae of COVID-19 infection includes lung fibrosis in a proportion of patients. Krebs von den Lungen 6 (KL-6) is a mucin like glycoprotein that has been proposed as a marker of pulmonary epithelial cell injury. We sought to determine whether KL-6 was a marker of 1) the severity of acute COVID-19 infection, or 2) the persistence of symptoms/radiological abnormalities at medium term follow up. METHODS: Prospective single centre observational study. RESULTS: Convalescent KL-6 levels were available for 93 patients (male 63%, mean age 55.8 years) who attended an 12-week follow up appointment after being admitted to hospital with COVID-19. For 67 patients a baseline KL-6 result was available for comparison. There was no significant correlations between baseline KL-6 and the admission CXR severity score or clinical severity NEWS score. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the baseline KL-6 level and an initial requirement for oxygen on admission or the severity of acute infection as measured at 28 days. There was no significant difference in the 12-week KL-6 level and the presence or absence of subjective breathlessness but patients with abnormal CT scans at 12 weeks had significantly higher convalescent KL-6 levels compared to the remainder of the cohort (median 1101 IU/ml vs 409 IU/ml). CONCLUSIONS: The association between high KL-6 levels at 12 weeks and persisting CT abnormalities (GGO/fibrosis), is a finding that requires further exploration. Whether KL-6 may help differentiate those patients with persisting dyspnoea due to complications rather than deconditioning or dysfunctional breathing alone, is an important future research question.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Mucin-1/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4559-4563, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162848

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is globally rampant, and to curb the growing burden of this disease, in-depth knowledge about its pathophysiology is needed. This was an observational study conducted at a single center to investigate serum cytokine and chemokine levels of COVID-19 patients, based on disease severity. We included 72 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to our hospital from March 21 to August 31, 2020. Patients were divided into Mild-Moderate I (mild) and Moderate II-Severe (severe) groups based on the COVID-19 severity classification developed by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) of Japan. We compared the patient characteristics as well as the serum cytokine and chemokine levels on the day of admission between the two groups. Our findings indicated that the severe group had significantly higher levels of serum fibrinogen, d-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin, Krebs von den Lungen-6, surfactant protein (SP)-D, and SP-A than the mild group. Strikingly, the levels of interleukin (IL)-28A/interferon (IFN)-λ2 were significantly lower in the severe group than in the mild group. We believe that reduced levels of type III interferons (IFN-λs) and alterations in the levels of other cytokines and chemokines may impact the severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Chemokines/blood , Interferons/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Down-Regulation , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Interferons/biosynthesis , Interleukins/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Mucin-1/blood , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A/blood , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D/blood , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Cytokine ; 148: 155513, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157231

ABSTRACT

The clinical relevance of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) levels in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between KL-6 levels, laboratory parameters, and clinical outcomes. We enrolled 364 patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized within 1 week of symptom onset. Their serum KL-6 level was measured on admission. Demographic data, symptoms, comorbidities, and laboratory parameters were recorded at the time of admission. Days to nucleic acid conversion and days of hospitalization were defined as clinical outcomes for evaluating the clinical relevance of serum KL-6 levels in COVID-19. Patients with elevated KL-6 levels were significantly older; had more reported instances of fever, cough, fatigue, and wheezing; and a longer hospital stays than those with normal KL-6 levels; the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Furthermore, KL-6 levels was associated with the days of hospitalization and various laboratory parameters that influence the severity and prognosis of COVID-19. Elevated KL-6 levels have also been shown to be an independent risk factor for prolonged hospitalization. Our data suggest that serum KL-6 levels on admission can serve as an indicator for assessing the clinical outcomes of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Mucin-1/blood , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
9.
Clin Chim Acta ; 517: 48-53, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101132

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is still spreading worldwide, which may progress to pulmonary fibrosis (PF), leading to the worsen outcome. As the markers of lung injury, the correlation of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) and fibronectin (Fn) with pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19 was still unclear. METHODS: 113 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 were enrolled in this retrospective study, and divided into three categories as mild, moderate and severe cases. The concentrations of serum KL-6 and Fn at hospital admission were tested using the method of latex agglutination assay and immunoturbidimetic assay, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with that in the non-severe COVID-19 cases and normal control subjects, serum KL-6 concentration on admission was significantly higher in the severe group, which was positively correlated with C-reactive protein, and negatively correlated with lymphocytes count. Whereas, no obvious elevation in serum Fn concentration was investigated in COVID-19 patients with the different phenotypes. The severe cases displayed the higher incident rate of pulmonary fibrosis at hospital discharge. Compared with non-PF patients, the COVID-19 cases with PF had the higher serum KL-6 values. CONCLUSION: Serum KL-6 concentration was significantly elevated in severe COVID-19 patients, which may be useful for evaluating the disease severity. For early prevention of the development of pulmonary fibrosis, high concentrations of serum KL-6 in the early stage of COVID-19 should be paid close attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibronectins/blood , Mucin-1/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Fibrosis/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090340

ABSTRACT

KL-6 is a sialoglycoprotein antigen which proved elevated in the serum of patients with different interstitial lung diseases, especially in those with a poorer outcome. Given that interstitial pneumonia is the most common presentation of SARS-CoV2 infection, we evaluated the prognostic role of KL-6 in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were prospectively enrolled. Blood samples were collected at the time of enrolment (TOE) and on day 7 (T1). Serum KL-6 concentrations were measured by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using a KL-6 antibody kit (LUMIPULSE G1200, Fujirebio) and the cut-off value was set at >1000 U/mL. Fifteen out of 34 enrolled patients (44.1%) died. Patients with unfavourable outcome showed significantly lower P/F ratio and higher IL-6 values and plasmatic concentrations of KL-6 at TOE compared with those who survived (median KL-6: 1188 U/mL vs. 260 U/mL, p < 0.001). KL-6 > 1000 U/mL resulted independently associated with death (aOR: 11.29, p < 0.05) with a positive predictive value of 83.3%. Our results suggest that KL-6 is a reliable indicator of pulmonary function and unfavourable outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. A KL-6 value > 1000 U/mL resulted independently associated with death and showed good accuracy in predicting a poorer outcome. KL-6 may thus represent a quick, inexpensive, and sensitive parameter to stratify the risk of severe respiratory failure and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Mucin-1/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(6): 1541-1545, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064594

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV2-induced direct cytopathic effects against type II pneumocytes are suspected to play a role in mediating and perpetuating lung damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum KL-6 behavior in COVID-19 patients to investigate its potential role in predicting clinical course. Sixty patients (median age IQR, 65 (52-69), 43 males), hospitalized for COVID-19 at Siena COVID Unit University Hospital, were prospectively enrolled. Twenty-six patients were selected (median age IQR, 63 (55-71), 16 males); all of them underwent follow-up evaluations, including clinical, radiological, functional, and serum KL-6 assessments, after 6 (t1) and 9 (t2) months from hospital discharge. At t0, KL-6 concentrations were significantly higher than those at t1 (760 (311-1218) vs. 309 (210-408) p = 0.0208) and t2 (760 (311-1218) vs 324 (279-458), p = 0.0365). At t0, KL-6 concentrations were increased in patients with fibrotic lung alterations than in non-fibrotic group (755 (370-1023) vs. 305 (225-608), p = 0.0225). Area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) analysis showed that basal KL-6 levels showed good accuracy in discriminating patients with fibrotic sequelae radiologically documented (AUC 85%, p = 0.0404). KL-6 concentrations in patients with fibrotic involvement were significantly reduced at t1 (755 (370-1023) vs. 290 (197-521), p = 0.0366) and t2 (755 (370-1023) vs. 318 (173-435), p = 0.0490). Serum concentrations of KL-6 in hospitalized COVID-19 patients may contribute to identify severe patients requiring mechanical ventilation and to predict those who will develop pulmonary fibrotic sequelae in the follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Mucin-1/blood , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Progression , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis
12.
Cytokine ; 141: 155455, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by novel coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan (China) in December 2019. Here we evaluated a panel of biomarkers to phenotype patients and to define the role of immuno-inflammatory mediators as biomarkers of severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from 24 COVID-19 patients on admission to hospital, before any treatment or infusion of intravenous steroids or invasive ventilation. KL-6 IL-6 and C-peptide were measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. IL-6 assay was validated for accuracy and precision. The validity of variables used to distinguish severe from mild-to-moderate patients was assessed by areas under curves (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and logistic regression was performed to combine parameters of the two groups. RESULTS: In the severe group, IL-6, CRP and KL-6 concentrations were significantly higher than in mild-to-moderate patients. KL-6, IL-6 and CRP concentrations were directly correlated with each other. ROC curve analysis of the logistic regression model including IL-6, KL-6 and CRP showed the best performance with an AUC of 0.95. CONCLUSIONS: Besides corroborating previous reports of over-expression of IL-6 in severe COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation, analytical determination of other mediators showed that IL-6 concentrations were correlated with those of KL-6 and CRP. The combination of these three prognostic bioindicators made it possible to distinguish severe COVID-19 patients with poor prognosis from mild-to-moderate patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , C-Peptide/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mucin-1/blood , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2505-2512, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023298

ABSTRACT

To investigate the dynamic changes of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the role of KL-6 as a noninvasive biomarker for predicting long-term lung injury, the clinical information and laboratory tests of 166 COVID-19 patients were collected, and a correlation analysis between KL-6 and other parameters was conducted. There were 17 (10.2%, 17/166) severe/critical and 149 (89.8%, 149/166) mild COVID-19 patients in our cohort. Serum KL-6 was significantly higher in severe/critical COVID-19 patients than in mild patients (median 898.0 vs. 451.2 U/ml, p < .001). KL-6 was next confirmed to be a sensitive and specific biomarker for distinguishing mild and severe/critical patients and correlate to computed tomography lung lesions areas. Serum KL-6 concentration during the follow-up period (>100 days postonset) was well correlated to those concentrations within 10 days postonset (Pearson r = .867, p < .001), indicating the prognostic value of KL-6 levels in predicting lung injury after discharge. Finally, elevated KL-6 was found to be significantly correlated to coagulation disorders, and T cells subsets dysfunctions. In summary, serum KL-6 is a biomarker for assessing COVID-19 severity and predicting the prognosis of lung injury of discharged patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Lung Injury/blood , Mucin-1/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
14.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 309, 2020 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease COVID-19 has become a public health emergency of international concern. Together with the quest for an effective treatment, the question of the post-infectious evolution of affected patients in healing process remains uncertain. Krebs von den Lungen 6 (KL-6) is a high molecular weight mucin-like glycoprotein produced by type II pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells. Its production is raised during epithelial lesions and cellular regeneration. In COVID-19 infection, KL-6 serum levels could therefore be of interest for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study retrospectively compared KL-6 levels between a cohort of 83 COVID-19 infected patients and two other groups: healthy subjects (n = 70) on one hand, and a heterogenous group of patients suffering from interstitial lung diseases (n = 31; composed of 16 IPF, 4 sarcoidosis, 11 others) on the other hand. Demographical, clinical and laboratory indexes were collected. Our study aims to compare KL-6 levels between a COVID-19 population and healthy subjects or patients suffering from interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Ultimately, we ought to determine whether KL-6 could be a marker of disease severity and bad prognosis. RESULTS: Our results showed that serum KL-6 levels in COVID-19 patients were increased compared to healthy subjects, but to a lesser extent than in patients suffering from ILD. Increased levels of KL-6 in COVID-19 patients were associated with a more severe lung disease. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that KL-6 could be a good biomarker to assess ILD severity in COVID-19 infection. Concerning the therapeutic response prediction, more studies are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Mucin-1/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Respir Investig ; 58(6): 440-447, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently spreading worldwide. This study examined whether serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) level is a useful biomarker for evaluating the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively examined patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at the Japanese Red Cross Medical Center between February 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020. Patients were divided into four categories based on clinical and radiological findings: mild, moderate, severe, and critical. Patients who presented with a mild or moderate illness and patients who started with or worsened to a severe or critical illness were classified as the non-severe and severe groups, respectively. The two groups were compared for patient characteristics, including serum KL-6 levels. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to define the optimum cut-off value of serum KL-6 level to evaluate COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: A total of 54 patients were enrolled, including 33 in the non-severe group and 21 in the severe group, of which four died. Compared with those in the non-severe group, more patients in the severe group were significantly older and had comorbidities. Serum KL-6 levels were significantly higher in the severe group than in the non-severe group both at diagnosis (median, 338 U/mL) and at peak levels within one week after diagnosis (median, 781 U/mL) (both p < 0.001). Serum KL-6 value at peak level (371 U/mL) was used as the optimal cut-off to evaluate disease severity (sensitivity, 85.7%; specificity, 96.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Serum KL-6 levels were significantly elevated in severe COVID-19 and is useful for evaluating its severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucin-1/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
17.
Biosci Trends ; 14(4): 290-296, 2020 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609824

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the clinical significance of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) in patients with COVID-19, so as to find a marker with high sensitivity, specificity and easy detection to evaluate the lung injury and inflammation of COVID-19. Sixty-three COVID-19 patients and 43 non-COVID-19 patients with similar clinical phenotypes and/or imaging findings were enrolled to test the levels of KL-6 using chemiluminescent immunoassay. In addition, the blood gas, imaging and lymphocyte factors tests were collected from all participants. The data was finally analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed KL-6 levels in COVID-19 patients were higher than those in non-COVID-19 patients (P < 0.001). Moreover, the KL-6 levels in severe and critically severe patients were significantly upregulated compared with patients with mild and common type (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the imaging evaluation showed a significant correlation between KL-6 and pulmonary lesion area (P < 0.05). KL-6 was also found to be significantly correlated with oxygenation index and oxygen partial pressure difference of alveolar artery (PA-aDO2) (Both P < 0.01). In conclusion, KL-6 could be an indicator to evaluate the progression of COVID-19, which is parallel to the level of lung injury and inflammation in patients. Moreover, it can also reflect the pulmonary ventilation function.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Mucin-1/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2216-2220, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619029

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-induced direct cytopathic effects against type I and II pneumocytes mediate lung damage. Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) is mainly produced by damaged or regenerating alveolar type II pneumocytes. This preliminary study analyzed serum concentrations of KL-6 in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) to verify its potential as a prognostic biomarker of severity. Twenty-two patients (median age [interquartile range] 63 [59-68] years, 16 males) with COVID-19 were enrolled prospectively. Patients were divided into mild-moderate and severe groups, according to respiratory impairment and clinical management. KL-6 serum concentrations and lymphocyte subset were obtained. Peripheral natural killer (NK) cells/µL were significantly higher in nonsevere patients than in the severe group (P = .0449) and the best cut-off value was 119 cells/µL. KL-6 serum concentrations were significantly higher in severe patients than the nonsevere group (P = .0118). Receiver operating characteristic analysis distinguished severe and nonsevere patients according to KL-6 serum levels and the best cut-off value was 406.5 U/mL. NK cell analysis and assay of KL-6 in serum can help identify severe COVID-19 patients. Increased KL-6 serum concentrations were observed in patients with severe pulmonary involvement, revealing a prognostic value and supporting the potential usefulness of KL-6 measurement to evaluate COVID-19 patients' prognosis.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mucin-1/blood , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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